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'Go, little , ook, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thon art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.'' 

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The chief object of the Handbook for Palestine and Syria, 
which now appears for the third time and is based on the 
fourth German edition, augmented by the results of the latest 
researches, is to assist the traveller in planning his tour and 
disposing of his time to the best advantage, and thus to 
enable him the more thoroughly to enjoy and appreciate the 
objeets of interest he meets with. At the same time the Hand- 
book endeavours to give, as far as is possible within the limits 
of a guide-book , a comprehensive and accurate account of 
the present state of the exploration of Palestine. 

The writer of the Handbook is Dr. Albert Socin, Professor 
of Oriental Languages at Leipsic, who has repeatedly travelled 
and studied in the Holy Land. The present edition, like the 
second, has been prepared, with his advice and assistance, 
by Dr. Immanuel Benzinger, of Tiibmgen, who has recently 
explored the greater part of the country described for the pur- 
pose of procuring the latest possible information. 

While the greatest pains have been taken to ensure ac- 

CO curacy, the Editor is well aware of the constant fluctuation 

* to which many of the data in the Handbook are liable. He 

will therefore highly appreciate any corrections or suggestions 

t? with which travellers may favour him, especially if tne result 

< of their own observation. The information already received 

^ from numerous correspondents, which he gratefully acknow- 

- _ ledges, has in many cases proved most serviceable. 

y The contents of the Handbook are divided into Five Sec- 

, tions (I. Jerusalem and its Environs; II. Judaea, the Country 

^ast of the Jordan, Southern Palestine, and the Peninsula of 

^ Sinai; IH. Samaria, Galilee, Phoenicia; IV. The Libanon, 

j Central Syria; V. Northern Syria), each of which may be sep- 

^arately removed from the book by the traveller who desires 

u to minimize the bulk of his luggage. To each section is 
prefixed a list of the routes it contains, so that each forms an 

f° approximately complete volume apart from the general table 
f? of contents or the general index. 

Cf> The Maps and Plans have been an object of the Editor's 
' special care; several have been re-drawn for the present 
r edition; and plans of Bethlehem, Haifa, and Madeba added. 

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Route Page 

4. Jerusalem 19 

5. Environs of Jerusalem 85 


6. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Gross, Philip's 
Well, and Bittir 110 

7. From Jerusalem to 'Ain Karim 112 

8. From Jerusalem to En-Nebi Samwil and El-Kub6beh 
(Emmaus) 114 

9. From Jerusalem to r Anata/Ain Fara, Jeba f , and Makhmas 116 

10. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem 117 

11. From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon, Khareitun, and 

the Frank Mountain " ... 127 

12. From Jerusalem to Hebron ... 132 

13. From Hebron to BSt Jibrin and Gaza 137 

14. From Gaza to Jerusalem via Ascalon 144 

15. From Jerusalem to Jericho, the Ford of Jordan, the Dead 
Sea, and back to Jerusalem via Mar Saba 148 

16. From Jericho to Es-Sal* and Jerash 162 

17. From Jerash to 'Amman, r Arak el-Emir, Hesban, Madeba, 
andEl-Kerak *. 170 

18. TheHauran 180 

19. Southern Palestine (Beersheba, Engedi, Masada, Jebel 
Usdum) 198 

20. Petra 205 

21. The Peninsula of Sinai 212 

III. Samaria, Galilee, Phoenicia. 

22. From Jerusalem to Nabulus (Sichem) 248 

23. From Nabulus to Jenin and Haifa 259 

24. Haifa (Mount Carmel and Acre) 264 

25. From Haifa to 'Athlit and Caesarea (Jaffa) 270 

26. From Haifa (Acre) to Nazareth 274 

27. From Jenin to Nazareth 277 

28. Nazareth 279 

29. From Nazareth to Tiberias 283 

30. From Tiberias to Tell Hum and Safed 290 

31. From Safed to Damascus ..." 297 

32. From Acre (Haifa) to Beirut via Tyre and Sidon .... 304 

33. Beirut 317 

IV. The Lbbanon. Central Syria. 

34. From Sidon to Hasbeya and Rasheya (Beirut, Damascus). 
Mount Hermon 330 

35. From Beirut to Damascus (by railway) 336 

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MAPS. ix 

Route Page 

36. Damascus 340 

37. From Damascus to Ba'albek 367 

38. From Ba'albek to Tripoli and Beirut via the Cedars of 
Lebanon 376 

39. From Damascus to Palmyra 389 

V. Northern Syria. 

40. From Tripoli to Ladikiyeh by the Coast 407 

41. From Beirfit to Alexandretta and Mersina by Sea . . . 418 

42. From Alexandretta to Aleppo 420 

43. Inland Route from Damascus to Aleppo 423 

44. Aleppo 430 

45. From Aleppo to Alexandretta vi& Antioch 439 

Index 448 


1. Map op the Environs op Jaffa, between pp. 6, 7. 

2. Map op Southern Palestine, between pp. 10, 11. 

3. Map op the Immediate Environs of Jerusalem, between pp. 84, 85. 

4. Map op the District around Jerusalem, between pp. 110, 111. 

5. Map of Arabia Petbjsa, between pp. 136, 197. 

6. Map of the Country to the East of the Jordan (Per*a), between 

pp. 162, 163. 

7. Map of the Country to the S. of Damascus with the Hauran, between 

pp. 182, 183. 

8. Map op the Peninsula of Sinai, between pp. 212, 213. 

9. Map of the Environs of Mt. Sinai and Serbal, between pp. 226, 227. 

10. Map of the Environs of the Monastery of Mt. Sinai and of the 

Jebel Musa, between pp. 232, 233. 

11. Map of Samaria, between pp. 260, 261. 

12. Map of the N. part of Mount Carmel, between pp. 264, 266. 

13. Map of Galilee, between pp. 274, 275. 

14. Map op the Environs of Tyre, between pp. 310, 311. 

15. Map op the Environs of Sidon, between pp. 316, 317. 

16. Map of the Environs of Beirut, between pp. 324, 325. 

17. Map of Southern Lebanon, between pp. 390, 331. 

18. Map of the Environs of Damascus, between pp. 364, 365. 

19. Map of Northern Lebanon, between pp. 376, 377. 

20. Map showing Routes through Syria (and Extent of Special Maps), 

after the Index. 


1. Jaffa, p. 6. 

2. Jerusalem, p. 18. 

3. Haram bsh-SherSf, p. 19. 

4. Ancient Jerusalem, p. 20. 

5. Kubbet es-Sakhra (Dome of the Rock), p. 41. 

6. Mosque b'l-Aksa, p. 48. 

7. Profile Section of the Hill of the Temple, p. 57. 

8. Church of the Sepulchbe, p. 61. 

9. MftRIBTAN, p. 73. 

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a party (see below). Apart from pecuniary considerations, moreover, 
the advantages of mutual support and companionship are invaluable 
in a country whose language and customs are unfamiliar, and with 
whose inhabitants social intercourse is difficult or impossible. The 
traveller who is at home in every country in Europe, who at every 
inn, in town or village, finds opportunity for adding to his stock of 
information or for engaging in friendly chat, will speedily be wearied 
in the East, however familiar he may be with the language, by the 
stereotyped questions and artificial phraseology of the people with 
whom he comes in contact. Moreover, if he be unaccustomed to 
fatiguing and often uninteresting rides, he will stand doubly in 
need of the refreshment and variety afforded by intercourse with 
friends. Those who start for their tour without companions will in 
spring have no difficulty in meeting with other travellers in the 
same position, and parties may thus easily be formed ; but caution 
in the selection of companions is very necessary in a country where 
arrangements once concluded are not easily altered, and where mu- 
tual confidence, congeniality, and forbearance are qualities of the 
utmost importance. In conversation religious topics had better, as- 
a rule, be avoided , as expressions of opinion on these subjects too 
often lead to serious misunderstandings and even quarrels. 

Conducted Tours. — A number of tours of different lengths are 
arranged every year by Thomas Cook $ Son, Ludgate Circus , and 
Henry Gaze $ Son, 142, Strand, London. These tours are of two 
classes, personally conducted and independent, and they may be 
joined at London, New York, and various other points. The fares, 
itineraries, and conditions are fully detailed in the prospectuses 
issued by the firms in question. 

The great advantages which a personally conducted tour offers to 
those who wish to make a pleasure-trip as comfortably as possible 
and to see the most interesting places in the East in a short space 
of time, entail the not inconsiderable disadvantage that the traveller 
who joins the party is tied to society which he cannot choose for 
himself and must resign all claims to be master of his own time 
or to determine his own route. As regards the expense, a single 
traveller (and still better a party) can get along very well for the 
same amount. 

The average expense of such tours is 36-40*. per head per day, from 
the date of leaving London. For a tour including Lower Egypt and the 
Nile as far as the First Cataract and four weeks in Palestine Messrs. Cook 
charge 190*., or omitting the Nile, 149". An extra week in Palestine adds 9/. 

Messrs. Gaze charge 132-142*. for 11 days in Egypt and 30 days in Palestine, 
returning via Athens and Constantinople ; for 11 days in Egypt an* 
in Palestine, returning via Marseilles, 94*. 10*. or 79*. 16*. ; etc. 

Eoutes. Consult the time-tables of the steamers (p. xvii). — 
Travellers who are pressed for time may obtain a glimpse of the 
most interesting points in a fortnight, which may be apportioned as 
follows: — 

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I. Jaffa — Jbbtjsalbm — Bethlehem — Dbad Sea (and b ack to 
Jaffa), 8 days : 

1st Day. Jaffa (p. 6). The steamers generally arrive in the morn- 
ing, so that there will he time to look round the town (with a guide) 
before taking the train (about 1.30 p.m.) for Jerusalem (p. 19), 
which is reached at 5.30 p.m. The evening may be devoted to a 
stroll in the city (strangers to the East should hire a guide). 

Travellers cannot be too strongly urged to stroll about the streets of 
Jerusalem and Damascus as much as possible, not so much in order to 
be able to find their way about as to gain the full effect of Eastern life. 

In arranging his plans for Jerusalem the traveller should re- 
member that Friday is the best day for visiting the Wailing Place 
of the Jews, while the site of the Temple is not open to visitors on 
that day. He should leave his card at the Consul's as soon as poss- 
ible, and request his aid for visiting the Haram (p. 36) and the 
monastery of Mar Sdbd (p. 160). 

2nd Day. Jerusalem (1st day, walk or ride). Ascend the ML 
of Olives (p. 88) early in the morning; on the way back visit 
Gethsemane (PI. H 3 ; p. 87) and the Tomb of the Virgin (PI. H 2; 
p. 85) ; and return through the Via Dolorosa (p. 76). Afternoon : 
Church of the Sepulchre (PI. D 3; p. 59), Mtiristdn (PI. D 4; 
p. 72), Patriarch's Pool (PI. D 4j p. 79), and finally Jews 9 Wailing 
Place (p. 56). 

3rd Day. Jerusalem (2nd day, unless this be a Friday, in which 
case exchange with another day ; walk). Temple place (Har&m esh- 
Sherif, PI. G 3 4; p. 36). Afternoon: Drive or ride to Bethlehem 
(p. 119). 

4th Day. Jerusalem (3rd day, walk or, preferably, ride). Morn- 
ing: Valley of Jehoshaphat (Kidron Valley) and Tombs (PI. H 4; 
p. 94), St. Mary's Well (p. 97), Pool of Siloam (p. 98), through 
the Valley of Hinnom to the Zion Suburb (p. 83), Citadel (p. 80). 
— Afternoon : Drive or ride to 'AinKdrim (p. 112). — In the even- 
ing, the Cotton Qrotto (p. 103). 

5th Day. Jerusalem (4th day, walk). Morning: Qrotto of Je- 
remiah (p. 104), Church of St. Stephen (p. 105), Tombs of the Kings 
(p. 105). Afternoon: Tomb3 of the Judges (p. 107), and excursion 
to En-Ncbi SamwU (p. 114). 

6th and 7th Days. Excursion to the Jordan. 6th Day. Drive, 
after an early start, to (6 hrs.) Jericho (p. 151), thence to (1^2 hr.) 
the Ford of Jordan (p. 154), and return to Jericho. 

7th Day. From Jericho back to Jerusalem, visiting Bethany 
(p. 148). If an early start have been made, the traveller will have a 
few hours to spend in Jerusalem. The ascent of the Mt. of Olives 
for the sake of the evening view is recommended. 

8th Day. From Jerusalem to Jaffa, a. By railway, starting about 
8 a.m. and arriving about noon. As the steamers usually start in 
the evening, the afternoon may be spent in a walk through Jaffa or 
in a visit to the German colony at Sarona (p. 10). 

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b. By railway to Ramleh (good hotel) and thence, after inspect- 
ing the place, drive to Jaffa (p. 15). A carriage must be ordered from 
Jaffa beforehand. 

c. By carriage all the way, 9 hrs. (comp. pp. 14 et seq.). An 
early start is essential. 

These eight days contain all the objects of interest in and around 
Jerusalem which it is 'the correct thing* to see. But a longer stay 
can unhesitatingly be urged upon every traveller. The Hardm esh- 
Shertf and the Church of the Sepulchre repay repeated visits, while 
there are numerous other spots of the greatest interest in Jerusalem 
and its environs. 

Other objects deserving a visit in Jerusalem are : the Church of 
St. Anne (Es-Saldhiyeh, PI. G 2; p. 75), the Armenian Monastery 
(p. 81), the Mdmilla Pool (p. 81), the German colony of Bephaim 
(p. 101), the Castle of Ooliath (p. 80), the Model of the Church of 
the Sepulchre (p. 59), the Lepers' Hospital (p. 102, not agreeable to 
every one), the Tombs in the Valley of Hinnom (p. 99), the Mt. of 
Evil Counsel (p. 99), and a walk round the town- walls. Excursions 
may be made to r Ain Fdra, l / 2 day (p. 116); the Monastery of the 
Cross and Philip's Well, 1/2 day (pp. 110,111); El-KuMbeh, ^day 
(p. 115; best combined with a visit to En-NebiSamwil, 1 day); the 
Frank Mountain and the Cave of Adullam, 1 day (p. 131); Solo- 
mon's Pool, l /2 day (p. 128), best combined with a visit to Bethle- 
day) or Hebron (2 days; comp. p. 132); Hebron, 2 days 

hem (1 d{ 
(p. 134); 

Mdr Sdbd, 1 day (p. 160), best included in a 3-days ex- 
cursion to the Jordan (p. 154). 

n. Beirut — Damascus — Ba'albkk — Bbibut. 

By railway, 8 days. 

1st Day. BeirHt. Leave card at the Consul's and request a trav- 
elling pass (tezkereh, p. xxx). Spend the rest of the day in walks 
about Beirut (Pineta, Ras Beirut, pp. 323, 324). 

2nd Day. From Beirut to Damascus Q>. 340). The train starts 
about 7 a.m. and arrives about 4 p.m. Secure a guide for the next day. 

3rd Day. Damascus (1st day, walk). After visiting the Great 
Mosque (JdmV el-Umawi, p. 361), stroll through the rich bazaars 
(p. 347) with their khans : the scene in the streets is most in- 
teresting. The bazaars cannot be visited too often. In the evening 
drive to Es-Sdlehlyeh and Jebel Kasytin (p. 366). 

4th Day. Damascus (2nd day, walk). Stroll through the bazaars 
and the S. suburb El-Meiddn (p. 356); thence to the E. and N. round 
the town (St. Thomas's Gate, p. 360). Visit one of the cafe's on the 
Barada. Visit the Tekkiyeh (p. 366). 

5th Day. Damascus (3rd day , walk). Visit some private re- 
sidences (pp. 351, 352), stroll through the Christian quarter (p. 359) 
and orchards in the suburbs. In the evening, drive to Dummar 
(p. 339). 

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6th Day. Take the train to El- Mu'alldka (p. 337), starting about 
8 a.m. and arriving about 11.30 a.m. Thence drive to Ba'albek 
(p. 369). Arrival at 4 p.m. 

7th Day. Ba'albek: visit the Acropolis (pp. 370 et seq.). 

8th Day. Drive to (4 hrs.) El-Mu f allaka in time to catch the 
train starting about noon for Beirilt, which it reaches about 4.30 p.m. 
The steamers start soon after. 

Occasionally the steamer arrangements place another (9th) day 
at the disposal of the traveller (at Damascus or Beirut). Even in 
this case the time allotted to Damascus is rather short. Travellers 
who do not intend to take the tour VI mentioned at p. xvi are there- 
fore recommended to take 14 days to this trip and to stay longer 
in Damascus. It is also worth while to spend a few days in Beirut 
and its environs, especially in the autumn. 

In these 16 days, with which most travellers are content, a 
number of the most interesting points in Palestine and Syria may 
be seen without any particular exertion. The following tours will be 
found convenient for travellers who have more time at their disposal 
and who wish to obtain a closer acquaintance with the country. 

As to modes of travelling, contracts with dragomans, selection of 
horses, etc., see pp. xxi, etc. If ladies are of the party tents will be found 

IH. The 'Shorter Tour' : Jbbusalbm — Nabulus — Nazareth 
— Tiberias — Haifa — Carmbl, 7 days at least. 

1st Day. Start about midday. Sleep, if without tents, in (3% hrs.) 
Rdmalldh (in the Latin monastery or a Quaker house); if with tents, 
in BUtn (4 hrs. ; p. 249). 

2nd Day. From RdmaUdh (or Btttn) to (7 hrs.) Ndbulus (p. 252). 
Sleep in the Latin Monastery, for which a letter of introduction from 
Jerusalem is required. If arriving early, ascend ML Oerizim. 

3rd Day. From Ndbulus via Sebastiyeh to (6 hrs.) Jeritn (p. 262) j 
tolerable accommodation in private houses. 

4th Day. From Jenin across the Plain of Jezreel to (7 hrs.) Na- 
zareth (p. 279). Sleep at the inn or the Franciscan monastery. 

6th Day. From Nazareth across Mt. Tabor (p. 283) to (7 hrs.) 
Tiberias. Accommodation in the Latin or Greek Monastery or at the 
hotel (p. 286). 

6th Day. From Tiberias vi&Kafr Kennd back to (6 hrs.) Nazareth, 

7th Day. From Nazareth to (6 hrs.) Haifd (carriage-road). 

Travellers who miss the steamer can ride to Beirilt in 3 days (see 
B. 32), or ride or drive to Jaffa in li/a-2 days (see R. 25). Gomp. also p. 264. 

Days of rest have not been taken into account in arranging this 
tour. It is desirable to rest at least one day either in Nazareth (in 
which case the second night may be spent on Mt. Tabor), or in Ti- 
berias, in order to see the neighbourhood. Other unoccupied days 
may be very profitably spent in Haifd. (visit to Muhraka on Mt. Car- 
mel p. 267, Acre p. 268, <Athlft and Tantura p. 271)'. 

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IV. Tke * Longer Tour' : Jbrusalbm — Haifa — Nazareth — 
Tibbbias — Safed — Baniyas — Damascus, 12 days at least* 

1st to 3rd Days. Jerusalem-Jenin see p. xv, tour III. 

4th Day (fatiguing). From Jentn via Tell el-Kassfs to (O'/s hrs.) 
Haifd. If without tents, start early, so as to reach Haif& the same 
day; with tents, it is more agreeable to spend the night somewhere 
on the road. 

5th Day. Haifa. Visit the Carmel Monastery (p. 266) and, if 
circumstances permit, Acre (2^2 his.). Steamer, see p. 264; road 
to Jaffa, see p. 271. 

Haifd (good hotels in the German colony and on Mt. Carmel) is the 
most' suitable place for a day of rest. Travellers who are pressed for time 
may from Jenin go direct to Nazareth (see R. Ill, 4th day) and thence 
further (see 7th and following days). 

6th Day. From Haifd to (6 hrs.) Natarcth (road), see p. xv. 

7th Day. From Nazareth to Tiberias, see tour III, 5th day. 
Tiberias is also a good place for a day of rest 

8th Day. From Tiberias via (2 l / 4 hrs.) Khan Minyeh and (1 hi.) 
Tell Hilm (Capernaum, p. 291) to (6V2 hrs.) Safed (p. 293). 

Travellers who ride on the same evening * from Safed to (1 hr.) 
Taiteba (p. 297) can, in case of need, reach Bdniy&s on the following day. 

9th Day. From Safed to (6 hrs.) Mis (p. 298). 

10th Day. From Mes via Hunin (p. 298) to the Jordan bridge 
and (6V2 hrs.) Bdniyds (Casarea Philippi, p. 299). 

11th Day. From Bdniyds on foot \i%Kal c at es-Subibeh (p. 300), 
then ride to (6y 2 hrs.) Kafr Hawar (p. 303). 

12th Day. From Kafr Hawar to (6 l / 2 hrs.) Damascus (p. 303). 

Damascus, comp. tour II, p. xiv. 

V. Jebtjsalbm — Haifa — Acrb — Tybb — Sidon — Beirut, 
9 days (via Nazareth and Tiberias 11 days). 

From Jerusalem to Haifd, compare tour IV, 1st to 5th day (or 
tour III, 1st to 7th day). Stay in Haifa, see above. 

6th Day. From Haifd at midday to (2*/2 hrs.) Acre (p. 268), 
accommodation in the monastery (little to see). 

7th Day. From Acre across the promontories of Eds en-NdMra 
(p. 306) and Rds el-Abyad (p. 307) to (8 hrs.) Tyre (p. 307) ;' ac- 
commodation in the monastery or at the Greek priest's (khdri rtimi). 

8th Day. From Tyre to (7 hrs.) Saidd (Sidon, p. 313); Arab 

9th Day. From Saidd to (8 hrs.) Beirdt (p. 317); a fatiguing 
day's march ; start early. 

Beirfit and its environs, compare tour II, p. xiv. 

VI. From Damascus via Ba'albbk, the Cedars of Lebanon, 
and Tbxpoli to Beirut (on horseback only), 7 days. 

Start from Damascus with dragoman, and with tent if accompanied 
by ladies. Travellers who intend to join the steamer at Tripoli (p. 382) 
most visit Beirut at the beginning of their tour and at the same time take 
their steamer tickets, so as to be sure of their cabin at Tripoli. Heavy 

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luggage may be handed over to the agent, not without taking a receipt. 
Travellers who are going to return to Beirut had belter leave their lug- 
gage in charge of the hotel-keeper. 

1st Day. From Damascus via r Ain Ftjeh to (6 3 / 4 hrs".) Ez-Zebe- 
duni (p. 338). 

2nd Day. From Ez-Zebeddni to (61/2 hrs.) Ba'albek (p. 369); 
start early, in order to visit the Acropolis the same afternoon. 

3rd Day. Ba'albek. In the morning, visit the Acropolis again. 
Afternoon : Dir el-Ahmar (p. 377) 3 hrs. 

Prom Ba r albek to Beirut via El-Mu f allaka, see tour II, p. xv. 

4th Day. From Dir el-Ahmar to the (6 hre.) Cedars of Lebanon 
(p. 878) and to (3 hrs.) Ehden (p. 380). 

5th Day. From Ehden to (51/2 hrs.} Ttipoli (p. 382 ; point of 
embarkation for the steamers to Smyrna). 

6th Day. From Tripoli to (9 1 /* uts.) Jebeil (p. 380). 

7th Day. From Jebeil to (8 hrs.) Beirut via the Bog River (Nahr 
el-Kelb, p. 387). 

Beirtit and neighbourhood, compare tour II, p. xiv. 

In these skeleton*tours no allowance has been made for the stay in 
Damascus (or Beirut). Comp. the remarks on this point at p. xv. Ex- 
press stipulations for such a stay should be made in any contract with a 
dragoman (comp. p. xxiv). 

Other tours may easily be arranged with the aid of this Handbook. 
— Trips to Petra, Sinai, the country E. of the Jordan, and Palmyra 
can only be made when the country is free from political disturb- 
ances (comp. p. xxxiii.). 

B. Steamboats. 

The various approaches to Palestine and Syria are detailed in 
R. 1. Before leaving home the traveller should write to the offices 
or agencies (see below) of the steamship-companies for theiT time- 
tables and passengers' handbooks, with the aid of which the general 
outline of the tour may be sketched in advance. With the exception 
of some Of the British trading steamers (p. xviii) there is no direct 
service to the Syrian«ports : travellers must go either via Alexandria 
or via the Piraeus (Constantinople) and Smyrna. 

As regards speed, food, cleanliness and attendance, the British, French, 
German, and Austrian passenger lines are much the same; some of the 
steamers are large and fine, others only middling. The British trading 
steamers are, of course, more irregular in their voyages \ the passenger 
accommodation is, however, comfortable and the food excellent. At Easter, 
when crowds of Christian pilgrims converge towards Jerusalem from all 
parts of the world, and in the month of Ramadan (a festival which occurs 
at a different time every year), when the Muslims go on their pilgrimage 
to Mecca, the boats are so overcrowded with passengers, mostly third 
class, that the usual order and cleanliness cannot always be maintained. 

The First Class cabins and berths are always well furnished; those 
of the Second Class , though less showy, are tolerably comfortable, and 
are frequently patronised by gentlemen travelling alone. Ladies can only 
be recommended to travel first class. 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. ^A>^^\^ 

Digitized by VjUOQLC 


The FooDj which is included in the first and Second class fares, is 
always abundant and of good quality. Liquors are charged extra; the 
French and Italian liners give their passengers a good table-wine without 
extra charge. Passengers who are prevented by sickness from partaking of 
the regular meals are supplied with lemonade and other refreshments gratis. 

The Steward's Feb, which the passenger pays at the end of the voyage, 
is from >/» fr. to 1 fr. a day) but more is expected if unusual trouble has 
been given. 

Good Baths are provided on the newer vessels for the use of passengers, 
and may be used without extra charge. The attendant expects a fee at 
the end of the voyage. 

Tickets should be taken by the traveller in person at the office of 
the company; they are usually non-transferable. The prices for return 
and circular tickets will be found below. 

Embarkation. At London passengers are conveyed to the docks by 
special trains and thence, when necessary, to the steamer by special 
tender. At Marseilles, Trieste, and Brindisi the vessels start from the 
quays ; but at Venice and Naples passengers are conveyed to the steamers 
in small boats (lfr. each pers. with luggage). Hand-bags with requisites 
for the night may be taken into the cabins ; trunks and other large luggage 
(which should be carefully labelled with name and destination) are stowed 
away in the hold. 

Complaints should be addressed to the captain. On board the foreign 
steamers a kind of military precision is affected, and questions addressed 
to the officers or crew are apt to be answered very curtly. 

The most important steamer services are as follows. With this 
list the traveller should compare the hooks of information issued by 
the companies (p. xvii). 

1. Peninsular and Oriental Co. (London : 122 Leadenhall St., 
E.C. ; 25 Cockspur St., S.W.). 

a. From London (Tilbury) weekly via Gibraltar and MarseilU$ 
to (11 days) Port Sa'id (1st cl. 201., 2nd cl. 12J.) . Passengers for 
Alexandria (same fares) change at Marseilles. 

b. From Brindisi to Port Saftd every Sun. evening in connection 
with express-train leaving London on Friday. Fares from Brindisi 
10*., 6*., return-ticket, valid for 4 months, 16J., 10 J. 

c. From Venice to Brindisi and (6 days) Port Sa r U every three 
weeks, touching &t Alexandria during the season (fares 12l., Si., re- 
turn-ticket 18*., 12*.). 

d. From Marseilles to Malta and (6 days) Alexandria fortnightly. 

2. Orient Line (5 Fenchurch Avenue, E. O. ; 16 Cockspur St, 
S.W.) fortnightly from London (Tilbury) via Plymouth, Gibraltar, 
and Naples to (14 days) Port Said (fares 201., 121 ., from Naples 1(M., 
6J., return 16*., 10*.). Return-tickets are valid for four months. 

3. Other British lines. Pbincb Linb every ten days from Man- 
chester and Liverpool to Tunis , Malta , Alexandria, Jaffa, Beirut, 
Cyprus, etc. ; from Antwerp and London fortnightly to Malta, Alexan- 
dria, Jaffa, Haifd, BeirUt, Cyprus, etc., and monthly to Malta, 
Smyrna, Constantinople, etc. Fare from Manchester to Syrian Ports 
and back to Manchester, 35*. - — Papayanni and Moss Lines from 
Liverpool fortnightly to Alexandria (14*., 9*.) and monthly to Syra 
(12*.), Smyrna (14*.), and Constantinople (15*.). — Lbyland Line 

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from Liverpool fortnightly to Alexandria (14Z., 92.). — BibbyLinb 
from Liverpool every three weeks to Port Sa'td (fare about 14 J.). 

4. Messageries Maritimes (16 Rue Cannebiere, Marseilles ; 97 
Cannon St., London, E.C., and 51 Pall Mall, London, S.W.). 

a. LignesCiroulaires: Marseilles-Piraeus-Smyrna- Constantinople- 
Smyrna - Rhodes - Beirut- Messina -Alexandretta- Tripoli- Beir&t- Port 
Sa'td -Alexandria- Marseilles (touching at other intermediate ports). 
Every fortnight in each direction from Marseilles. 

b. From Marseilles to Alexandria, Port Sa'id, Jaffa, Beir&t, and 
back; every fortnight (alternating with Line a). 

c. From Marseilles to the Piraeus, Smyrna, Constantinople, Sa- 
lonica, Syra, and Marseilles, weekly in one or other direction, but 
only when trade requires it. 

d. Australian and Asiatic Line from Marseilles to Port Sa r id 
thrice in four weeks; East African Line twice a month. 

Return Tickets at a discount of 10 per cent are available for four months, 
but are not issued for the lines under d. 

Family Tickets for three persons or more enjoy a discount of 10 per cent, 
return-tickets a discount of 15 per cent. 

Fares (including food and table-wine) in francs of Lines a and b (c is 
cheaper and d considerably dearer) from Marseilles to — 


















(via Alexan- 
Alexandretta < dria . 
(via Piraeus 

■•"*{& £££"?:: 

Constantinople ...... 

Jaffa via Alexandria . . . 
t sj!i,«™i. / via Alexandria 
Ladlki r e Mvi&Pireeus. . 
[ via Alexandria. 


via Pireeus 

M n „a: nn J via Alexandria . 
Mersinaj v . &pirJEUS 


Port Sa'id via Alexandria 

Smyrna { JiS Alexandria ! 

rr.«««u i via Alexandria . 
Tripoli y . a p . ramg m # # 






5. Austrian Lloyd. — a. Express steamers between Trieste and 
Alexandria once a week in each direction. Time, 5 days with a short 
halt in Brindisi. These steamers connect every fortnight with — 

b. The Syrian-Karamanian Line : from Alexandria via Port Scftd, 
Jaffa, Haifa, Beirut, Tripoli, IAdMyeh, Alexandretta, Mersina, 
Rhodes, Chios, Smyrna, and Dardanelles to Constantinople, and back. 

c. Syrian Line : from Alexandria via Port Sa ( id, Jaffa, Haifd, 
Beirdt, Larnaka, Limassol, Rhodes, Chios, Smyrna, Mitylene, Darda- 
nelles, and Qallipoli to Constantinople, and back. 


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European or Arab make, in Beirut. Spurs are not much used, but 
a good whip (3-5 fr.) is necessary. 

Luggage, For a journey into the interior of the country the 
traveller should dispense with all articles of luggage not absolutely 
necessary. Heavy trunks are unsuitable, owing to the difficulty of 
packing them so as to weigh equally on each side of the baggage 
horses. Small portmanteaus and bags of solid leather, with good 
locks, are far preferable. 

The Style of Travelling* varies according to the traveller's means 
and his love of comfort. 

I. With Dragoman and Tents. Travellers who are unacquainted 
with the language and customs of the country will find a dragoman 
(Arabic terjumdn) indispensable. Dragomans in Syria are contractors 
for the management of tours and of caravans, and they relieve the 
traveller of all the difficulties of preparation and of intercourse with 
the natives. The Syrian dragomans usually speak English and French, 
a few of them German and Italian too. In knowledge of the country, 
and especially of its antiquities, they are often sadly deficient. They 
are generally accustomed, moreover, to certain beaten tracks, and 
it is often a matter of great difficulty to induce them to make the 
slightest deviation from the usual routes. For tours of any length 
it is advisable for the traveller to enter into a written contract with 
the dragoman, and to get it signed by him and attested at the con- 
sulate. The annexed form of contract includes almost every possible 
detail. Explanations are added where necessary. 

Contract. The following contract , dated , has been 

entered into between the travellers AB. and the dragoman C. 

§ 1. The dragoman C. binds himself to conduct the travellers 

AB., in number, from Jerusalem to Beirut by way of Na- 

bulus, Jenin, Haifa, etc. The dragoman may not take other persons 
on this journey without the express permission of the travellers. 

The route (including digressions if possible) and the halts should be 
laid down beforehand with the utmost possible accuracy. 

§ 2. The dragoman binds himself to defray the whole cost of 
the said journey, including transport, food, expense incurred through 
delays, bakhshish, fees, etc., so that no claims whatever shall after- 
wards be made against the travellers. 

■" If the traveller is satisfied with the mukaris, he may give them a 
bakhshish at the end of the journey. During the journey no demands for 
bakhshish should be entertained for a moment. 

§ 3. The dragoman binds himself to provide for the daily use 
of the said travellers . . . horses (or camels, p. 213) with good 
bridles and European saddles , including . . . ladies' saddles, and 
. . . strong mules or horses for the transport of the travellers' lug- 
gage. He shall also provide sufficient fodder for the said horses 
and mules, otherwise the travellers shall have power to purchase 
enough to make up the deficiency at the dragoman's expense. 



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§ 4. The travellers shall not be liable for any damage which 
may be occasioned by the fall of the horses, by theft, or in any 
other manner, unless by their own fault. They shall likewise have 
power to prevent the overloading of the beasts of burden, in order 
that the speed of the journey may not be unduly retarded. 

§ 5. The diagoman shall provide one good tent (or . . . good 
tents for two persons each), and for each traveller one complete bed, 
with clean mattresses, blankets, sheets, and pillows. If ladies are 
of the party a special 'cabinet' tent shall be provided. The whole of 
the materials necessary for encamping, including a table and chairs 
sufficient for the party, shall be in good condition. 

§ 6. The dragoman guarantees the safety of the travellers and 
their baggage. When he is unacquainted with the route, he shall 
always engage well-informed guides. He shall also, when neces- 
sary, provide watchmen and an escort, all at his own expense. 

§ 7. The dragoman shall provide a good cook, and a sufficient 
number of servants, in order that there may be no delay. The ser- 
vants shall be in every respect obedient and obliging. 

The attendants have a very common and annoying habit of tethering 
their horses close to the tents , and of chatting half the night so loudly 
as effectually to prevent the traveller from sleeping. 

§ 8. Breakfast shall consist daily of . . . dishes with coffee (tea, 
chocolate, etc.) ; luncheon, at midday, of cold meat, fowls, eggs, 
and fruit ; dinner, at the end of the day's journey, of . . . dishes, 
followed by coffee (tea, etc.). The travellers shall be supplied with 
oranges at any hour of the day they please. The dragoman is bound 
to provide for the carriage, without extra charge, of the liquors which 
the travellers may purchase for the journey. 

The items of the bill of fare may be stipulated for according to taste. 
Dinner should always be postponed till the day's journey is over, and the 
same may be said of indulgence in alcoholic beverages in hot weather 
(excepting now and then a sip of good brandy). Cold tea is very good for 
quenching thirst. Fresh meat is rarely procurable except in the larger 
towns and villages, and then generally in the morning only. Fowls and 
eggs are always to be had, but are apt to pall on the taste. The Arabian 
bread, a thin round kind of biscuit, is only palatable when fresh. Frank 
bread, of which the dragoman generally has a good supply, soon gets very 
stale. The traveller had better buy his own wine and a sufficient supply 
should be taken. The sweet wine of the country is unrefreshing and unwhole- 
some. An abundant supply of tobacco, which need not be of very good qual- 
ity, should be taken for the purpose of keeping the muleteers , escorts, 
and occasional guides in good humour. 

s § 9. The dragoman shall be courteous and obliging towards 

/the travellers ; if otherwise, they shall be entitled to dismiss him 

' at any time before the termination of the journey. The travellers 

shall have liberty to fix the hours for halting and for meals, and 

choose the places for pitching the tents. 

/ Some of the dragomans are fond of assuming a patronising manner 

/ towards their employers. The sooner this impertinence is checked, the 

/ more satisfactory will be the traveller's subsequent relations with his guide. 

I On the successful termination of the journey travellers are too apt from 

motives of good nature to give the dragoman a more favourable testimonial 

Digitized by 



In case of a prolonged stay it is advisable to hire a man as valet 
00-60 fr. a month) and also an attendant for the horse. As the 8yrians 
generally display a marvellous aptitude for learning foreign languages, it will 
always be an easy matter for the traveller to find a native acquainted 
with French , English, or Italian , and competent to teach him a few of 
the most necessary Arabic words for the journey. An attendant of this 
kind should be made strictly to account for all his expenditure, as he is 
apt to charge his employer considerably more than he has expended for 
him. — We strongly dissuade travellers from buying horses for the jour- 
ney. Apart from the sharp practice for which horse-dealers, also in the 
East, are proverbial, the risk is always considerable. The traveller must 
also engage and keep attendants for his horses, without the least guarantee 
that the animals will be properly fed and looked after. 

IV. Lastly, travellers who are good pedestrians and acquainted with 
the language and customs of the country, may simply hire a baggage 
animal and a mukari, take cooking utensils, some blankets and the indispens- 
able provisions, and tramp through the country on foot. A trip of this 
kind, however, should be carefully weighed before undertaking, the more 
so as it is not easy to find companions to share it. 

D. Equipment. Health. 

Dress. — The traveller should take with him a plaid, an overcoat, 
and a couple of suits of clothes, one light in colour for travelling, 
and a daikei suit, for visiting consuls, attending divine service, etc., 
hut dress-clothes are quite unnecessary. The tailor should he in- 
structed to make the sewing extra strong , for repairs and sewing 
huttons on are dear in the East, not to speak of the difficulty of find- 
ing the tailor just when he is wanted. Travellers will scarcely he 
inclined to adopt Oriental costume : to do so without considerable 
familiarity with the language would only expose one to ridicule. If 
the journey is to he prolonged into the middle of summer, a suit of 
light material may he purchased in Beirut or elsewhere (from 40 fr. 
the suit). A waterproof coat is essential in spring; umhrellas are 
of little use. An Arah 'ab&yeh, or native mantle, will he found con- 
venient. The finer 'Bagdad' mantles cost 30 fr. and upwards, the 
coarser striped variety 15-20 fr. Light coverings of this sort, made 
of fine white wool, make excellent dust-mantles. — Woollen shirts, 
undershirts, and drawers afford protection against catching cold. 
Light silk shirts are pleasant when riding. They may he bought in 
Beirut or Jerusalem. Rubber collars and cuffs will save the expense 
of washing, which is charged per dozen (2 or 3 fr.) in the East 
whether the articles be small or large. The number of shirts, stock- 
ings (woollen), handkerchiefs, etc. will vary according to individual 

Light but strong boots or shoes are essential to comfort, as most 
travellers will generally have occasion to walk considerable distances. 
If much riding is to be done, riding-boots or leather riding-gaiters, 
the latter obtainable in the ports and in Jerusalem, are useful ; elastic 
trouser-straps are necessary in any case. Slippers (Arabian shoes) 
are procurable everywhere (at 15-25 pi.). 

The best covering for the head is a 'Billy-cock' hat, or a pith 

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HEALTH. xxvii 

helmet. In the hottest weather a 'puggery' may he added, i. e. an 
ample piece of strong white or grey muslin, the ends of which 
hang down in broad folds at the hack as a protection against sun- 
stroke. Some travellers prefer a silk kefftyeh (p. lxxxiii), which may 
"be tied under the hat, extending from under the chin to the top of 
the head, and falling down behind in a triangular shape. This head- 
dress protects the cheeks and neck admirably against the sun. The 
red fez (Ar. tarbxUK) should be avoided, the hat being nowadays in 
Arabia the recognised symbol of the superior dignity of the European. 

On weapons, consult p. xxxiii (Public Safety). 

Miscellaneous. — A few important articles may be noticed here, 
the whole of which had better be brought from Europe. A good 
field -glass, a drinking -cup of leather or metal , a flask, a strong 
pocket-knife with corkscrew, several good note -books, a pocket 
compass of medium size, and a thermometer. Writing-materials 
are procurable everywhere. Magnesium ribbon -wire is useful for 
illuminating dark places. Stem -winders or keyless watches are 
preferable to others , as a watch-key lost during the journey is not 
easily replaced. Valuable watches should be left at home. 

A Tour of Exploration into the interior requires more elaborate 
preparation. Seasoned travellers will be able to sleep on a carpet spread 
on the ground: The Arabs sleep in the lefiQf, a large, square, quilted 
coverlet. When sleeping on the ground, a sheet of waterproof should be 
spread under the sleeper to ward off any dampness. Candles in sufficient 
number should be taken for lighting the tent and the sleeping-quarters 
in the peasants' houses. On tours of great length with a Beduin escort it 
is advisable to take a number of presents, such as weapons, loud-ticking 
clocks, etc. Blotting paper is useful for taking squeezes or impressions of 
inscriptions. This is done by wetting the paper, pressing it on the in- 
scription with a brush and removing it when dry. The impressions will 
then be permanent. They may be rolled up and kept in a long round 
botanist's canister. — Literature for explorers : Galton y 'The Art of Travel* 
(5th ed., London, 1872). 

Health. — Medical men are to be found in the more important 
towns only. Their names will be found in this Handbook. Fever and 
diarrhoea, the latter sometimes passing into dysentery, are the usual 
consequences of catching cold or of camping on wet spots. Travellers 
should he on their guard against eating fruit which is often exposed 
for sale in an unripe state. A change of climate, in addition to the 
medicines mentioned below, will often prove a remedy in these 
cases ; strict dieting is, of course, imperative. 

As sunstroke is common in Syria, the neck and head should be 
well protected (comp. above). Grey spectacles may be used with ad- 
vantage when the eyes suffer from the glare of bright and hot weather. 
If it becomes necessary to camp in the open air, the eyes should be 
carefully covered , as the dew and the resulting cold are very pre- 
judicial to the eyes. It need hardly be said that it is of especial 
importance to avoid risk of sprains , bruises , and over-fatigue in 
exploring ruins , botanising , geologising , or sight-seeing. — The 
traveller's medicine-chest, which must be carefully protected from 

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damp, should contain at least the following remedies, made up in 
Emope from the prescription of a physician. Against fever : quinine 
in pills, or a similar specific. Aperient medicines for chronic constipa- 
tion : pills of aloes, or a similar medicine ; calomel is more active, 
and is best taken in capsules. (A dessert-spoonful 1 of castor oil is 
also serviceable.) In cases of diarrhoea or dysentery first take an 
aperient and then opium in pills. For inflammation of the eyes : an 
eye-wash (from a medical prescription) and a glass rod to drop it 
into the eye. For faintness : Hoffmann's drops. For stings of insects: 
ammonia. For wounds and bruises : antiseptic wool, sublimate tablets, 
iodoform (for disinfecting), and collodion. 

E. Travelling Expenses. Letters of Credit. Money. 

Weights and Measures. 

Expenses. — The cost of travelling in the East is considerably 

greater than in Europe. Europeans will find so many unwonted 

requirements absolutely essential to their comfort, that the most 

economically arranged tour cannot be otherwise than expensive. 

a. For Steamer Fabbs, see pp. xviii-xx. For Railway Fares, 
see the various routes. 

b. In the Towns. The average daily charge at the hotels (p. xxxiv) 
is 12-15 fr., without wine; this amount may be reduced by agree- 
ment with the landlord for a large party or a prolonged stay. Native 
wine, 1-2 fr. per bottle, French wine, at least 3-4 fr., Bavarian beer, 
1-2 fr.; fees V2-I &• > *^ at * s about 20 fr. a day, unless the traveller 
avails himself of the accommodation afforded by the monasteries at 
Jerusalem for one-half or a third of that sum (p. xxxiv). To this 
must be added the daily hire of horses and of guides, without whose 
aid the traveller, especially if ignorant of the language, would often 
be at a loss to find his way, even in Jerusalem or Damascus. When 
to these items is added the bakhshish (p. xxxiii), the traveller must 
allow altogether about 25-30 fr. a day in the towns. 

c. On Tour. The charges depend, of course, on the require- 
ments and number of the persons composing the party. Less in 
proportion is generally charged for the shorter tours, such as that 
of three days from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea and k back, than for 
the longer, as in the latter case the dragoman generally has a long 
return-journey with servants and horses to take into account. A 
much higher charge is made for excursions to the oountry E. of the 
Jordan, to Petra, and to the Peninsula of Sinai, where the drago- 
man has to provide an escort of soldiers or Beduins varying in 
number according to the political circumstances of the day. — Dur- 
ing the height of the travelling season, about Easter, the daily ex-r 
penditure of a solitary traveller with dragoman and tent (p. xxii) 
amounts to 60-70 fr. a day, that of two to 50-60 fr. each, that of 
three to 40-50 fr. each, that of four, five, or six to 30-40 fr. each, 
and that of a larger party to 20-30 fr. a day. These charges ought 

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MONEY. xxix 

to include an ample supply of food, but not wine. — Without tent 
and with plainer provisions, the prices would be about one-third 
less, or for a solitary traveller 30-40 fr., for two $6-30 fr. ; for three 
20-o5 fr., and for more about 15-20 fr. each. Out of the season 
prices are 10-20 per cent lower. — It is still cheaper to travel with 
a mukari and dispense with the dragoman (p. xxv). 

The charges of the dragomans are high, partly because their harvest 
is short, and partly because many travellers are too ready to give whatever 
is demanded. A dragoman rarely has the chance of making more than 
two or three journeys of any length in one year. Various government and 
other expeditions of late years, whose members have been unnecessarily 
lavish, have somewhat spoiled the dragomans and accustomed them to 
expect unreasonably high remuneration for the smallest extra service. 

Horse-hire varies according to the demand. During the season 
good riding-horses are not to be had under 6 fr. a day, including 
the mukari's wages. Baggage-animals are a little cheaper. The price 
rises at times to 8 or 10 fr. Travellers are generally charged for the 
return-journey of the animals, reckoned by the shortest route. — 
Horse-hire should always be bargained for in piastres, and the drago- 
man's fees in francs, not in shillings. 

Letters of Credit. — Large sums of money can be carried safely 
only in the form of letters of credit or circular notes. 

The Cridit Lyonnais, the Deutsche Palastina- $ OrientgeseUschafl 
at Berlin, and the Banque Impiriale Ottomane (a not very accom- 
modating institution) are in correspondence with most of the prin- 
cipal banks in Europe, and have offices or agencies at Damascus, 
Beirut, Jerusalem , and most of the larger towns of Syria. These 
offices and agents, however, will not pay money unless they are 
mentioned by name in the letter of credit. Travellers should there- 
fore be careful to see that this is done. 

Money. — The money of Syria consists of piastres (Arabic kirsh, 
plur. kurtisK), at 40 paras each (Arabic fadda, or masriyeK). Paper 
money seldom passes, and the traveller should invariably refuse to 
take it. Great confusion in the value of the current coins is caused 
by the existence of two rates of exchange : first , the government 
rate (sdgh), and secondly that in use in trade and oidinary life 
(zhuruk). This latter rate again varies greatly in different towns, 
and the Austrian post-office and the railway-companies have fixed 
a rate of their own for certain coins. — The value of a piastre sdgh 
in English money is about 2d. ; that of a piastre shuruk about 1 s '/ *d. 

English and French gold (as also Russian) passes everywhere ; 
German gold can only be changed without loss at some German 
houses. Foreign silver is prohibited all over Turkey, but francs and 
shillings (marts are refused) are taken in the seaports. Egyptian 
money is refused everywhere, and travellers coming from Egypt 
should change Egyptian money for European. 

The table before the title-page shows the approximate value of 
the coins current in the principal towns. The exchanges vary in 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



some towns in the interior and in N. Syria. These variations are 
noted in their place in the Handbook. 

The rate of exchange is liable to constant fluctuation. The exact 
rate of exchange should always be ascertained from a banker and as 
little money as possible exchanged in the bazaars and inns, or by the 
dragoman. It is always advisable to keep accounts and ask prices 
in piastres, which the traveller will And much more advantageous 
than reckoning in francs or shillings. Money should always be care- 
fully kept under lock and key , and shown as little as possible, in 
order that the cupidity of attendants may not be excited. When trav- 
elling into the interior of the country the traveller should not fail to 
take plenty of small change with him, as the country-people some- 
times refuse to change even a mejidi for strangers. 

As it is a favourite fashion with women in the East to wear 
necklaces formed of coins strung together, numerous pieces of money 
perforated with holes are in common circulation. Such coins, espe- 
cially if the holes are large, should be rejected by the traveller, as 
he would often have difficulty in passing them. Coins which are 
worn smooth on one side, should also be rejected. Gold coins should 
be rung on a stone to see that they sound true. 

Weights and Measures. The only system legally recognised is the 
decimal system based on the metre, litre, and gramme. But the old weights 
and measures are still in use everywhere in Syria. The unit of Weight is 
the Dram (Dirhem) = 3,2 gr. or 50 grains; 667 3 dirhem = 1 Okkipeh = 
213 gr. or 71/2 oz. ; 400 dram = 6 okkiyeh = 1 Okka = 1,28 kg or 21b! 13 oz. ; 
2 okka = 1 Rotl = 2,56 kg or 5 lb. 10 oz.i 44"okka = 7 Kantdr = 56 kg 
or 1'2&V« lbs. ' .... 

The unit of Measures of Capacity is the Mudd (Midd) = 18 litres or 
about 4 gallons ; 1 RuViyeh = 1/4 mudd, 1 Keleh = 2 mudd. — Wine and 
other liquids are usually sold by weight in Syria. 

The unit of Linear and Superficial Measurement is the Dra* (ell) = 
67 3 /* centimetres or about 26 in. ; 1 square dra f = 4590 square centimetres \ 
1 Fedddn = 1600 square dra r = 734 square metres. 

F. Passports and Custom House. 

/ Passports. — A passport is indispensable, and should be vislbefore 
/ starting by the Turkish ambassador or consul. On arrival at a Syr- 
i ian port the passport is asked for, but travellers are usually allowed 
; to pass on showing their passport and handing the official their 
; visiting card. This is preferable to giving up the passport which the 
Turkish officials have the habit of keeping and sending on to the 
consul, whereby much needless delay and trouble is occasioned. 

The chief passport agents in London are : Lee & Carter, 440 West Strand ; 
W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet St. ; C. Smith & Son, 63 Charing Cross -, and E. Stan- 
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross. 

f To pass from one vilayet to the next within the Turkish empire 
/ (e.g. from Beirut to Damascus) a 'tezkereh' or permission to travel is 
( necessary. This document is isssued by the police authorities on the 
^ requisition of the consul and costs 6 pi. sdgh. For each successive 
vilayet a police visa is necessary, costing 2*/2 P*- $dgh. 

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Custom House. — The traveller's luggage is generally sub- 
jected to examination at the douane. The introduction of cigarettes 
or tobacco into Syria is punished by fine and confiscation ; but 50 
cigarettes and 60 gr. of tobacco are passed as the day's require- 
ments of the traveller, and may be insisted upon. Cigars are taxed 
at 76 % of the declared value. Firearms and ammunition are also 
prohibited. Books are strictly examined; copies of the present 
Handbook have not unfrequently been confiscated. In all these 
cases a bakhshish of a few francs will generally ensure the traveller 
against molestation, but it should, of course, not be offered too open- 
ly, or in presence of the superior officials. 

y^ All goods exported are liable to a duty of 1 per cent on their 
'value, and the exportation of antiquities is entirely prohibited. 
The traveller is therefore liable to another examination on leaving 
the country , but he will generally have no difficulty in securing 
exemption in the way above indicated. If luggage has to be sent 
across a frontier, the keys must be sent with it, in order that it may 
undergo the custom-house examination; but the traveller should 
never part from his luggage unless he can address it (after first ob- 
taining permission) to some firm to whom he is known. 

G. Consulates. 

Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of exterritoriality 
as ambassadors in Europe. Some of these are consuls by profession 
('consules missi'), others merely commercial. The British and Amer- 
ican consuls of the former class (at Jerusalem and Beirut only) 
exercise jurisdiction in all civil matters of dispute between their 
countrymen, and in complaint against their countrymen by other 
foreigners. Disputes between Turkish subjects and foreigners are 
decided by the Turkish courts, with the aid of the dragoman of the 
foreigner's consulate. Disputes about real estate are also decided by 
the Turkish courts. The vice-consuls and consular agents are sub- 
ordinate to the consuls and only act at the instance or under the 
control of the latter. In all emergencies the traveller should, if 
possible, apply to his consul, with whose aid the annoyance of 
a lawsuit in a native court may generally be avoided. Politeness, 
as well as self-interest, will generally prompt new-comers to call 
on their national representatives. The 'kawasses', or consular attend- 
ants, are often very useful to travellers, and though not entitled to 
ask payment for their services, generally expect a gratuity. 

H. Post Office and Telegraph. 
Postal Arrangements. — The head-offices of the post for Syria 
and Cyprus are at Beirut. Turkey has joined the Postal Union. The 
postage for European letters of Va oz « is 1 piastre edgh, and for 
pamphlets 10 paras for every 2 oz. Post-cards 20 paras. 

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Letters may be sent to Syria poste restante , "but it is "better to 
have them addressed to a consul, house of business, or hotel. Letters 
take from 10 to 15 days in passing between London and Syria. 

The Turkish Post is principally for the coast and inland service. 
The addresses for letters to be forwarded by the Turkish post must 
be in Turkish or Arabic as well as in English. — The Foreign Service 
is principally managed by the Austrian , Erench, and British post 
offices. The Russian post is for certain local traffic only. 

Telegraph Offices. — There are two kinds of telegraph-offices in 
Syria, International and Turkish. Telegrams in Arabic and Turkish 
only are received at the Turkish offices, while at the international 
offices they may be written in any of the principal modern languages, 
particularly English, French, and German. 

Telegrams should be written in a very bold and legible hand. 
Telegrams from Turkish offices must be sent in Arabic or Turkish 
to the coast, where they are translated, and then forwarded to Europe. 
This had better be done through a mercantile house or a consulate. 
Tabiff: Turkish telegrams V2Pi* a word; to remote provinces or 
to ihe Turkish islands 1-1 V2 P*« International telegrams, per word: 
America 9 fr. 60 c. Germany 55 c. Portugal 69 c. 
Great Britain 76 - Russia 76 - 

Greece 38 - Spain 65 - 

Holland 60 - Sweden 69 - 

Italy 48 - Switzerland 51 - 

Norway 72 - 

Telegbaph Offices in Syria Jthose marked with a star are in- 
ternational) : Acre; 'Aintab*; f Aleih; Aleppo*; Alexandretta* ; 
Antiooh*; Ba f abda*; Ba'aklin; Ba f albek; Batrun; Beirut*; Bek- 
feiya; Beteddin*; Bethlehem; Brummana; Damascus*; Ddr el-Ka- 
mar; Gaza*; Haifa*; Hama; Hasbeya; Horns; Irbid; Jaffa*; Jebe- 
leh; Jenin; Juneh; Jerusalem*; Kerak; El-Kune$ra; Ladikiyeh*; 
El-Merkez*; El-Mina*; Nabulus ; Nazareth*; Nebk; Rasheya; Sa- 
fed*; Es-Salt; Saida (Sidon); ShSkh Sa'd; Esh-Shuweifat ; Sur 
(Tyre); Es-SuwSda; Tabariyeh (Tiberias)*; Tarabulus (Tripoli); 
Tardus; Zahleh. 

J. Beggars. Bakhshish. 
Most Orientals regard the European traveller as a Croesus , and 
sometimes as a madman, — so unintelligible to them are the objects 
and pleasures of tia veiling. Poverty, they imagine, is unknown 
among us, whilst in reality we feel its privations far more keenly 
than they. That such erroneous views prevail, is to some extent the 
fault of travellers themselves. In a country where nature's require- 
ments are few and simple, and money is scarce, a few piastres seem 
a fortune to many. Travellers are therefore often tempted to give 
for the sake of producing temporary pleasure at trifling cost , for- 
getting that the seeds of insalftable cupidity are thereby sown , to 


46 - 


60 - 


60 - 




56 c. 

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the infinite annoyance of their successors and the demoralisation of 
the recipients themselves. As a rule, bakhshish should never be 
given except for services rendered, or to the sick and aged. 

In every village the traveller is assailed with crowds of ragged, 
half-naked children, shouting 'bakhshish, bakhshish, ydkhowdjal' 
The best reply is to complete the rhyme with, l md fish, met 
fish 1 (there is nothing), which will generally have the effect of 
dispersing them. A beggar may be silenced with the words ' Allah 
yaHik 1 (may God give thee !). 

The word bakhshish, which resounds so perpetually in the travel- 
ler's ears during his sojourn in the East, and haunts him long 
afterwards, simply means *a gift', and as everything is to be had for 
gifts, the word has many different applications. Thus with bakhshish 
the tardy operations of the custom-house officer are accelerated, 
bakhshish supplies the place of a passport, bakhshish is the alms 
bestowed on a beggar, bakhshish means black mail, and lastly a large 
proportion of the public officials of the country are said to live 
almost exclusively on bakhshish. 

When paying a visit to a person of rank it is the custom of the coun- 
try to give his servant a bakhshish on leaving. In Christian villages trav- 
ellers are often invited to inspect the church , when it is usual to give 
the priest (khitri) a trifle 'for the church' (min shdn el-kenfseh). If bakh- 
shish has to be given to any person, for example, a particularly rapacious 
Beduin shekh, it is best to offer him first 20 or 30 pi. less than originally 
intended, and give him the remainder afterwards. Bakhshish should only 
be given at the last moment before starting. 

K. Public Safety. Weapons. Escorts. Dogs. 

Weapons are unnecessary on the main routes (p. xii) but in- 
dispensable on the others, as weapons, conspicuously carried, add 
a great deal to the importance with which the 'Frank' is regarded 
by the natives. On the importation of weapons, see p. xxxi. The 
requisite licences to carry weapons and to hunt are issued by the 
police on the application of the consul (fee 11 pi. sagK). 

Escort. — For the tour to the Dead Sea it is necessary to have an 
escort of one of the people of Abu Dis (p. 149), who receives 1-1 y 2 
mejidi a day for this service. The same fee is payable for the Turk- 
ish military escort which is requisite when visiting Palmyra and 
some other places. Details will be found under each route. In dis- 
tricts E. of the Jordan, where the Turkish supremacy is but nomin- 
ally recognised, the price is much higher. The unwritten law of the 
Beduins grants each tribe the privilege of escorting travellers (in 
return for a suitable bakhshish) to the frontier of its territory. As 
a rule, however, one shekh will contract to escort the travellers 
through a number of tribal territories and to settle with the other 
shekhs, a matter which frequently leads to wearisome negociations. 

The desert proper is safer than the border land between it and 
the cultivated country. Its confines are infested with marauders of all 
kinds, but once in the interior of the territory of a desert-tribe, and 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. ^ A^rslo 

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xxxiv HOTELS. 

under the protection of one of its shekhs, the traveller will gener- 
ally meet with much kindness and hospitality. Feuds between the 
border tribes are not uncommon, and it would be rash to attempt to 
cross the desert when such are known to be going on ; but the writer 
has known instances where pretended attacks have been preconcerted 
between the Beduins and the dragoman in order to extort a higher 
bakhshish from the traveller, which was afterwards divided among 
the conspirators. Predatory attacks are occasionally made on travellers 
by Beduins from remote districts, but only when the attacking party 
is the more powerful. To use one's weapons in such cases may lead to 
serious consequences, as the traveller who kills an Arab immediately 
exposes himself to the danger of retaliation from the whole tribe. 

With regard to the fees to be paid to Beduin escorts in districts which 
do not recognise the Turkish supremacy, no definite rule can be laid down. 
The Beduins are generally obstinate to a most provoking degree, hop- 
ing to weary out the traveller by delay, and thus induce him to accept 
their exorbitant terms. They frequently demand a certain sum from each 
member of the travelling party, but it is more convenient and advantageous 
to stipulate to pay them a fixed sum in piastres for the whole party. Ne- 
gociations sbould be conducted through the medium of the consulate, 
never through unknown persons who officiously proffer their services. 

In unsafe districts a guard should be posted outside the tents ; 
in Nabulus and some other towns, which will be mentioned in the 
Handbook, soldiers should be got for this purpose from the com- 
mandant. Objects of value should be placed either under the trav- 
eller's pillow or as near the middle of the tent as possible, lest they 
should be within reach of hands intruding from the outside. In case 
anything should be missed, a complaint should at once be lodged 
with the shekh of the nearest village (shekh el-beled) and, if this is 
fruitless, with the chief magistrate of the nearest town of importance. 
The traveller should likewise be on his guard against the thievish 
propensities of beggars. 

The masterless Dogs which infest the towns and villages (p. liiij 
bark lustily at strangers, but never bite unless irritated. At the 
same time a stick or umbrella carried in the hand lends an ad- 
ditional sense of security. Dogs are, of course, regarded as un- 
clean animals by the Muslims. 

L. Hotels. Monasteries. Hospitality. Khans. 
Hotels. — The towns on the great tourist-route are the only places 
which boast of hotels properly so called. Most of these establish- 
ments are tolerably comfortable, but as the landlords and servants 
are generally Syrian Christians, the arrangements are not so satis- 
factory as in European hotels. The standard of cleanliness is also 
different. An inclusive daily charge is made, whether the traveller 
takes his meals in the hotel or not. The average charge for board 
and lodging is 12-16 fr. per day (bargaining advisable); for a pro- 
longed stay or for a party a lower rate may be obtained. Wine is 
generally extra. Attendance is not charged in the bill. The table 

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is usually good and abundant. There are no restaurants in the Eu- 
ropean style in the East, except at Jerusalem and Beirut. 

Hospices. — These are a great boon to the traveller. In addition 
to those in Jerusalem (p. 19), we may mention the Russian hos- 
pices in Jericho and Hebron. The accommodation is good. In 
the season travellers must bring a letter of introduction from the 
Archimandrite at Jerusalem. Provisions should also be brought. 
The fixed price is 3 fr. per bed. — The Latin and Greek Monasteries 
(the former are preferable) are originally intended only for pilgrims 
of the respective churches, but other travellers are also received. 

The Latin monks are for the most part Italian Franciscans 
(p. lxxxiii), of gentle, obliging, and self-denying dispositions. Even 
if no charge is made, travellers should offer a voluntary contribution 
of the same amount as charged in the hospices, viz. 3 fr. If break- 
fast and supper have been furnished by the monks, twice as much 
should be given. Fodder for the horses is extra. The monasteries 
of Mt. Lebanon, those of the Maronites, and others likewise afford 
quarters to travellers, but in these cases the food and the beds are 
in the Arabian style. 

Hospitality. — At the towns and villages lying on the principal 
routes the traveller need not hesitate to ask for quarters in private 
houses , as the inmates are aware that the Franks always pay, and 
therefore receive them gladly. On arriving at a village, the trav- 
eller usually enquires for the house at which strangers are in the 
habit of alighting ( l wln memil or konak?). This is generally the 
house of the shekh or some other person of importance. Good ac- 
commodation is found in the houses of the Greek priests (khfiri 
r&mijj in places where there are such. If there is a consular agent 
or a missionary at the place, application should be made to them. 
The rules as to removal of shoes and other points of Oriental eti- 
quette (p. xlii) should, of course, be strictly observed. Payment is 
made on the same principle as in the monasteries. 

Khans. — The Khan, or caravanserai, which is generally suitable 
for the reception of the muleteers and horses only, and swarms 
with vermin, should never be resorted to, except in case of absolute 

M. Cafes. 

Coffee-houses abound everywhere , consisting of slight wooden 
booths, furnished with a few seats of plaited rushes. Those at 
Damascus are on a grander scale. The coffee, which is served in 
diminutive cups (finjdn) , is not so good as in Egypt. It is usually 
presented to the customer highly sweetened, but may be asked for 
without sugar (sddeh or murra), or with little sugar (shwoyyet suk- 
kar). The coffee of the Beduins is the best, being always freshly 
roasted, and pounded in wooden mortars. Europeans are charged 
20 paras (V 2 piastre) per cup, but natives half that sum only. The 


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waiter is called in Oriental fashion by clapping the hands and call- 
ing l ya weled? (Oh boy)! The caftf-owner provides nargilehs, or 
water-pipes, for his guests. Natives bring their own tobacco with 
them (p. xxxix) ; the host charges other visitors half-a-piastre per 
pipe. The nargileh should never be smoked quite to the bottom. If 
a second is wanted, the request is made in the words l ghayyir en- 
ntfes' ('bring another pipe'), whereupon the bowl is removed and 
replaced by one fresh filled. If the charcoal goes out too soon, a 
fresh lump may be called for with the word 'bcysa'. To prevent 
contact with the mouthpiece of the stem (marbtsh), a small tube 
of paper may be inserted into it. 

N. Baths. 

The baths used in Syria are those commonly known as Russian 
and Turkish baths. The hardra (see Plan), as well as the separate 
baths (maghtas and hanafiyeh), are roofed with flat ceilings, in which 

I. Entrance. 2. Meshlah (a kind of ante-chamber, where the poorer 
bathers undress). 3. Faskiyeh (fountain). 4. Ditodn (better dressing-rooms). 
5. Coffee-seller. 6. Beit-'el-aunoel (warm dressing-room for cold weather). 
8. Latrines. 7. Entrance to the (9) hardra (or 'sudatorium''). 10. Ditodn. 

II. Maghtas (chambers with basins). '12. Banafiyeh (chambers with basins 

and taps for hot and cold water). 13. Furnaces. 14. Boilers. 

are openings covered with coloured glass. The maghtas contain a 
bath let into the pavement and a marble basin for washing, pro- 
vided with taps for cold and warm water, while the hanafiyeh have 
warm water only. All these chambers are paved with marble slabs. 
The harara, or public bath-chamber, is filled with steam. All 

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BATHS. xxxvii 

the chambers are heated by fines under the pavement and behind 
the walls. 

When a cloth is hnng np at the entrance to the baths, they are 
occupied by women only. The baths are always cleanest in the 
early morning. Fridays and festivals are to be avoided. 

The visitor first enters a large vaulted chamber covered with a 
cupola, having a fountain of cold water in the centre, and the 
bathing-towels hung around on strings, these last being swung into 
their places or taken down with bamboo rods according to require- 
ment. The visitor is next conducted to one of the raised divans, 
and having given his shoes to the attendant and had his divan 
covered with clean sheets, he proceeds to undress. Valuables may, 
if desired, be entrusted to the bath-owner. Wrapping a cloth round 
his loins , the bather now issues from his divan , and having been 
provided with pattens or wooden shoes (kabkdb) proceeds to the hot 
rooms in the interior of the baths. These sweating-chambers are 
vaulted and dimly lighted from above. Near one of the basins here a 
linen cloth is spread for the bather , and he is now left to perspire. 
As soon as the skin is thoroughly moist, he calls for the attendant, 
who pulls and kneads the joints till they crack, a process to which 
Europeans are not generally subjected. This is followed by the 
pleasanter operation of shampooing, which is performed by the abu 
kls, or abu sabun, who is requested to do his duty with the word l key- 
yi8ni% and who then rubs the bather with the fcts, or rough piece of 
felt. The attendant next thoroughly soaps the bather, and concludes 
the operations by pouring bowls of warm water over his head. If the 
water is too hot the bather may ask for cold ( l jW moyeh b&rideK), or 
say 'enough' (bes). After this douches of hot or cold water may be 
indulged in according to inclination , but the most refreshing plan 
is to change the temperature gradually from hot to cold, the direction 
to the attendant being l moyeh bdrideti I When desirous of leaving the 
hot room, the bather says to the attendant l jib el-fuwal? (bring the 
towels) , whereupon he is provided with one for his loins, another 
for his shoulders, and a third for his head. The slippers or pattens 
are then put on, and the ante-chamber re-entered. When the £ab- 
^abs are removed, cold water is sprinkled over the feet, fresh cloths 
are then provided , and the bather at last throws himself down on 
his divan , wonderfully refreshed , yet glad to enjoy perfect repose 
for a short time. Every bath contains a coffee and pipe establish- 
ment. Coffee and hot eau sucree are the favourite beverages. 
Before dressing the bather is provided with two or three more relays 
of fresh towels. — Many of the baths are charitable foundations, 
where the natives pay little or nothing. Europeans are expected to 
pay 6 pi. or more, and a fee of about 1 pi. is given to the 'soap man'. 
Coffee, see p. xxxv. — A Turkish bath is particularly refreshing after 
a long journey, and is an admirable preventive of colds and rheu- 
matism, but if too often repeated sometimes occasions boils. 

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xX xviii BAZAARS. 

0. Basaars. 

Shops in the East, frequently connected with the workshops 
where the wares are made, are generally congregated together, accord- 
ing to handicrafts in a certain quarter of the town, or a street, 
named after the respective trades, such as ( £t2fc en- Nahhdsin 1 (market 
of the coppersmiths), J6harjiyeh (of the jewellers), Khurdajtyeh (of 
the ironmongers), etc. In all the larger villages are extensive Khdns, 
or depots of the goods of wholesale merchants, who, however, often 
sell hy retail to strangers. 

The shop (dukkdn) is a recess , quite open to the street, the 
floor with the seat (mastaba), on which the owner retails his goods 
and performs his devotions, being almost on a level with the ground. 
When the owner leaves his shop, he either hangs a net in front of 
it, or begs a neighbour to keep guard over it. The intending 
purchaser seats himself on the mastaba, and after the customary 
salutations proceeds to mention his wishes. Unless the purchaser is 
prepared to pay whatever is asked, he will find that the conclusion of a 
satisfactory bargain involves a prodigious waste of time and patience. 

As a rule, a much higher price is demanded than will ulti- 
mately be accepted, and bargaining is therefore the universal 
custom. If the purchaser knows the proper price of the goods 
beforehand, he offers it to the seller, who will probably remark 
i kaUV (it is little), but will nevertheless sell the goods. The seller 
sometimes entertains the purchaser with coffee from a neighbouring 
coffee-shop in order to facilitate the progress of the negociations. 
If the shopkeeper insists on too high a price , the purchaser with- 
draws , but is often called back and at last offered the article at a 
reasonable price. It is advisable to offer at first rather a lower sum 
than the purchaser is willing to pay in order that the offer may be 
raised (with the expression 'min shdnak% 'for thy sake 7 ). A favourite 
expression with Oriental shopkeepers is 'khudu baldsK (take it for 
nothing), which is, of course, no more meant to be taken literally 
than the well known l bUi bttak' (my house is thy house). Persons 
who are in the habit of dealing with the natives sometimes resort 
to the expedient of asking the merchant what he has paid for his 
goods , a question which in the great majority of cases is answered 
truly. When the word of a Muslim is doubted, it is not uncommon 
to make him swear by the Koran or by the threefold divorce (taldk). 

Nothing raises the traveller so much in the estimation of Orient- 
als as firmness in resisting imposition ; but even the most wary and 
experienced must be prepared to pay somewhat higher prices for 
everything than the natives themselves. The charges mentioned in 
the Handbook will generally afford the traveller an idea of the de- 
mands which may be justly made. The dragomans and valets-de- 
place are always in league with the shopkeepers, and receive a 
commission of 10-20 per cent on each purchase. — Antiquities, see 
p. ox v. 

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TOBACCO. xxxix 

Travellers who make purchases will find it convenient and 
comparatively inexpensive to send them home through one of the 
goods-agents at Jerusalem or Beirut (pp. 20, 318). 

P. Tobacco. 

Tobacco is now a government monopoly. Cigar-smokers must 
endeavour to accustom themselves to the Oriental mode of smoking. 
The government cigars are all very bad ; good cigars, imported (or 
smuggled) by individuals, are only to be found in Beirut and some- 
times in Jerusalem. They are very dear, the duty being 75% of the 
value. Travellers, therefore, had better not take any cigars with 
them and, for similar reasons, not purchase tobacco in the country 
to take home. Even Egyptian cigarettes are prohibited; the im- 
portation of them is punished with fine and confiscation. 

The government cigarettes are made of a mixture of Constantin- 
ople (stambtili) and native (beledi) tobacco. There are four quali- 
ties : extra and Nos. 1-3. Most people smoke No. 3, which are just 
as good as 1 and 2, and cheaper, costing 2% pi. sdgh for a box of 25. 
The extra quality (7 pi. sdgh) is much better. 

Tobacco (tutun) is either strong (takil) or mild (Jchafif). There 
are two qualities of each. The stambUli is cut in long strips. Many 
persons prefer the Syrian tobacco (beledi) , as the after-taste in the 
mouth is pleasanter and the mouth less parched. It is cut in short, 
irregular strips and is often mixed with woody fibres. The price of 
both is about 60 pi. for an okka (2 l / 2 lbs.). — The tobacco grown in 
the Lebanon is much better, but the cultivation of tobacco in this 
district has fallen off considerably, as the exportation into the mono- 
polized provinces is now prohibited. Still, smuggled tobacco can 
be had everywhere. The best qualities are called Jebeli, Shkifiy and 
Kordni, from the towns Jebeil, Shkif, and K&ra. The first- mentioned, 
called Latakia by Europeans and by the natives sometimes dbu 
rtha ('father of perfume'), is strong and dark-brown, from being 
dried in the smoke of resinous woods. Kordni is light-brown and 

Tobacco may be kept moist by mixing it with strips of carrot. 
In the towns it is advisable to buy it in small quantities fresh. 

Tumbdk, or Persian tobacco, is moistened, lighted with a par- 
ticular kind of charcoal, and smoked in the nargilehs or long water- 
pipes only. Those who use this kind of pipe draw the smoke into 
their lungs. Women generally smoke the nargileh, and peasants a 
particular kind known as jdzeh (p. 349). 

Q. Mosques. 

Down to the time of the Crimean war Christians were rarely 
permitted to visit Muslim places of worship, but since that period 
the ancient exclusiveness has been greatly modified, although strict 

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Muslims still dislike to see 'unbelievers' (Christians and Jews) en- 
ter their holy places. It need hardly be said that the visitor should 
show all possible consideration for the feelings of the worshippers 
and his Muslim companions and should abstain from touching the 
Korans lying about. Visitors should never forget to exchange their 
shoes at the entrance for slippers, which are generally provided for 
their use. Fees: in the smaller mosques 1 pi. to the guide and 
*/2 pi. for the slippers ; in the large mosques according to tariff. 

Mosques may be divided into two leading classes : (1) those of 
rectangular form, the court being surrounded by arcades of columns 
or pillars ; (2) those whose court, rectangular or cruciform, is sur- 
rounded by closed spaces. — The name JdmV is applied to the large, 
or cathedral mosques, in which sermons (Khutba) are preached on 
Fridays and prayers are offered up for the sovereign of the country. 
The general term for a place of worship is Mesjid, even when it 
consists of a single chamber (Musalld) only. 

Every Jdm? possesses a court of considerable size , generally 
uncovered, called the Fasha or Sahn el-Jam?, in the centre of which 
is the fountain for the ablutions (hanafiyeh) prescribed by the Mo- 
hammedan religion. Adjoining the E. side of the court is the 
Maksdra, containing the sacred vessels , and covered with carpets 
or mats (Hastreh). 

The maksura contains: (1) The Mihrdb, or recess for prayer, 
turned towards Mecca (Kibla); (2) The Mimbar, or pulpit, to the 
right of the mihrab, from which the Khatib preaches to the faith- 
ful; (3) The Kursi (plur. kerdsi), or desk, on which the Koran 
lies open during divine service (at other times the Koran is kept 
in a cabinet set apart for the purpose) ; (4) The Dikkeh, a podium 
placed on columns and enclosed by a low railing, from which the 
Moballigh (assistants of the khajib) repeat the words of the Koran 
for the benefit of the people at a distance ; (5) Various lamps and 
lanterns (Kanddtl and Fdnds). 

At the side of the sahn el-jami f is another and smaller court, 
with a basin in the centre and niches along the walls. The worshipper 
generally enters this court before proceeding to the sahn el-jami f . — 
Adjacent to the maksura usually rises the monument of the 
founder of the mosque, and further distant, by the principal entrance, 
is the Sebtl (fountain) with the Medreseh (school). These fountains 
are often richly adorned with marble and surrounded by handsome 
bronze railings. They are generally approached by a flight of steps, 
and above them is sometimes a more or less handsome hall for 
the school. The interior of the sebil consists of one large chamber 
only, where vessels are filled with water from the tank for distri- 
bution to the faithful. 

The Muslims also perform their devotions at the grated windows 
of the mausoleums of their saints (Shekh, or Weli), behind which is 
seen a catafalque covered with carpets of every hue, where, however 

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the remains of the holy man are hy no means invariably deposited. 
These welis are observable all over the country, sometimes built 
into the houses, and easily recognised by their outward appearance. 
They are cubical in form and covered with a dome, whence they 
derive the name oiKubbeh; they seldom cover an area of more than 
20-30 sq. yds., they are generally whitewashed, and often empty 
and infested with scorpions. In Syria almost every village has its 
weli, venerated alike by Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Objects de- 
posited in it are safe from theft. 

R. Dwellings. 

The dwellings of the country-people are usually of clay. In the 
plains they build with clay bricks, in the mountains with stone. The 
houses generally contain one or two rooms on a level with the ground ; 
fireplaces and chimneys are unknown. The ceilings are of wood- 
work, covered with twigs and clay. 

The private houses even of the well-to-«do townspeople are sel- 
dom more than two stories in height, and vary greatly in their con- 
struction. The following, however, is the most usual arrangement : 
(1) The Principal Rooms, particularly those of the Harem , look 
into the court or garden, if there is one. (2) The windows look- 
ing towards the street are small, at a considerable height from the 
ground, and closely barred, while those of the upper floor are closed 
with wooden lattices, which, however, are gradually giving way to 
glass windows with shutters. (3) The Corridor, which leads from 
the street into the court, takes an abrupt turn, in order that passers- 
by may not be able to see into the court. (4) The Court (hdsh) is 
paved with slabs of stone, and frequently planted with orange and 
citron trees, with a large basin of clear water in the centre. 

Close to the entrance to the court is the Mandara, or reception 
room of the master of the house , from which a door covered with a 
curtain leads into the court. To the right and left of the passage run- 
ning in a straight direction from this door the floor is slightly raised. 
The divan runs round three sides of the room. In the walls are gener- 
ally a number of cupboards, and higher up are shelves. Many 
rooms are adorned with enamelled inscriptions. In summer visitors 
are not received in the reception-chamber, but under an open arcade 
usually adjoining the court and facing the north. — A small door 
leads into a second court and to the women's apartments. The 
houses are very irregularly built, so that each apartment often 
seems to have been constructed without reference to any other. 

S. Intercourse with Orientals. 
Orientals accuse Europeans of doing everything the wrong 
way , such as writing from left to right , while they do the reverse, 
and uncovering the head on entering a room , while they remove 

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their shoes bnt keep their heads covered. The traveller should 
endeavour to habituate himself to the custom of taking off the 
shoes on entering a house , as it is considered a grave breach of 
politeness to tread upon the carpets with them. 

The following rules should be observed in paying a visit at an 
Oriental house. The visitor knocks at the door with the iron 
knocker attached to it, whereupon the question 'rniri (who is there?) 
is usually asked from within. In the case of Muslim houses, the 
visitor has to wait outside for a few minutes in order to give the 
women who happen to be in the court time to retire. He is then 
conducted into the reception-room , where a low divan or sofa runs 
round three sides of the room , the place of honour always being 
exactly opposite the door. According to the greater or less degree 
of respect which the host desires to show for his guest, he rises more 
or less from his seat, and approaches one or more steps towards him. 
The first enquiries are concerning the health (see p. cix). The 
transaction of business in the East always involves an immense waste 
of time, and as Orientals attach no value whatever to their time, the 
European will often find his patience sorely tried. If a visitor drops 
in and interrupts the business, it would be an unpardonable affront 
on the part of the host to dismiss him on the plea of being engaged. 
Again, when a visitor is announced at meal-time , it is de rigueur 
to invite him, at least as a matter of form, to partake. At all other 
hours visitors are supplied with coffee, which a servant, with 
his left hand on his heart, presents to each in turn, according to 
his rank. To be passed over when coffee is handed round is deemed 
by the Beduins an insult of the gravest kind. Having emptied his 
cup, the visitor must not put it down on the ground, which is 
contrary to etiquette, but keep it in his hand until it is taken from 
him by the servant, after which he salutes his host in the usual 
Oriental fashion by placing his right hand on his breast and after- 
wards raising it to his forehead. The longer the host wishes to have 
the company of his visitor, the later he orders the coffee to be 
brought , as the visitor cannot take his leave before partaking of 
coffee. This custom originated with the Beduins, who only re- 
garded the persons of their guests as inviolable after they had eaten 
or drunk with them. When visited by natives, the European should 
in his turn regale them liberally with coffee, particularly when he 
has occasion to confer with his Beduin escort. — It is also usual to 
offer tobacco to the visitor, the cigarette being now the ordinary form. 
The long pipe with amber mouth-piece , and its bowl resting on a 
brazen plate on the ground, is more in vogue with the Turks. 
— All visits must, of course, be returned as in Europe. Those who 
return to a place after an absence receive visits from their acquaint- 
ance before they are expected to call on them. 

Europeans, as a rule, should never enquire after the wives of a 
Muslim , his relations to the fair sex being sedulously veiled from 

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the public. Even looking at women in the street or in a house is 
considered indecorous , and may in some cases be attended with 
danger. Intimate acquaintance with Orientals is also to be avoided, 
disinterested friendship being still rarer in the East than elsewhere. 
Beneath the interminable protestations of friendship with which the 
traveller is overwhelmed lurks in most cases the demon of cupidity. 
The best way of dealing with persons who 'do protest too much' is 
to pay for every service or civility on the spot , and as far as poss- 
ible to fix the price of every article beforehand, a plan which will 
spare the traveller endless annoyance afterwards. 

On the other hand, the most ordinary observer cannot fail to be 
struck with the fact that the degraded ruffianism so common in the 
most civilised countries is quite unknown in Syria. The people of 
the country, even of the poorest and entirely uneducated class, often 
possess a native dignity, self-respect, and gracefulness of manner, 
of which, the traveller will grieve to admit, his own countrymen of 
a far higher status in society are for the most part utterly destitute. 
Notwithstanding their individual selfishness, too, the different native 
communities will be observed to hold together with remarkable faith- 
fulness, and the bond of a common religion, which takes the place 
of 'party' in other countries, and requires its adherents to address 
each other as l y& akhdC (my brother), is far more than a mere name. 

The traveller should avoid being too exacting or suspicious. He 
should bear in mind that many of the natives are mere children, 
who often display a touching simplicity and kindliness of dispo- 
sition. He should, moreover, do all in his power to sustain the well- 
established reputation of the l kilmeh frenjtyeh\ the 'word of a Frank', 
in which Orientals are wont to place implicit confidence. 

II. Geographical Notice. 
Geography. Climate. Geology. Flora. Fauna. 

Geography. — The name of Syria^was originally of much wider 
application than at the present day. The subjects of the Assyrian 
Empire, from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, were known in 
ancient times as Assyrians, or, in the abbreviated form, Syrians. 
At a later period these two names came to have different applica- 
tions, and it became usual with the Greeks to apply the name of 
Syria to the more western of these regions. 

Syria, in the modern acceptation of the name, is a country with 
very marked geographical limits, extending from the highlands of 
the Taurus on the N. to Egypt on the S., between 36° 5' and 31° N. 
latitude, a distance of about 370 M. — Admirably adapted by its 
situation to form a connecting link between Europe , Asia , and 
Africa, it displayed within itself, more than any other country in 
the world, all the strongly contrasted characteristics of the different 
empires of antiquity. 

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The country is divided lengthwise into several regions of very 
different character. From N. to S. extends a range of hills, broken 
by bnt few transverse valleys. To the W. of these hills lies the sea- 
board of the Mediterranean. To the £. lies a steppe of fertile bnt 
scantily watered soil, which when artificially irrigated yields the 
most lnxnriant produce. This desert, as it is sometimes called, ex- 
tends at a mean level of 1900 ft. to^the neighbourhood of the Eu- 
phrates. It is inhabited by independent, nomadic Beduins, and 
frequently traversed by caravans. 

If Syria is taken in its strict sense as meaning that part of the 
country only which is cultivated, its eastern limit is the desert, and 
is therefore but vaguely defined. Whilst the sea-board offers but 
little variety, and the desert none whatever, the intervening moun- 
tainous region presents numerous features of interest, which have 
not failed to exercise an influence on the inhabitants. An im- 
portant connecting link between the heterogeneous regions of the 
desert and the sea-board is formed by the great valley which extends 
from Antioch on the N. to the neighbourhood of the Red Sea towards 
the S. 

It is convenient to divide the country into four different regions 
by three imaginary transverse lines drawn across it. The southern 
boundary of Northern Syria will then be formed by a line drawn from 
the river Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebtr) to Horns. The N. frontier ex- 
tends from the Bay of Issus to the Euphrates. — The second line is 
drawn from a point a little S. of Tyre (Stir) towards the E., skirt- 
ing the S. base of Hermon. Within this second zone would be in- 
cluded the ancient sea-board of Phoenicia, the most important part 
of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, rising inland; and, farther E., the 
famous region around Damascus, the capital of Syria. — A third 
section would be formed by drawing a line from the S.E. angle of 
the Mediterranean towards the E. ; this region would be identical 
with the ancient Palestine from Dan to Beersheba, and would in- 
clude the course of the Jordan. — The fourth region would consist 
of the desert Et-Tih, the f Araba (the valley descending to r Akaba), 
and to the E. of the latter the mountains of Petra, which properly 
speaking belong to Arabia. 

Of these four sections of Syria the two extreme parts are less 
frequently visited by travellers than the other two, the difficulties, 
fatigue, and even danger to be encountered there being considerably 
greater. Our attention will therefore be chiefly directed to the two 
central sections , including Palestine and Lebanon , the former of 
which in particular justly claims the greatest attractions for the 
majority of travellers, and will be treated of most fully in the 

With regard to scenery, the attractions steadily decrease as we 
proceed from N. to S. While the two northernmost of the four 
sections of the country possess the highest mountains in Syria, 

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and beautiful, well -watered valleys, the southern regions are 
comparatively flat and sterile. In the midst of the table-land of 
El-Bika% as the beautiful basin which separates Lebanon from 
Anti-Libanus is called, rise within a short distance of each other 
two streams, one of which, the Leontes (LU&ni), flows towards the S. 
and after numerous sinuosities falls into the sea to the N. of Tyre, 
while the other, the Orontes (El- r AH), flowing towards the N., de- 
scribes a more circuitous route round the mountains before it 
reaches the sea. On the Anti-Libanus again rise three rivers which 
debouch into inland lakes, vix. the Baradd near Zebeddni, which 
waters the oasis of Damascus, the A'waj in Mt. Hermon, and farther 
S. the Jordan, the principal river of Palestine. All these streams 
thus emanate from the great central mountain-group of Syria. These 
mountains are divided, in the two northernmost regions of Syria, • 
into two parallel ranges, running from N. to S., the most eastern of 
which is the Anti-Libanus (Arab. Jebel esh-Sherki, the 'eastern 
mountains'), culminating at its southern extremity in the Great 
Hermon (9383 ft.). The western and higher of the two ranges is 
the Lebanon (Arab. Jebel Libndri), which culminates near Beirut 
and Tripoli in the Jebel Makmal (10,016 ft.) and the Dahr el-Ko- 
d% (10,052 ft.). Lebanon terminates towards the N. near the Nahr 
el-Kebir (p. xliv), to the N. of which begins a range of hills 
called the Nusairtyeh MU. after the people by whom they are in- 
habited. Beyond these rises the Jebel Akra% the Mons Casius of 
the ancients, with its conspicuous summit towering above the coast. 
To the N. of the Orontes begins the Kizil or Akma Ddg (the Ama- 
nita of antiquity), which afterwards merges in the Cilician Taurus. 
The offshoots of the Lebanon range also stretch southwards, with 
slight interruptions, throughout the whole of Palestine. On this broad 
chain, the upper part of which approaches the sea and at Mt. Carmel 
sends forth a lateral branch, but which farther S. is separated from the 
sea by a fertile plain, lie the oldest and most famous places in 
Palestine, and within it are included the mountains of Naphtali, 
the mountains of Ephraim, and the mountains of Judah mentioned 
in the Bible. It is this range which prevents the Jordan from 
flowing towards the sea, and compels it to pursue its southern course 
through several lakes until it loses itself in the Dead Sea, a re- 
markable basin which lies far below the sea-level. The secluded 
character of this part of the country has exercised a very marked 
influence on its climate, its inhabitants, and its products. 

Beyond the Jordan, not far from Hermon, rise the volcanic hills 
of TulM. The whole of the Hainan, which is of basaltic and lava 
formation, also exhibits to this day a number of volcanic craters 
(p. xlviii). Farther S. extend the mountains of Gilead, partially 
wooded. The mountains ofMoab form an extensive table-land, sep- 
arated from the desert towards the E. by a low range of hills only. 

Syria possesses very few perennial streams, the rain soon run- 
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xlvi CLIMATE. 

ning off and soaking through the stony ground. Some of the old 
river-beds (wcidi), however, are deeply eroded. A wadi frequently 
bears different names according to the places it passes. 

Climate. — Syria has two seasons only, a dry hot summer, and 
a rainy but comparatively warm winter. But owing to the great in- 
equalities in the surface of the soil , the climate varies greatly in 
different parts of the country. Three climatic zones may be dis- 
tinguished: the subtropical coast-region, the mountains with a 
continental climate, and the tropical Ghor, or valley of the Jordan. 

(1.) Rainfall. The rainy season is followed almost immediately 
by the dry season ; at most with the interposition of a brief spring) 
from the middle of March to the middle of May. From the beginning 
of May to the end of October the sky is almost uninterruptedly 
cloudless. Thunder and rain during the wheat-harvest (1 Sam. xii. 
17, 18) in May are of very rare occurrence. In early summer mists 
still hover about the mountains, but later in the season they dis- 
appear entirely, and the atmosphere is generally brilliantly clear, 
as is apparent from the iutenser brightness of the moon and stars. 
Dews, sometimes very heavy, fall at night, even in summer, but 
this is not the case in the desert. Owing to the want of rain, nature 
soon loses her beauty in summer, excepting in places like Damas- 
cus where there is water enough for artificial irrigation. The desert 
then exhibits a dreary waste of withered stalks and burnt-up grass, 
the springs gradually dry up, and the nomadic tribes retire to the 
mountains. Towards the end of October clouds begin to rise, and the 
rainy season is sometimes ushered in by several thunderstorms. This 
is the 'first' or 'former' rain of the Bible (Deut. xi. 14 ; Joel ii. 23), 
which so far softens the parched soil that the husbandman can 
plough it. The S. and S.W. winds then bring showers which 
last one or more days, and these are generally followed by N. or E. 
winds, lasting for a few days, during which the weather is delight- 
ful. In November there is frequently a considerable proportion of 
fine weather, but by this time almost all vegetation has dis- 
appeared. The heavy winter rains fall from December to February 
inclusive, reviving vegetation and filling the springs. The 'latter' 
rains falling in March and April promote the- growth of the crops. 
Copious winter rains and still more abundant latter rains are 
essential for a good harvest. If they are scanty the flocks of the 
nomadic tribes find no pasture. In Syria, therefore, rain is always 
acceptable, though, when too violent, it sometimes causes the col- 
lapse of the mud hovels of the peasantry. The showers are gener- 
ally heavier than in Europe. Beirut has more rain, Gaza and still 
more the Jordan valley less than Jerusalem (pp. 33 and 320). 

(2.) Tbmpbrature. The climate of Syria is characterized by very 
great variations of temperature within the limits of a single day. 
Among the mountains of Palestine (Jerusalem) these fluctuations 

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CLIMATE. xlvii 

have an annual mean range of 19° (23° in summer, 14.6° in win- 
ter). They are still greater in the steppes of the country E. of the 
Jordan. Even as late in the year as March the thermometer some- 
times falls in the night below 32°, rising again at noon to 77° F. 
and more (comp. Gen. xxxi. 40). At Damascus (2265 ft. above the 
sea -level), Jerusalem (2594 ft.), and even at Aleppo (1143 ft.) 
snow falls almost every winter, although it does not lie longer than 
a day ; E. of the Jordan, however, snow lies for several days and in 
the mountains of Lebanon all the year round. The highest tem- 
perature which has been recorded at Jerusalem was (Aug. 1881) 
112° Fahr., the lowest 25° (Jan., 1864), the mean temperature about 
62 1 /2°- * n comparison with other places of similar mean tempera- 
ture Jerusalem is remarkable for the great range of the annual 
fluctuations of temperature, vix. 29°, from 47° in Feb. to 76° in 
August. These data may be held to apply to the whole of the hill 
country. The heat at Damascus and Aleppo, as well as in the 
desert , is uecessarily greater, as the mountains to the N.W. keep 
off the cool sea-breezes. The mean temperature on the sea-board 
(69°) is higher than that of the interior, but the heat of summer is 
tempered by the sea air. — The climate of the valley of the Jordan 
is very much warmer. The valley lies far below the level of the 
sea, and the air, enclosed by lofty cliffs, is oppressively sultry, 
while the ground becomes hot like an oven so that the air above it 
is seen quivering with heat. The annual mean is theoretically 
about 75°, a tropical heat corresponding to the climate of Nubia. On 
May 8th, 1843, Lynch recorded a heat of 110° in the shade. —The 
harvest in the Ghor begins at the beginning of April (or sometimes 
at the end of March) ; in the hill-districts and on the coast it is 
8-10 days later ; and in the colder mountain-regions (e.g, near Jeru- 
salem) 3-4 weeks later. 

(3.) Winds. The direction and character of the winds in Syria 
are determined mainly by the influence of the trade-winds and by 
a tolerably regular system of land and sea winds. The N. wind is 
cold, the S. wind warm, the W. wind and the E. wind damp 
(comp. 1 Kings xviii. 43 f.; Luke xii. 54, 55). On the average 
the wind blows in Palestine from the W. for 55 days, bringing rain ; 
from the S. and S.W. for 46 days ; and from the N. and N.W. for 
114 days, mitigating the heat of summer. The S. and E. winds, 
blowing from hot and dry regions, are pernicious^in their effects. 
The S.E.wind (Sirocco), which has no ozone, usually sets in in 
May and before the rainy season. It frequently blows for several 
days without intermission, the thermometer rapidly rising to 
104° Fahr. and more. The atmosphere is oppressively sultry and 
is filled with fine dust; the mucous membrane of the air-passages 
of human beings becomes dry, leading to inflammation, while 
headache and sleeplessness are common. Occasionally entire fields 
of springing corn are absolutely parched beyond recovery. 

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xlviii GEOLOGY. 

Geology. — The mountains of Palestine consist mainly of strata 
of the cretaceous formation. Earlier pre-cretacean deposits are 
represented only at isolated spots by a breccia-like conglomerate 
of fragments of archaic crystalline slate and older porphyric erup- 
tive rocks, interrupted by veins of still earlier eruptive rooks. 
These are the oldest formations in Palestine. They occur only 
between the S.E. end of the Dead Sea (Qhdr es-Sdfiyeh) and the 
E. verge of the f Araba, and they are farther covered by sandstone 
and dolomitic limestone of the carboniferous age. The chalk de- 
posits belong to the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Senonian series 
of the upper cretaceous strata. They include the following. 

!1.) The Nubian sandstone on the E. bank of the Dead Sea. 
2. J Limestone, marl, and dolomite, with numerous echinites, 
oysters, and ammonites. These fossils are found at Es-Salt and 
r AyHn M&sd to the E. of the Jordan and in the region to the W. of 
Jerusalem. In the latter region are found the so-called Mizzi el-Ah- 
mar, Dtry&sini, and Mizzi Yehfidi and Ammonites Rotomagensis. 

(3.) Limestone, dolomite, and gravel limestone, with Rudist» 
and Nerinites. Melekeh, or tomb-rock or cave-rock, and Mizzi Helu 
are found in the city of Jerusalem. 

(4.) Yellowish- white limestone, emitting a metallic sound when 
dropped and containing ammonites (Ammonites quinquenodosus). 
This is the Kak&leh of the Mt. of Olives and is used for inscriptions 
on tombs. 

(5.) White, soft, cretaceous marl, with numerous shells of con- 
chylia (Leda perdita), gastropods, and baculites. 

(6.) Dark -grey bituminous limestone, sometimes containing 
phosphoric acid, and holding fossil fish (the asphaltic limestone of 
Nebi MUsoi). This alternates with variegated red, yellow, pale-green, 
and pure white marl, with abundant gypsum and dolomite. 

(7.) Flint deposits interspersed with limestone and marl, in the 
desert of Judasa. 

Nummulite limestone, which belongs to the eocene formation, 
is of rare occurrence in Samaria (Mt. Ebal, Gerizim), but is com- 
moner in Galilee. The upper tertiary formations are absent. Diluvial 
deposits, on the other hand, are met with everywhere. These are 
partly of marine origin, on the present coast of the plain of Sharon 
and of the Shefela, extending S. beyond Beersheba, and partly la- 
custrine, dating from the ancient lake (now represented by the 
Dead Sea) which filled the entire valley of the Jordan as far as the 
N. extremity of the Lake of Tiberias, and which has left its deposits 
in the form of terraces. The dunes of sea-sand on the coast and 
the alluvial deposits of the rivers must also be mentioned. 

Volcanic rocks are found widely distributed throughout the 
entire region of the Lake of Tiberias (J61an), in the plain of Jezreel, 
on the plateau to the E. of the Dead Sea (Jebel Shihan), and still 
more conspicuously in the Hauran and the district of Trachonitis. 

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FLORA. xlix 

Flora. — I. General View. We may distinguish the following 
different regions of Syrian vegetation. 

(1). The whole of the coast-district belongs to the region of the 
Mediterranean Flora , which extends around the basin of that sea. 
Of this flora the most characteristic plants are numerous evergreen 
shrubs with narrow, leathery leaves, and short-lived spring-flowers. 
The vegetation of the coasts of Syria and Palestine is therefore sim- 
ilar to that of Spain, Algeria, and Sicily, with some few modi- 
fications, especially towards the S. The squill, tulip, and anemone, 
the annual grasses, the shrubs of oleander and myrtle, the pine, 
and the olive clearly distinguish this flora as a member of the great 
Mediterranean family, while the Melia Axederach, which abounds on 
the coast of Phoenicia, and the Ficus Sycomorus near Beirut mark 
the transition to a warmer region. 

(2). The Oriental Vegetation of the Steppes prevails inland, to 
the E., of a line from the pass of Lebanon to the crest of the hills 
in the S. of Palestine. This flora is characterised by a great variety 
of species, but the underwood is of a dry and thorny description, 
and the growth of trees very stunted. Numerous small, grey, prickly 
bushes of Poterium ; the grey, aromatic Eremostachys ; brilliant, but 
small and rapidly withering spring plants; in summer, the pre- 
dominating Cousinia, a peculiar kind of thistle which flourishes at 
a time when every green leaf is burnt up ; on the hills scanty groups 
of oaks with prickly leaves, pistachios, etc. ; here and there a planta- 
tion of conifers (cedar, juniper, cypress, Pinus brutia'); on the 
mountain-tops the peculiar spiny dwarf Astragalus acantholimon — r 
such are the most frequently recurring plants of the Oriental family. 
Others of a much handsomer kind are also met with, but these are 

(3). Subtropical Flora of the Ohor. The peculiar climate 
(p. xlvi) of the valley of the Jordan gives rise to a vegetation of 
very remarkable character. Here occurs the f Oshr (Calotropis procera), 
a plant characteristic of the southern Sahara , the umbrella-shaped 
Acacia Seyal , the blood-red parasitic Loranthus , the Trichodesma 
Africana, the Forskahlea, the Aerua Javanica, the Boerhavia verti- 
cillata, the Daemia cordata, the Aristida ; then , near Engedi , the 
curious Moringa aptera, and, lastly, on Lakes Huleh and Tiberias 
(pp. 288, 293), the African Papyrus Antiquorum. Altogether, these 
species present a picture of the vegetation of Abyssinia or Nubia, 
investing the subtropical oasis of the Ghdr with great interest. 

II. Chops. The soil of Syria is fertile. Even the Syrian 'de- 
sert' affords luxuriant pasture after the early rain. The fields of the 
German colonists in the plain of Sharon, e.g., yield an eightfold 
return of wheat, and nearly twice as much barley ; while in the 
Hauran the return is even larger. Galilee was regarded as the most 
fertile district in antiquity. Its annual production was greater then 
than at present, partly because the land was better irrigated and 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. d 

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more carefully tilled, partly because many regions now barren were 
cultivated. Lebanon is now for the most part barren , but on its 
W. slopes, as on tbe hills of S. Palestine, we may still detect traces 
of the terraces on which vineyards and olive-groves flourished. 

Wheat. To this day the so-called Nukra, the great plain of the 
Hauran, is the granarj of Syria. The chief markets for the export 
of wheat are Jaffa, Haifa, Beirut, and Mersina. From wheat is 
made the burghul, the ordinary food of the Syrian peasant, a kind of 
dough boiled with leaven and dried in the sun. The poorer classes 
make bread of barley, but this grain is generally given to the 
cattle. Oats are not cultivated in Syria, though wild varieties, 
unfit for use, are frequently found. Besides wheat and barley there 
are crops of dohan wheat (Holcus sorghum) and rye, maize, beans, 
peas , and lentils also occur, sometimes in peculiar varieties. 

The culture of the Vine, which was important in antiquity, al- 
most died out under the Arabs, but is now again steadily increas- 
ing. Wine is now chiefly made and exported by the French in Leb- 
anon and the German colonists on Oarmel and in Jaffa and Jerusalem. 
A good deal of wine is also made by the Jews of Hebron. A kind 
of syrup (dibs) is frequently made by boiling down the grapes ; and 
a similar syrup is prepared from figs and other fruits. Considerable 
quantities of raisins are grown round Damascus (export in 1893, 
35002.) and Es-Sal$. The vines are trained along the ground or on 
trellises and sometimes on trees. 

The tree most frequently planted throughout Lebanon is the 
Mulberry Tree with white fruit (Morus alba), which was first in- 
troduced into Syria in the 6th century. The silk-culture of Syria is 
frequently mentioned in the history of the Crusades. The feeding 
of the worms with the mulberry-leaves requires great care. The na- 
tive silk-manufacture has greatly fallen off since ancient times. 
Raw silk and silk-worm cocoons to the average value of 600,0002. 
are annually shipped from Beirut to Marseilles. 

Cotton is chiefly cultivated in N. Syria, the greatest export 
being from Mersina (about 75,0002. annually). The native cotton- 
making industry has greatly fallen off since the middle ages. 

Syria is the native land of the Olive, and olives (zttun) are still 
a staple product of the country , but they are chiefly used for home 
consumption and for the manufacture of soap. The environs of 
Damascus yield an annual crop of about 150 tons of green olives, 
and 200 tons of the inferior black kind. The cultivation of the 
olive is steadily increasing in Syria, especially on the coast. About 
7500 tons of oil are produced annually. Oil is also obtained from 
the Sesame, which is cultivated in the districts of Syria to the N. 
of Damascus, as also at Jezreel. 

Walnuts (jdz) come principally from Central Syria, which yields 
a crop of about 600 tons yearly, while pistachios (fustuk) are chiefly 
cultivated in N. Syria (Aleppo), whence 4-500 tons are exported. 

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FLORA. li 

Damascus carries on a brisk trade in Apricot* ; the kernels form 
a separate article of trade. In 1894 the value of the exports was : 
dried apricots 1500?., preserved apricots 2000?., kernels 1400 J. 

Figs, either fresh or dried, form an important article of food. In 
the height of summer the Cactus , which in the warmer districts 
forms excellent and formidable hedges, yields its sweet, but some- 
what mawkish prickly pear with its numerous seeds. Pear and Apple 
Trees are not rare. The Pomegranates of Syria are inferior in flavour 
to those of Egypt and Bagdad. Jaffa and Saida are famed for their 
Oranges, which are exported in increasing quantities. Oranges are 
now exported from N. Syria also, where their cultivation has been 
recently introduced. Citrons, Peaches, and Almonds are also fre- 
quently seen. Date Palms prosper only in the S. coast districts of 
Palestine, though they also grow wild (without fruit) in the rav- 
ines on the E. bank of the Dead Sea and occur here and there 
elsewhere. The Carol Tree (Arab, kharrdb) is tolerably common, 
and furnishes food for the poorer classes. The 'husks 1 of Luke xv. 
16 are supposed to be the pods of the carob. 

Tobacco, for which Syria was formerly famed, is now grown chiefly 
in Lebanon and the vilayet of Beirut. About 1% mill. lbs. , valued 
at 20,000?., were exported from Beirut in 1894. Government actively 
encourages the cultivation of this plant. 

In the desert, near Damascus , and on Jebel 'Ajlftn and in the 
Belp, to the E. of Jordan Kali or saltwort is grown extensively, 
chiefly for use in the soap-works of the country. 

An important article of commerce in Northern Syria are the Gall 
Apples produced by the oaks there ; they are used in dyeing, and 
are largely exported to Europe from Alexandretta (33,000?. in 1894). 
— Liquorice is cultivated chiefly in N. Syria. The export in 1894 
from Alexandretta was valued at 50,000?. 

Other articles of commerce are alizari, or madder, used in 
dyeing ; the bark of the pomegranate-tree, which is in great request 
for tanning purposes ; and sumach, which is also used in tanning. 

The Cedar (comp. p. 378), as well as the Cypress, has now 
become rare. The Pine, however, is still very common on the W. 
slopes of Lebanon. In the lower part of the Jordan valley the Tama- 
risk and the Poplar Willow occur. The Valonia Oak flourishes in 
the N. and E. of Palestine, and the Live Oak occurs to the S. of 
Carmel. The Terebinth is another tree of common occurrence. The 
White or Silver Poplar is planted chiefly in the neighbourhood of 
Damascus, for the sake of its timber for building-purposes. 

The cucumbers of Syria are much prized. The long green ones 
with notched skins are the juiciest. They are eaten raw by the na- 
tives without any dressing whatever. The lettuce is eaten in the 
same simple manner. Onions form another article of food; they 
thrive best in the sandy soil about Ascalon. Several varieties of 
melon, some of them attaining a gTeat size, are common. Other 


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vegetables are the egg-plant (Melongena badinj&n) and the bamieh 
(Hibiscus esculentus). Artichokes and asparagus grow wild, and the 
delicious truffle is found in the desert. Potatoes are planted in 
various places, especially by the German colonists. 

Fauna. — Mammalia. (1). Domestic Animals. Sheep : flocks 
of sheep have from very ancient times formed an important item 
of property. At the present day, as in ancient times, the region of 
the Belfca is the most favourable for its support. The commonest 
species is the fat -tailed. Except in the larger towns, mutton is 
almost the only meat eaten in Syria. A considerable number of lambs 
are imported from Kurdistan, while the sinews are exported to Europe 
for the manufacture of violin and other strings. Ewes' milk is 
highly prized. Damascus exports about 1000 tons of wool annually. 
That of N. Syria is the finest, and Alexandretta exported it in 1894 
to the value of 100,000*. — Goats are kept for the sake of their 
milk. Almost every village in Syria possesses its flocks of goats. 

The oxen of Syria are small and ill-looking. In the valley of 
the Jordan the Indian buffalo, so common in Egypt, is much used 
for agricultural purposes. In Syria the ox is generally used for 
ploughing only, and is seldom slaughtered, except in Lebanon, 
whence the exportation of ox-hides is not inconsiderable. 

The camel (p. 213) is seldom used except by the nomadic tribes 
in the desert. It is employed for riding, carrying burdens, and even 
for ploughing. The hair or wool is woven into a coarse kind of 
cloth. The peasantry generally have few camels of their own, but 
they often borrow them from the Beduins , especially at the season 
for tilling the soil. The dung of all these animals, from the sheep 
to the camel, is used in many parts of Syria as fuel. 

The finest Arabian horses are those of the r Aenezeh Beduins 
(p. lxxviii), who rarely sell them unless compelled. The finest ani- 
mals are frequently the joint property of several owners. These 
horses are fed with barley and chaff. 

The Oriental donkey is more nearly allied to the wild ass, and 
is much more active than his European congener. The most prized 
are those of the large white variety bred by the Sleb-Beduins of 
the Syrian desert. A species of wild ass is still to be met with in 
E. Syria. 

(2). Wild Animals. A connecting link between the domestic 
and the wild animals is formed in Syria by the dog and the cat. 
Each town and village is infested with as many masterless dogs 
as its refuse can support. These scavengers of the East , as they 
are often called, bark lustily at strangers, but never bite unless 
provoked. The sheep-dogs, on the contrary, are apt to be dangerous. 
Hydrophobia is extremely rare in the East. It is hardly possible 
to keep a pet dog in the East , as the street-dogs will infallibly 
worry him if they have an opportunity. Greyhounds, however, are 
sometimes kept for coursing j the native species is of great beauty. 

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FAUNA. lili 

Next to the dog must be mentioned the jackal (Arab, w&wi), the 
howling and whimpering of which are often heard at night , par- 
ticularly a little after sunset. They often rove about in packs. 
"When foxes are spoken of in the Bible, it is probable that jackals 
are included under that name. There are two species of the fox. 
In Lebanon the wolf (dib) also is not uncommon. The hyena is 
not an animal of which human beings need be afraid. 

The domestic cat of the East is rarely quite tame. There are also 
several kinds of wild cats, but they are seldom met with. The leo- 
pard (nimr) is now almost exterminated ; and the same may be said 
of the hunting-cat or hunting leopard, which is now rarely trained 
for the chase, as it formerly was. The lion has long been extinct. — 
The bear is sometimes encountered on Lebanon. 

There are several varieties of bats in Syria, chiefly to be found 
in the numerous caverns. There are also rodentia, noticeable among 
which is the graceful jerboa, or jumping mouse, of the desert. Four 
species of hares are met with. The conies mentioned in the Bible 
(Hyrax Syriacus) are the wabr of the Arabs (comp. p. 203). — The 
wild boar occurs throughout the whole of Syria, but is never eaten 
even by the Christians ; domestic swine are never met with. 

The gazelle is common. In E. Syria it is hunted by the peas- 
antry, by whom it is driven into large enclosures, and there captured 
or slain. — The mountain-goat of Sinai (beden or wa'al) is frequently 
seen in the mountain-gorges around the Dead Sea. 

Birds. The domestic hen is very common throughout Syria. 
Ducks are only to be found in a wild state, being very numerous in 
the plain of the Jordan. On all the hills the Caccabis saxatilis, a 
large and beautiful kind of partridge , is very common ; and near 
the Dead Sea is found the small , grey desert-fowl (Ammoperdix 
heyij. Quails occur in all the corn-fields of the plains. Wild pigeons 
are especially numerous in Lebanon. The plains of Jezreel and 
some other localities are frequented by large flocks of storks, cranes, 
and becassins. Among the birds of prey the eagle and the vulture 
are the most conspicuous , the former haunting the wildernesses 
about the Dead Sea and on the Li$ani. There are several kinds of 
ravens in Palestine. Song-birds, too, are not numerous, the most 
notable being the thrush-like nightingale of Palestine (Arab, bul- 
but). About the beginning and end of winter are seen vast flights 
of birds of passage, on their way to Egypt and more southern cli- 
mates, or on their return ; among these is the cuckoo, whose note is 
often heard in spring. 

Reptiles. The traveller will frequently have opportunities of 
observing the 'creeping things' of Syria. In his apartment at night 
he will often hear the shrill cry of the harmless little gecko. In the 
southern coast-districts the common chameleon is not unfrequently 
seen. Among the mountains occurs the dark-coloured hharddn of the 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

liv FAUNA. 

Arabs, with its prickly tail and back. The crocodile appears very 
rarely (p. 272). Snakes abound, many of them being poisonous, but 
their bite is seldom or never attended with a fatal result. The land 
tortoise is common ; the small tailed water-tortoise is less frequent. 

Fish. The Jordan and Lake of Tiberias (see p. 289) abound in 
fish, which ascend or descend the streams according to the season. 
Different varieties are found in almost all the perennial waters of 

Insbcts (see p. xxv). Mosquitoes are not particularly virulent 
in Palestine; nor is much danger to be apprehended from the 
wasps and formidable looking hornets. The nests of wild bees are 
often found in clefts of the rocks, while hives of tame bees, gener- 
ally in the form of cylindrical vessels of earthenware, are frequently 
seen. — Grasshoppers, or locusts, which often entirely devour the 
crops, are a terror to the husbandman. They are eaten by the Be- 
duins. — Sponge-fisheries on the Syrian coast N. of Beirut occupy 
a large number of persons. The yield is variable. 

HI. Population, Divisions, and Names of Syria 
at different periods. 

I. Like almost all nations, the inhabitants of the land of Canaan 
possessed legends that the primeval inhabitants (autochthones) were 
races of giants. These races had various names : Andkims (Josh. xi. 
21, 22), Rephaims (Gen. xiv. 5), Emims, Suzites or Zamzummims, 
Avims (Dent. ii. 10-23), and Hdrims (comp. p. 139; Deut. ii.). 

II. (a). From the very earliest period of history the inhabitants 
of Canaan, that is, of the country W. of the Jordan (the country E. 
of the Jordan was called GileacT), belonged to the Semitic race. 
Semitic is a purely conventional term, used to designate the group 
of peoples who are shown to be ethnographically allied by their 
languages, which are of a peculiar construction and similar in 
character to Hebrew. According to Gen. x. 6, the Canaanites were 
descendants of Ham ; but this does not necessarily imply that they 
were not ethnographically connected with the so-called Semites. 
The O.T. gives us no reliable information as to the names of the 
tribes that preceded the Israelites in the possession of Canaan. Usu- 
ally they are simply grouped under the generic name of Canaanites. 
In some passages they are also called Amorites. At a later date seven 
tribes are detailed: Hittites, Canaanites, Amorites, Girgazites, Pe- 
rizzites, Jebusites, and Hivites. — At the time of the immigration 
of the Israelites the Canaanites had reached a height of civilisation 
far superior to that of the Israelites. 

(b). The Semitic tribes most akin to the Hebrews were : (1) 
The Moabites , at the S. E. end of the Dead Sea ; (2) The Ammon- 
ites, whose territory lay E. of the Jordan; (3) The Edomites, who 

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occupied the region of the f Araba (p. 155) as far as the bay of 
f Akaba (Elath) , and the mountains of Se'ir on both sides of the 
f Araba. — Among the descendants of Esau are also mentioned the 
Amalekites, a wandering tribe, who pitched their tents in the desert 
of Et-Tih to the S. of Palestine. 

(c). The Aramaean8 y another Semitic tribe, occupied the N. of 
the region to the E. of the Jordan, and thence penetrated into Leb- 
anon on the W., and also to the S.W. The kingdoms of Aram Dam- 
mesek (Damascus) and Aram Zoba are both mentioned in the Bible. 

(d). The coast-plain to the N. of Jaffa was occupied by the 
Phoenicians, who were of Ganaanitish origin (p. 304). 

(e). The plain on the S. coast was in possession of the Phil- 
istines (p. 140) at the time of the immigration of the Israelites. 

(f). To what race the Hittites belonged , who had founded an 
empire in the N. , is uncertain. 

m. Little by little the Israelites (p. lviii) pressed forward from 
the country E. of the Jordan, and took possession of the interior of 
Palestine. In the O.T. they are represented as divided into 12 
tribes, several of which, however, became merged in others in his- 
torical times; thus the villages of the tribe of Simeon afterwards 
belonged to Judah, while the tribe of Levi never possessed any 
territory of its own. — The central position was occupied by the 
powerful tribe of Joseph (Ephraim and the Half Tribe ofManasseh). 
Close to these was the tribe of Benjamin, while the country to the 
S. was occupied by Judah, a tribe equal in power to Joseph. Issachar 
occupied the plain of Jezreel. Still farther N. lay the territory 
of Zebulon and Naphtali, and on the coast that of Asher. The 
territory of Dan lay isolated in the extreme N. The S. portion of 
the country E. of the Jordan was occupied by Reuben, whose ter- 
ritory, however, was gradually conquered by the Moabites. Simil- 
arly Qad (farther N.) and particularly the Half Tribe of Manasseh 
in Bashan had great difficulty in defending themselves against the 
incursions of their neighbours. 

After the period of the captivity only a single state (Judaea), 
and that of fluctuating extent, continued to exist in the southern 
part of the country ; the Idumaeans or Edomites occupied S. Judaea 
and Hebron. The Nabataeans, an Arabian tribe, supplanted the 
Edomites in the S.E. of Palestine. As early as B. C. 300 the Na- 
batoans were settled at Petra. They conquered the territory of Moab 
and Ammon, and even penetrated farther north. The central dis- 
tricts were colonised by Cuthaeans, from whom, and also from the 
remains of the earlier population, the Samaritans were descended. 

IV. (a). In the time of Christ the whole of Syria, exclusive 
of the Jewish territories, formed a Roman province under the name 
of Syria. Josephus (Bell. Jud. iii. 1-5) informs us that these 
Jewish territories were divided as follows : — (1) Judaea, including 

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Idumaea ; (2) Samaria, which extended to the N. of Shechem as far 
as the N. margin of the plain ; (3) Galilee, the region farther N. , 
consisting of Lower (S.) and Upper (N.) Galilee; (4) Peraea ('the 
country beyond'), to the E. of Jordan, extending from the Jordan to 
the district of Gerasa (Jerash) and Philadelphia ('Amman), and 
from the Arnon (Wadi el-M6jib) to the district of Pella (Khlrbet 
Fahil), though in the wider sense Peraea extended as far N. as the 
Hieromyces; (5) the tetrarchy of Philip, which included Gaulanitis, 
the modern Jolan, extending E. from the Lake of Tiberias and N. 
as far as Hermon, Batanaea, farther to the E., the modern En- 
Nukra, Trachonitis, to the N.E. of the last, the modern El-Lejfc, 
and Auranitis, to the S.E. of Batanaea, including the mountainous 
district of the Hauran and the plain to the W. of it. — The Greek 
towns to the E. of the Jordan (Damascus, Gerasa, Philadelphia, etc.), 
along with Scythopolis, to the W. of the Jordan, formed a more or 
less permanent political unit under the name of Decapolis. 

(b). During the 2nd cent. Syria was divided as follows : — (1) 
CoeUsyria, the metropolis of which was Antioch ; (2) Syria Euphra- 
tensis or Commagene, the metropolis being Hierapolis ; (3) Phoenicia, 
the coast-plain with the 'hinterland', the metropolis being Emesa, 
but the real capital Damascus ; (4) Palestine, of which the metropolis 
was Caesarea ; (5) Arabia Petraea, with Bostra as metropolis. 

(c). Under Diocletian farther divisions begin to appear , the 
influence of which may be traced down to Arabian times. At the 
beginning of the 5th cent, these divisions were: (1) Syria or 
Coelesyria, metropolis Antioch; (2) Syria Secunda, or Salutaris, 
metropolis Apamea; (3) Euphratensis, metropolis Hierapolis; (4) 
Phoenice Maritima, metropolis Tyre; (5) Phoenice ad Libanum, 
metropolis Emesa (and Damascus and Palmyra) ; (6) Palaestina 
Prima, Arab. Filisttn, which included the greater part of Judaea 
and Samaria, and had Caesarea for its capital; (7) Palaestina Se- 
cunda, Arab. El-Urdunn (Jordan), Galilee, and Peraea in the nar- 
rower sense, Scythopolis being the capital ; (8) Palaestina Tertia, 
or Salutaris, including the ancient kingdom of the Nabataeans in the 
S., and the region of Aila towards the E. as far as the Arnon, with 
Petra as its capital ; (9) Arabia, the whole region of the Hauran 
S. as far as the Arnon and W. to the edge of the valley of the Jor- 
dan, with Bostra as its capital. 

V. In the time of the Abbasides Syria was divided into: (1) 
Palestine, (2) the district of the Jordan, (3) Horns, (4) Damascus, 
(5) Kinnesrtn, (6) the military border (Antioch). 

VI. The political constitution of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was 
precisely similar to that of the western feudal states. The most 
prominent crown-vassals were the Prince of Antioch , the Counts 
of Edessa and Tripoli , the Prince of Tiberias , the Count of Joppa 
and Ascalon, and the Lord of Montroyal (in ancient Moab). 

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VII. Syria is called Esh-Shdm by the Arabs, under which name 
they include Palestine (Filistin). The name signifies the land 
situated to the 'left', as distinguished from El- Yemen, or S. Arabia, 
the land situated to the 'right'. The Turkish name for Syria is Sur- 
istdn. The Turks divided the country into five pashalics : Aleppo, 
Tripoli , Damascus , Saida (afterwards Acre) , and Palestine , but 
this division has been much modified in the course of centuries. 

The present divisions are the following : — (1) the vilayet of 
Aleppo, with the 3 sanjaks of Aleppo, Marash, and Urfa; (2) the in- 
dependent sanjafc of Z6r (Dtr ez-Z6r); (3) the vilayet of Beirut, 
including the coast S. of the mouth of the Orontes , the mountain 
district of the Nosairi and Lebanon to the S. of Tripoli, farther the 
town of Beirut and the country between the sea and the Jordan 
from Saida to N. of Jaffa. It is divided into 6 sanjaks : Ladifciyeh, 
Tarabulus, Beirut, 'Akka (Acre), and the Belfca. (4) Lebanon, S. 
of Tripoli to the N. of Saida exclusive of the town of Beirut, forms an 
independent sanjak, administered by a governor-general; (5) the 
vilayet of Suriya (Syria) comprises the country from Hama to the 
Hijaz. The capital is Damascus. The vilayet is divided into the 
sanjaks of Hama , Damascus, and Hauran. (6) Jerusalem is an in- 
dependent sanjak under a mutesarrif of the first class. — At the 
head of each vilayet is a Vdli or governor-general, whose province 
is divided into so many departments (sanjak, liwa), presided over 
by a Mutesarrif; each department again is divided into so many 
divisions (kaimmakamlik, kada), each under a Kaimmakdm; the 
divisions again contain districts (mudirfyeh, nahiya) under Mudtrs, 
and these again are divided into communes. 

The ancient statistics we possess refer to Palestine only. Accord- 
ing to the oldest historical document, the Song of Deborah (Jud- 
ges v), the men capable of bearing arms numbered 40,000; the nar- 
rative in Judges xviii, which is also based on old accounts , gives 
the number of the Danite warriors as 600. In accordance with this, 
we must reduce the exaggerated statements of later writers, Numbers 
i. 46 and xxvi. 51 (more than 600,000 men capable of bearing 
arms), 2 Sam. xxiv (1,300,000 warriors). According to these 
passages, the entire population must have consisted of 2*/2 millions 
at least, or, according to the Books of Samuel, of 5 millions. 

Palestine covered an area of about 10,500 sq. M. While in 
Belgium (the most densely populated country in Europe) the average 
population is about 540 persons to each square mile, that of Pal- 
estine, notwithstanding its numerous 'waste places', must have been 
240 or 480 per square mile. Joseph us exaggerates still more in 
estimating the population of Galilee alone at 5 millions. The area 
of ancient Palestine is now occupied by about 650,000 inhab. or about 
62 persons to the square mile. 

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IV. History of Palestine and Syria. 

I. The same relics of prehistoric times are found in Syria as in 
other countries (comp. p. ex). Flint tools also frequently occur; 
hut, on the other hand, no traces of a bronze age are found. 

In the earliest times known to us Palestine and a large part of 
Syria were at times a dependency of Egypt. As regards commerce, 
manufactures, and agriculture, the country had reached a not incon- 
siderable height of civilisation. It was governed by tributary princes. 
A few years ago a large number of letters written about 1400 B.C. 
by such vassal princes to their suzerain in Egypt were found among 
the ruins at Tell el- f Amarna in Egypt. A 'king' of Urusalim (Jeru- 
lem) is mentioned among these and the names of numerous towns 
are given. The Egyptian records, dating from the pre - Israelite 
period, also name many towns. Thus the list of cities overthrown by 
Thutmosis III., inscribed on the pylons of the temple at Karnak, 
mentions 118 names of places in Palestine, and the Papyrus Anas- 
tasi I. (containing a satirical account of travels and adventures in 
Syria) mentions 38 places in Palestine and 18 more N. of Tyre. 

Thb Primitive Israelites must be imagined as small nomad 
tribes, like those which still wander about the country in con- 
siderable numbers. These wandering tribes pushed forward — at 
what period cannot now be fixed — from Egypt and the peninsula 
of Sinai into the country E. of the Jordan. To their leader Moses 
they owed the basis of a farther uniform political and religious 
development. Their settlement in the country W. of the Jordan 
was effected very slowly, partly by force of arms, partly by peaceful 
assimilation with the Canaanites. The sole bond of union between 
the tribes at this period (that of the Judges) was the common vener- 
ation of the national deity Tahweh (so the name should be pro- 
nounced , and not Jehovah) , to whom corresponded Ba'al , the 
national god of the Canaanites. Both were worshipped on the 'high 
places', and for this reason the later Hebrew historians regard the 
worship of the high places as idolatry. 

II. The attacks of their western neighbours, the Philistines, 
caused the Israelites more trouble than the struggles with the 
Canaanites in the land. It is the great merit of the patriotic 'seer' 
Samuel that he discovered the right remedy in the establishment 
of a national monarchy and the right man for monarch in Saul of 
Benjamin. With Saul begins the second period of Israel's history, 
the period when the whole people were united into one Kingdom 
under one sceptre. This regeneration, however, did not take place 
without intestine struggles. 

Simultaneously with Saul the Judean hero David comes on the 
scene. With a band of freebooters he roved throughout the land of 
Judah, and for a time was 'king' of Ziklag under Philistine protec- 
tion. On Saul's death David succeeded in making himself prince of 

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Judah, though still dependent on the Philistines. The northern 
kingdom was governed by Ishhosheth , the son of Saul, aided by 
his able general Abner. It was not until after a protracted struggle, 
and after Abner and Ishbosheth had been assassinated , that Da- 
vid succeeded in extending his sway over all the tribes of Israel. 

Owing to David's energy the country increased greatly in power, 
both as regards its internal development and its foreign relations. 
The city of Jebus was wrested from the Jebusites, and on Mt. Zion 
David founded a castle which formed the nucleus of his future cap- 
ital of Jerusalem. He next delivered the country from the Phil- 
istines by his victory in the valley of Rephaim. He then humbled the 
Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites, the ancient enemies of Israel, 
defeated the Aramaeans, who had come to the aid of the Ammonites, 
and placed Damascus under tribute. He established garrisons in 
the conquered districts, and during his reign the kingdom attained 
its greatest extent. David, however, was soon threatened with 
dangers from within. His son Absalom rebelled against him, and 
the king was compelled for a time to flee beyond Jordan. With the 
aid of Joab he , at length , succeeded in re-entering Jerusalem in 
triumph ; but the insurrection soon broke out afresh, as even at this 
period the northern provinces made common cause against the 
southern, in which the king had his residence. 

In spite of all these conflicts this was a period of remarkable 
intellectual activity. The royal court was gradually organised on 
the model of those of the other nations with whom the Israelites 
came in contact. They began also to erect buildings in a handsomer 
style. David caused a census of his people to be made, and estab- 
lished a standing army and a body-guard. 

The government of Solomon contributed still more to develop 
the resources of the country. Solomon proceeded to erect a magnifi- 
cent palace with a spacious temple (p. 36), and Jerusalem was now 
fortified. Intercourse with neighbouring nations, especially with 
Egypt, became more active, and trade received a great impulse. 
Solomon was regarded, at least among later Orientals, as a model 
of a wise monarch. After a brief period of prosperity the decline of 
the empire began. Damascus threw off the yoke of the Israelites, 
Edom revolted, and dissensions sprang up in the interior. On the 
death of Solomon his kingdom was dismembered. 

HI. Shechem was made the capital of the Northern Kingdom by 
Jeroboam I., then Thirza, but the seat of government was afterwards 
removed to Samaria by Omri. Owing to the constant discord and 
jealousy which disquieted the rival kingdoms, as well as their 
internal dissensions, they fell an easy prey to the encroachments of 
their neighbours. The princes of Damascus undertook several suc- 
cessful campaigns against the northern kingdom, and it was not 
until the reign of Jeroboam II. (B.C. 783 seq.) that the kingdom 
attained to considerable dimensions. From this period dates the stele 

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of King Mesha of Moab, the most ancient monument bearing a Se- 
mitic inscription that has yet been discovered. 

By the middle of the 8th cent, the Assyrians had succeeded in 
making serious encroachments upon the northern kingdom, and it 
was only with their assistance that King Ahaz of Judah succeeded 
in defending himself against Israel. He, as well as his successor 
Hezekiah, paid tribute to the Assyrians. In 722 the kingdom of Israel 
was destroyed, the inhabitants sent to the East, and colonists sub- 
stituted for them. In spite of the warnings of Isaiah, Hezekiah entered 
into an alliance with Egypt and Ethiopia, in consequence of which 
Sennacherib of Assyria proceeded to attack the allies. The conquest 
of Jerusalem, however, was prevented by the well-known incident 
of the destruction of Sennacherib's army, caused possibly by the 
sudden breaking-out of a plague. Judah now became alternately 
the victim of Assyria and of Egypt. 

Meanwhile the worship of Yahweh was essentially advanced by 
the writings of Amos , Hosea, Micah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other 
prophets. The advance consisted mainly in loftier ideas of the moral 
and spiritual nature of the Deity, leading to the conception of 
Yahweh as the God, not merely of Israel, but of the whole world. 
This was a basis on which the religion of Israel could be preserved 
and developed amid the coming troubles. — One of the most im- 
portant events in the history of the religion of Israel is the central- 
isation of the worship of Yahweh in Jerusalem in the days of Josiah 
(623 B.C.), a movement consequent on the introduction of the new 
book of the law, Deuteronomy. At this time Jeremiah commenced 
his labours. 

At length, in 597, the kingdom of Judah was virtually destroyed, 
and Nebuchadnezzar carried off King Jehoiakim with 10,000 of the 
principal inhabitants, including the prophet Ezekiel, to Babylon. 
A revolt by the last king Zedekiah resulted in the destruction of 
Jerusalem in 586 and a second deportation of its inhabitants. Soon 
after this many Jews, and Jeremiah among them, migrated to 
Egypt. Thus was the ancient Jewish kingdom at length thoroughly 

IV. During the captivity, besides Ezekiel and Jeremiah, there 
flourished also the sublime anonymous prophet who wrote chap- 
ters 40-66 of the Book of Isaiah. In the year 538 Cyrus, after hav- 
ing conquered Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their native 
country. Only some of these, however, availed themselves of this 
permission, and the new Jewish state was wholly comprized within 
the ancient limits of Judah. The erection of the new Temple, 
which had long been obstructed by the Samaritans and other neigh- 
bouring nations, was chiefly promoted by the prophets Haggai and 
Zachariah (516), but the new edifice fell far short of the splendour 
of that of Solomon. Ezra, however, and Nehemiah established a set 
form of ritual, following Ezekiel and the priestly legislation in Le- 

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viticus and Numbers. At a later period the Samaritans erected a 
sanctuary of their own on Mt. Gerizim. 

V. The Macedonian Supremacy began in 332, but after 
Alexander's death Palestine became the scene of the wars between 
the 'Diadochf, as his successors were called. Military colonies and 
Greek towns were founded in the interior of the country. Greek 
culture soon made rapid progress in Syria. The ruins of Graeco- 
Boman theatres, even in out-of-the-way places, the relics of temples, 
the inscriptions, and coins show that the ideas and the ritual of the 
cultured classes of Syria had in time become thoroughly Greek. The 
Jews adhered most steadfastly of all to their traditions. But, in the 
3rd cent., the Aramaic language gradually began to supplant the 
Hebrew, although a knowledge of the latter was preserved by the 
hierarchy. Greek also came into frequent use, being chiefly dissem- 
inated through the Jewish schools in Egypt, where the sacred 
books were translated into Greek. Among the Jews was even formed 
a party favourable to the Greeks, who, aided by Jason, the high- 
priest, succeeded in securing the supreme power in the state. In 
consequence of this, a fierce struggle took place, for which King 
Antiochus Epiphanes chastised the Jews severely. This, and still 
more the desecration of their temple, drove the Jews into open re- 
volt. At the head of the insurgents was the heroic priest Mattathias, 
whose son Judas Maccab»us at length succeeded in defeating the 
Syrians in several hardly contested battles, and restored the Temple 
to its sacred uses (B.C. 165). Under the Asmonean princes, or Mac- 
cabees, the Jews enjoyed a comparatively prosperous period of na- 
tional independence, and in the middle of the second century John 
Hyrcanus even succeeded in considerably extending the dominions 
of Judaea by his conquests. During this epoch the form of govern- 
ment was a theocracy, presided over by a high-priest, who, at the 
same time, enjoyed political power, but from the reign of Aristobu- 
lus I. the Asmoneans assumed the title of king. The independence 
of the country was at length disturbed by the interference of the Ro- 
mans in 63, when Jerusalem was captured by Pompey. 

VI. The Asmonean Hyrcanus II. reigned after this date under 
Roman suzerainty. His political power was much circumscribed, 
and with him were associated in the government the Idumaean Anti- 
pater, and afterwards Phasael and Herod, the sons of Antipater. In 
the year B. 0. 40 the Parthians plundered Syria and Palestine, and 
in the troubles of that period Herod succeeded in obtaining from 
the Romans the sole governorship of Judaea. It was not, however, 
till the year 37, after he had conquered Jerusalem, that he actually 
entered upon his office. He was entirely subservient to the Ro- 
mans, and caused many handsome edifices to be erected in the 
Roman style. He also caused the Temple to be rebuilt ; but the 
Jews who remained faithful to their law, represented chiefly by the 

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lxii HISTORY. 

Pharisees, keenly felt the pressure of his temporal jurisdiction and 
the interference in their affairs by a foreign power. 

In the year B.C. 4 Herod the Great died, Chkist having been 
born during that monarch's reign. The dominions of Herod were 
now divided. To Philip were given the districts of the Hauran 
(p. lvi), to Herod Antipas Galilee and Peraea, to Archelaus Sa- 
maria, Judaea, and Idumaea. In A.D. 6 the territory of Archelaus 
was added to the Roman province of Syria, but was governed by 
procurators of its own. Thenceforward the patriotic party among the 
Jews became still more antagonistic to the foreign yoke. Founding 
their hopes on the prophecies which spoke of an ideal independent 
kingdom, they expected the Messiah to bring to them political 
deliverance, whereas Christ himself declared that his kingdom 
was not of this world. Infuriated by this announcement, they 
compelled Pilate, the Roman governor, to yield to their desires 
and to crucify their Victim. The power of the native princes, such 
as Herod Agrippa I. , who was the last prince to unite the whole of 
Herod's kingdom under one monarch, and Agrippa II., whose share 
of Jewish territory was, strictly speaking, confined to a few towns 
in Galilee, became merely nominal as that of the Roman governors 
increased. At length , in consequence of the maladministration of 
Gessius Florins, a national insurrection broke out with great 
violence. Jerusalem itself was governed by several different parties 
in succession, but it was at length captured by Titus, A. D. 70, 
when the Temple was destroyed and many of the Jews slain. 
Although part of the people was scattered , and those who remained 
in the country were now completely powerless , their rage against 
their oppressors burst forth afresh on one other occasion. Under the 
leadership of Simon, surnamed Bar Cochba ('son of the star'), who 
was recognised by the celebrated Rabbi Ben Akiba as the Messiah, 
they revolted against the Romans, and succeeded in carrying on the 
war for 3 l /2 years (132-135), after which the insurrection was quelled 
and the last remnant of the Jewish kingdom destroyed. Jerusalem 
became a Roman colony under the name of iElia Capitolina, and 
the Jews were even denied access to their ancient capital. 

During these last centuries, however, and even later, Jewish 
literature continued to be cultivated. The learning of the schools, 
which, in connection with the written law, had hitherto been hand- 
ed down by oral tradition only, was now committed to writing, and 
thus the Talmud came into existence between the 3rd and 6th cent- 
uries A.D. On the other hand, the germs of a different kind of 
literature also sprang up among the early Christian communities. In 
N. Syria the Gentile, and in S. Syria the Jewish Christians predo- 
minated, while the Gnostic systems which arose in the East in the 
2nd cent, gained considerable ground even in Syria. 

VII. Since the beginning of the Greek period Antioch had be- 
come, and continued to be, the most important town in Syria. It was 

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HISTORY. lxiii 

founded by Seleucus Nicator and named after his father. At the 
same time, Damascus continued to flourish as the chief seat of the 
caravan-trade. Throughout Syria at this period the Aramaic lan- 
guage, a dialect akin to Hebrew, was chiefly spoken, although the 
Greek language and culture were gradually being introduced. Un- 
der the Greek, and afterwards under the Roman supremacy, there 
sprang up , even in remote parts of the country, numerous edifices 
of great splendour. About the beginning of our era Palmyra, in par- 
ticular, was noted for the magnificence of its architecture. For a 
considerable time it was the capital of an important independent 
empire, and its monuments of the later Roman period still bear wit- 
ness to its ancient glory. Notwithstanding the growth of Roman in- 
fluence in Syria, and the foundation of many Roman colonies, it is, 
however, worthy of mention, that after the beginning of the Arabian 
supremacy most of the Roman names were superseded by the old 
Semitic (thus r Akka instead of Ptolemais), a proof that western 
culture had not taken very deep root. 

Vm. In A.D. 611-614 the whole of Christian Syria, in- 
cluding Palestine , was wrested from the Eastern Roman empire by 
Chosroes, King of Persia, and severed from it for ten years, soon 
after which the Ababs proved a still more formidable foe to the 
Byzantine emperors. From time immemorial nomadic tribes of 
Arabs had ranged over the vast Syrian plain as far as Mesopotamia. 
During the first centuries of our era premonitory symptoms of their 
great approaching expansion had manifested themselves among 
these tribes. In consequence of the distress caused by wars in S. 
Arabia (Yemen), certain tribes of that region had migrated north- 
wards in search of a new home. These southern Arabs (Yoktan- 
ides, or Kahtanidcs), who in ancient times had boasted of consider- 
able culture, now settled in Syria, and particularly in the Hauran. 
Their great opponents were the tribes of N. Arabia (Ishmaelites), 
their differences with whom gave rise to the sanguinary feuds of the 
Kaisites and Yemenites, which were prolonged almost down to mod- 
ern times. For centuries before the promulgation of El-Islam the 
Arabs had everywhere, in Syria as well as on the Euphrates, been 
a thorn in the side of the tottering Byzantine empire, but now 
that they were united they proved a most formidable foe. 

This union of the scattered tribes was effected by Mohammbd 
(see p. lxxxiv), whose doctrines awakened in the Arabs that religious 
enthusiasm which prompted them to undertake their marvellously 
successful campaigns of the 7th and following centuries, though 
hope of plunder was doubtless a strong additional incentive. As 
early as the beginning of the reign of 'Omar, the second khalif, 
whose political energy contributed quite as much to the con- 
solidation of the Arabian sway as the * revelations' of the prophet, 
Syria was thrown open to the Arabs by the bloody battle of the 
Hieromyces (Yarmtik) in 634, and at the beginning of the following 

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lxiv HISTORY. 

year Damascus was captured by the generals Khalid and Abu 
'Ubeida. Within a short period the Byzantines lost the whole 
of Syria as far as Aleppo , and 'Omar himself was present at the 
capitulation of Jerusalem. Oaesarea held ont bravely for some time 
longer ; but when the victorious Arabs in the basin of the Euphra- 
tes joined forces with those in Mesopotamia beyond Nisibis , the 
last hope of the Byzantine power in Syria vanished. The Christ- 
ian inhabitants were spared on condition of paying a poll-tax, but 
many of their churches were converted into mosques, and Arabian 
military colonies were planted in many of the towns and villages. 
The most glorious part of this period of Syrian history began with 
the assassination of K Ali, the son-in-law of the prophet, and fourth 
khalif. A political reaction on the part of the Meccan aristocracy 
in Arabia had sprung up against the parvenus of plebeian origin ; 
for it was only after the unprecedented successes of the Muslim 
arms that the countrymen of Mohammed began to appreciate the 
full scope of the new religion. Many believers, however, adhered 
to f Ali as the rightful vicegerent of the prophet , and even re- 
pudiated the title of the first three khalifs ; and it was from this 
schism that the great sect of the ShVites (p. xoiii), which still exists 
in Persia, took its origin. National hatred, too, contributed greatly 
to foment the quarrel, and a series of bloody conflicts ensued. The 
Meccan aristocrats, however, conquered 'Ali , and the seat of the 
khalif ate was transferred by Mu'dwiya from Medina to Damascus. 
Mu'awiya succeeded in securing the hereditary right to the khalif- 
ate to his descendants, the Omayyades, many of whom proved 
most gifted and efficient monarchs. Even during the reign of 
Mu'awiya the able generals of the Muslims penetrated eastwards 
as far as India and Central Asia, westwards as far as the Atlantic 
Ocean, and north-westwards as far as Constantinople. The ancient 
simplicity of manners, however, had disappeared ; there was now 
a vast empire, a despotism, with a court of constantly increasing 
splendour ; and a love of magnificence soon began to show itself 
in artistically constructed buildings. A strict adherence to the doc- 
trines of Mohammed was still professed by the Omayyades, but their 
religion was subordinated to their political ambition. 

A reaction was inevitable, and it was in Persia that it first showed 
itself. Religious questions afforded a pretext for intrigues against 
the Omayyades. The powerful family of the 'Abbasides, who were 
also of Meccan origin, used every available means for the realisation 
of their ambitious schemes, and at length accomplished their object 
by the cruel assassination of the Omayyades (750). The central 
point of the empire was now removed to the banks of the Euphrates 
and the Tigris. As had already been the case under several of the 
Omayyades, Syria again became the theatre of fierce party-struggles, 
while political rivalries were aggravated by the dissensions of religious 
sects, some of which manifested communistic tendencies and plotted 

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against the existing constitution. The political history of the Arab 
rulers of these centuries presents a continuous scene of war and 
bloodshed, accompanied by an interminable series of intestine dis- 
sensions, intrigues, and murders. At the same time, however, espe- 
cially during the reign of Hartin er-Raahid, the Arabs began to 
manifest a greater taste for scientific knowledge. A number of 
schools of philosophy were founded in Syria, and particularly at 
Damascus. The Arab scholars obtained their knowledge of the Greek 
philosophers from the Syrians, whose literature, dating from a post- 
Christian epoch , flourished for a prolonged period, even under the 
Muslim regime. So, too, an acquaintance with medicine, astronomy, 
and mathematics reached the Arabs directly or indirectly through the 
Greeks ; and, indeed, in no department of science did they exhibit 
much originality. Even in works on the grammatical structure of 
their own language, a subject which they treated with great acumen, 
the Arabs were surpassed by their neighbours the Persians. Many 
of these scientific efforts were made in connection with the Koran 
and its interpretation, and the utmost zeal was evinced in collecting 
the oral utterances of Mohammed. In all these scientific pursuits, 
however, the Arabs were far more remarkable for prolixity than depth. 
Arabian literature thus speedily swelled to prodigious dimensions, 
theology and the system of jurisprudence founded upon it being the 
predominating subjects. Down to the present day books in the same 
style as that of this early literature, in the same language, and often 
with the same turgidity, are still written. The traveller unacquainted 
with the language of the country will naturally be sceptical as to 
the existence of intellectual aspirations among the Syrians of the 
present day ; but we can assure him, from an experience of many 
years, that the native mind and imagination are much more active 
than is commonly believed. The art of printing, which was not 
practically introduced into Syria until the beginning of the 19th 
century, contributes much to the spread of education. The print- 
ing-presses at Beirut in Syria, and that at Bulak in Egypt, are those 
which have exercised the greatest influence; and it is worthy of 
mention that no fewer than 7000 copies of a bulky and compara- 
tively expensive work containing the traditions of Mohammed have 
been sold at Cairo within twenty-five years. 

The power of the khalifate was gradually undermined by the 
dissensions already mentioned, and in Syria itself there sprang up 
secondary dynasties, more or less subordinate to the sway of the 
reigning sovereign. Thus the Hamdanides from Mosul, where they 
had been the chief opponents of the Curds , took possession of N. 
Syria, and had their headquarters at Aleppo for a considerable 
period. One of these princes was the illustrious Seif ed-Dauleh, 
who began to reign in 944, and who had some difficulty in repulsing 
the renewed attacks of the Greeks. At this period the Fdtimites, 
the rulers of Egypt, held the supreme power at Damascus, and 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. e 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

lxvi HISTORY. 

during the great revolutions which took place in the latter half of 
the 10th cent, they conquered the whole of Syria. The reign of the 
Fatimite sovereign Hdkim Biamrilldh (from 996), in particular, was 
fraught with important results to Syria. From the outset of their 
career the Fatimites had assumed a hostile attitude towards El-Is- 
lam, and under Hakim, a member of this family, the peculiar reli- 
gious or philosophical doctrines of his party degenerated into gro- 
tesque absurdity (comp. p. xoiv). Towards the close of the 11th cent, 
the Okeilides and the Mirdasides came into power in N. Syria, but 
they, in their turn, were supplanted by the Seljuks in 1086. These 
were the chiefs of nomadic Turkish tribes, who now for the first 
time made their appearance as conquerors in western Asia. In sev- 
eral parts of Syria the Assassins (p. xoiv), a sect who unscrupulously 
practised the crime named after them, possessed considerable power, 
and even occupied a number of fortresses. It was by their hand 
that Nizam el-Mulk, the great vizier of the all-powerful Seljuk 
Malekshah (1072-92), was murdered. After Malekshah's death the 
empire of the Seljuks was divided, one branch establishing itself 
at Damascus, another at Aleppo. 

IX. These interminable disorders within the Muslim empire 
contributed greatly to the success of the first intrepid little bands of 
the Crusaders. Baldwin succeeded in conquering N. Syria as far 
as Mesopotamia, and Bohemund captured Antioch in 1098; but 
Damascus successfully resisted every attack. Even among the 
Christians, however, much discord and jealousy prevailed ; their 
enthusiasm for the holy cause soon grew cold, and political con- 
siderations again became paramount. It was not until after the 
capture of Jerusalem (15th July, 1099) that the Muslims became 
fully aware of the danger which threatened them from the Crusaders. 
But the jealousies among the Muslim rulers enabled the Christians 
to maintain themselves for a considerable time, although with 
varying fortunes, atEdessa, on the coast of the Mediterranean, and in 
Palestine. Godfrey de Bouillon, the first king of Jerusalem (d. 1 100), 
was succeeded by his brother Baldwin I. About the beginning of the 
reign of the next king, Baldwin II. (1118), the European conquests 
in the East had reached their climax, and at the same period were 
founded the orders of the Knights of St. John and the Templars, 
which were destined to become the gTeat champions of Christianity 
in the East. 

Instead, however, of concentrating their forces and advancing on 
Damascus, the Crusaders contented themselves with repeated attempts 
to capture the city. Politically they were weak and incapable. 
In 1136 the victorious progress of the Franks was effectually 
checked by the opposition of the bold emir Zengi. In N. Syria 
John, the Byzantine emperor, again attempted to interpose, his 
designs being hostile to Christians and Muslims alike, but was 
obliged to retire, whereupon Edessa also declared itself in favour 

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HISTORY. lxvii 

of Zengi (1144). At the time of his death Zengi was master of 
Mosul, Mesopotamia, and a great part of Syria, and he bequeathed 
the principality of Aleppo to his son Ndreddin. The second con- 
quest of Edessa by the latter in 1146 gave rise to the Second Crusade 
(1147-49). The Franks, however, met with no success, and the 
capture of Damascus was frustrated by the intrigues of Oriental 
Christians. Nureddin wrested many of their possessions from the 
Franks, and at last captured Damascus also, which had hitherto 
been occupied by another dynasty. In 1164 he sent an expedition 
against Egypt under his general Shirkuh, who was associated with 
the Curd Saldh ed-Dtn (Saladin). The latter, a man of singular en- 
ergy, soon made himself master of Egypt; and after Nureddin's 
death in 1173 he took advantage of the dissensions in Syria to 
conquer that country also, and thus became the most dangerous 
enemy of the isolated possessions of the Franks. A breach of truce 
by the weak Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, at length led to 
war. In 1187, at the battle of Hattin (p. 286), Saladin signally 
defeated the Franks, after which the whole of Palestine fell into his 
possession ; but he treated the Christians with leniency. 

The fall of Jerusalem led to the Third Crusade (1189). Fred- 
erick I., Emperor of Germany, who headed the expedition, was 
drowned in Cilicia, before reaching the Holy Land. The town of 
r Akka (St. Jean d'Acre), after a long siege, chiefly by the French 
and English, was at length captured in 1191 ; but the conquest 
of Jerusalem was prevented by dissensions among the Crusaders, 
particularly between Richard Cceur de Lion of England and Philip 
Augustus of France. In spite of prodigies of valour on the part of 
the English monarch, the sole advantages obtained by the Franks 
from Saladin at the ensuing peace were the possession of a narrow 
strip of the coast-district, and permission for pilgrims to visit Jeru- 
salem. Saladin died soon after the departure of the Franks ; his 
empire was dismembered; and Melik el-Adil was now the only 
formidable antagonist of the Franks. The Fourth Crusade (1204) 
promoted Frankish interests in Palestine as little as the third. In 
both of these crusades the Italian cities of Pisa, Genoa, and Venice 
had actively participated with a view to their commercial interests. 
The Fifth Crusade, led by King Andreas of Hungary (1217), was 
equally unsuccessful. At length, the state of political affairs being 
highly favourable to his enterprise , the heretical Emperor Fred- 
erick II. , who had been compelled by the Pope to undertake a 
crusade, had the good fortune to obtain possession of Jerusalem by 
convention for a period of ten years (1229). Meanwhile Syria was 
the scene of uninterrupted feuds among the petty Arabian princes, 
particularly the Eyyubides. In 1240 a French army once more en- 
deavoured to gain a footing in Palestine, but the expedition proved 
a signal failure. The last Crusade, undertaken by St. Louis in 1248, 
was equally fruitless. 


Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

lxviii HISTORY. 

X. The Kharesmians from Central Asia began to devastate Syria 
in the year 1240, and at length settled in N. Syria, but, owing to 
the incessant wars among the different dynasties, were afterwards 
driven towards Jerusalem, where they treated the Christians with 
great cruelty. More important was another change. Various prin- 
ces, in accordance with a custom which had been prevalent for cen- 
turies, were in the habit of providing themselves with a body- 
guard composed partly of slaves purchased for the purpose, generally 
of Turkish origin. In Egypt these military slaves succeeded in 
usurping the supreme power. Eibek, the first founder of a Mame- 
luke dynasty, had to undergo many conflicts with Nasir, the Eyyub- 
ide prince of N. Syria, before he gained possession of Syria. The 
Mongols now assumed a more and more threatening attitude towards 
Syria. They had long since put an end to the empire of the khalifs 
at Bagdad, and they now directed their attacks against Nasir. 
Hdlagti, captured Aleppo (Haleb) about 1260, after which he con- 
tinued his victorious career through Syria. Damascus, having sur- 
rendered, was spared. The Mameluke Sultan Kotu%, however, with 
the aid of his famous general Beibats, recovered nearly the whole 
of Syria from the Mongols. Beibars himself now usurped the supreme 
power, and maintained his authority against both Mongols and 
Franks. He captured Csesarea and Arsuf in 1265, Safed and Jaffa 
in 1266, and Antioch in 1268, and reduced the Assassins of Syria to 
great extremities. Not a year passed without his personally under- 
taking some campaign, and to this day many towers and fortifi- 
cations in Syria bear his name. He died in 1277, and his degenerate 
son was dethroned in 1279 by the emir Kildwdn , who maintained 
his authority in Syria by force of arms, and has left many memorials 
of his glorious reign. He encroached so much on the possessions of 
the Franks, that they retained a few towns on the coast only ; and 
at length, after the storming of Acre in 1291, they were completely 
driven out of Palestine. 

The contests of the Mamelukes, and, after 1382, those of the 
Circassian Sultans, those of the native princes and the Mongolian 
governors, and particularly those of the Ilkhans of Persia, continued 
incessantly, but few of these princes are worthy of special mention. 
In the year 1400 the condition of Syria was farther aggravated by 
a great predatory incursion of the Mongols under Timur, on which 
occasion multitudes of the inhabitants were butchered. Many of the 
scholars and artists of the country, including the famous armourers 
of Damascus, were carried to Samarkand. 

XI. In the year 1516 war broke out between the Osmans and 
the Mamelukes, and the latter were defeated to the N. of Aleppo 
by Sultan Selim. The whole of Syria was conquered by the Osmans, 
and thenceforward the country shared the fortunes of the Osman 
dynasty. The sultans claim to be the successors of the khalifs 

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HISTORY. lxix 

that is , they maintain the form of the ancient theocratic constitu- 
tion. As soon, however, as the first flower of the Osmans had 
passed away, the inferiority of the Turkish race to the Arabian 
became apparent. During the present century, however, Syria has 
witnessed somewhat better days since Sultan Ma^mud (1808-39) 
effected various reforms, established a regular class of officials, and 
organised a militia on the European model. Of late years a few 
elementary schools (medreseh rushdiyeh) have been founded. 

Napoleon I. , when returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa in 1799 
and laid siege to Acre. He defeated the Turks on the plain of 
Jezreel, and penetrated as far as Safed and Nazareth. — r Abdallah 
Pasha, son of Jezzar Pasha (p. 269), having rendered himself almost 
independent in Palestine, thus afforded a pretext to Mohammed 
r Ali, the powerful ruler of Egypt, to intervene forcibly in the affairs 
of Syria (1831). Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mohammed, captured 
Acre and Damascus with the aid of the Emir Beshir (p. 332), and 
defeated the Turks at Horns and Beilan in N. Syria. He then con- 
tinued his march towards Constantinople, and his success might 
have been still more brilliant had not the European powers, and 
Russia in particular, intervened for the purpose of bringing about 
a peace between Egypt and the Porte. The Egyptian supremacy in 
Syria did not, however, much improve the condition of that un- 
happy country, taxation and conscription continuing to be as bur- 
densome as before. Mohammed r Ali meant well, but his measures 
were not always judicious; and being a parvenu, he exhibited a 
tyrannical spirit which brought upon him the hatred of the Syrians. 
In 1834 an insurrection broke out against him in Palestine, but was 
quelled, although the Druses and Beduins were still far from being 
subdued. In 1839 at Nisib Ibrahim Pasha gained another brilliant 
victory over the Turks. Meanwhile the discontent which prevailed 
in Syria, in consequence of the heavy burdens imposed on the land, 
steadily increased. In 1840 Lebanon revolted, and the French govern- 
ment thereupon withdrew its protection from Mohammed. At length, 
during the same year, the somewhat feeble intervention of England 
and Austria regained Syria for the sultan r Abdul-Mejid, the scale 
having been turned against the Egyptians by the bombardment and 
capture of Acre by Napier. 

Since that period the Turks have had considerable difficulties to 
contend with owing to the great conflict of religious opinions, toleration 
being nominally extended to all alike. The last of the innumerable 
tragedies of which Syria has been the theatre was the revolt of 1860 
(comp. p. 344). On that occasion France, as the guardian of Roman 
Catholic interests, sent a body of troops to protect the Christians 
in Syria , and caused the disturbed districts to be occupied for a 
considerable time. Since that intervention the Lebanon district has 
been formed into an independent sanjak (p. lvii), the governor of 
which is required to profess the Christian religion. 

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Chronological Table. 

Up to 

the period of the exile the dates given can only be taken as 

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Hezekiah. Is tributary to the Assyrians. 
Sargon captures Samaria and deports some of the inhab- 
itants to Assyria. 
Hezekiah rebels against Sennacherib. Alliance with Egypt. 
Sennacherib invades Judah on his march against Egypt. 

Amon. Is murdered by conspirators. 
Josiah , under the guidance of Jeremiah and Zephaniah, 
centralises the worship of Tahweh. Josiah falls whilst 
fighting against the Egyptians at Hegiddo. The king- 
dom dependent on Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt. 
Jehoahaz, son of Josiah, dethroned by Pharaoh-Necho. 
Eliakim, brother of Jehoahaz, made king by Necho under 
the name of Jehoiakim. Syria tributary to Egypt. Af- 
ter Necho's defeat at Carchemish Jehoiakim serves 
Nebuchadnezzar, but rebels after three years. 
Jehoiachin. Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem and carries 

the inhabitants away captives. 
Zedekiah, uncle of Jehoiachin, relying on Pharoah-Hophra, 

king of Egypt, rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. 
Siege of Jerusalem \ destruction of the Temple; the 
princes carried away captive to Babylon; others flee 
to Egypt. End of the kingdom of Judah. 
Nebuchadnezzar besieges Tyre (13 years) in vain. 
Jehoiachin is released from prison by Evil-merodach. 
By permission of Cyrus, Zerubbabel and Jeshua conduct 

some of the Jews back to Palestine. 
Foundation of the Second Temple. Its erection obstructed 

by the Samaritans. 
Completion of the Temple. Establishment of the ritual 

by the priests and Levites. 
During the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus Ezra brings 

back more Jews and Benjamites. 
Nehemiah, cupbearer of Artaxerxes I., is appointed gov- 
ernor of Jerusalem, and fortifies the city. Erection of 
a temple on Mt. Gerizim. 
Promulgation of the Book of the Law brought by Ezra. 
Sidon destroyed by the Persian king Artaxerxes III. Ochus. 
Alexander the Great conquers Syria after the battle of 

Tyre captured and destroyed. The Jews submit to Alexan- 
der. Andromachus , and afterwards Memnon , governor 
of Palestine. 
Ptolemy takes possession of Syria and Palestine. 
Antigonus wrests Palestine from him. 
Beginning of the era of the Seleucidee. 

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A. D. 













Quirinius appointed legate of Syria; Coponius first pro- 
curator of Judaea, with headquarters at Gresarea. Judas 
Gaulonites rebels. 

Caiaphas, high-priest. 

Pontius Pilate appointed governor. 

Ministry of Christ. Crucified about 31. 

Marullus succeeds Pilate. 

Revolt of Theudas quelled by the procurator Cuspius Fadus. 

Cumanus, procurator. 

Felix, procurator of Judeea. 

Porcius Festus, procurator. 

Gessius Floras, procurator of Judsea, causes the outbreak 
of a rebellion. 

Vespasian conquers Galilee. 

Titus captures Jerusalem. Lucilius Bassus and Flavins 
Sylva quell the insurrection in the rest of the country. 

Tineius Rufus, governor of Palestine. 

Insurrection of Bar Cochba (acknowledged as the Messiah 
by the Rabbi Akiba) is put down by Julius Severus. 

Bar Cochba slain. Jerusalem converted into a heathen 
colony, under the name of JSlia Capitolina. 

Antonius Heliogabalus of Emesa, Emperor of Rome. 

Philip Arabs of the Hauran, Emperor of Rome. 

Odenatus, King of Palmyra. 

Aurelian defeats Zenobia and destroys Palmyra. 

Constantino the Great. Recognition of Christianity. 

Pilgrimage of St. Helena to Jerusalem. 

Justinian I. 

Chosroes II., king of Persia, conquers Syria and Palestine. 

Heraclius , emperor of Byzantium , reconquers these pro- 

Birth of Mohammed. 

Mohammed's flight (Hijra) from Mecca to El -Medina 
(l*6th July). 

Death of Mohammed. 

Abu Bekr, father-in-law of Mohammed, first Khalif. The 
general Khalid conquers Bosra in Syria. 

f Omar, Khalif. 

Defeat of the Byzantines on the Yarmuk. Syria falls into 
the hands of the Arabs. Damascus, Jerusalem, and 
Antioch captured. 

'Othman, Khalif. 

f Ali, Khalif. 

Mu'awiya, the first Khalif of the family of the Omay- 
yades, makes Damascus his residence. 

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901 (2) 



1070 (1) 








Yezid I. 

Merwan I.; he defeats the Keisites in the neighbourhood 

of Damascus. 
f Abd el-Melik. Battles with 'Abdallah Ibn ez-Zubeir at 

Mecca (692) and with f Abd er-Rahman (704). 
Welld 1. 5 the Arabian supremacy extended to Spain (711). 
Suleiman defeats the Byzantines. 
'Omar II. 
Yezid II. 
Welid II.. 
Yezid III.; revolt in Palestine. — Ibrahim, brother of 

Yezid, reigns for a few months. 
Merwan II. deprives Ibrahim of his authority. Continued 

disturbances in Syria. 
Merwan defeated by the 'Abbasides at the battle of the 
Z&b. The central point of the kingdom removed to 
'Irak (Bagdad). 
Ahmed ibn Tulun, governor of Egypt, conquers the whole 

of Syria. 
Rise of the turbulent sect of Carmates. 
Ikhshid , founder of the dynasty of Ikhshides , appointed 

governor of Syria and Egypt. 
Seif ed-Dauleh, a Hamdanide, fights against the Greeks and 

the Ikhshides at Aleppo. 
The Fatimites conquer Egypt, and, after repeated attempts, 

the whole of Syria also. Continued struggles. 
Rise of the Seljuks, who gradually obtain possession of 
the whole of Syria — capturing Damascus about 1075, 
and Antioch about 1085. 
Beginning of the first Crusade; Godfrey de Bouillon, Bald- 
win, Bohemund, Raimund IV. 
The Crusaders capture Antioch. 

Baldwin declared prince of Edessa. Conquest of Jerusalem. 

Godfrey de Bouillon king; defeats the Egyptians at Ascalon. 

Baldwin I. , king of Jerusalem. The Franks capture Ca> 

sarea, Tripoli, and Beirut. 
Togtekin, Prince of Damascus, defeats the Franks. 
Baldwin II. ; under him the Frank dominions reach their 

greatest extent. 
Fulke of Anjou, king of Jerusalem. 
Baldwin III., conquers Acre in 1153. 
Nfireddin, son of Zengi, ruler of X. Syria , captures Da- 
mascus (dynasty of the Atabekes) ; he takes Edessa and 
oppresses the Franks. 

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Second Crusade, under Louis VII. of France and Con- 
rad III. of Germany. 

The Franks endeavour to capture Damascus, of which Nur- 
eddin gains possession six years later. 

Amalrich, king of Jerusalem, undertakes a campaign 
against Egypt. 

Salah ed-Din (Saladin), the Eyyubide, puts an end to the 
dynasty of the Fatimites in Egypt. 

Baldwin IV., the Leper. 

Victory of the Franks at Bamleh. 

Saladin becomes master of the whole of Syria, except the 
Frank possessions. 

Baldwin V. 

Guy of Lusignan. 

Saladin gains a victory at Hattin, and conquers nearly the 
whole of Palestine. 

Third Crusade, under Frederick Barbarossa, Richard Coeur 
de Lion, and Philip Augustus. 

Saladin cedes the sea-board from Jaffa to Acre to the 
Franks. Death of Saladin. 

Fifth Crusade. Frederick II. obtains Jerusalem, etc. 
from Kamil, Sultan of Egypt. 

The Kharezmians, invited to aid the Egyptians, ravage Syria. 

The Mongols under Hulagu conquer N. and Central 
Syria, and penetrate as far as the Egyptian frontier. 

Beibars , the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt , recaptures Da- 
mascus, and defeats the Franks (1265-1268). 

Kilawun, Sultan of Egypt. 

His son, Melik el-Ashraf , puts an end to the Frank rule 
in Palestine. 

Timurlenk (Tamerlane) conquers Syria. 

Selim I. wrests Syria from the Mamelukes and incorpor- 
ates it with the Turkish empire. 

Fakhreddin, emir of the Druses. 

Napoleon conquers Jaffa. Battle of Mt. Tabor. Retreat. 

Mohammed f Ali Pasha of Egypt •, his adopted son Ibrahim 
conquers Syria, and the country is ceded to Egypt by 
Turkey at the peace of Kutahya in 1833. 

Turkey introduces reforms. Sultan r Abdul Mejid issues 
the Ehatti Sherif of Giilkhaneh. 

Intervention of the European powers. Syria re-conquered 
for the Porte, chiefly by the English fleet. 

An affray in the church of the Nativity at Jerusalem 
leads, after long negociations, to war with Russia (1853-56) . 

The Druses rise against the Christians. French expe- 
dition in 1861. 

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V. Present Population and Statistics of Syria. 

I. Population. EthnograpMcally, the population of Syria con- 
sists of Franks, Jews, Syrians, Arabs, and Turks ; according to re- 
ligions, of Mohammedans, Christians, Jews, and several other sects. 

The traveller will soon learn to distinguish the Jews, Christians, 
and Muslims of Syria by their features and dress. 

The Franks (Europeans) form a very small proportion of the 
population. Distinct from them are the so-called 'Levantines', Europ- 
eans (especially Italians and Greeks) or descendants of Europeans, 
who have entirely adopted the manners of the country. 

The Jbws who remained in the country were but few in number; 
most of those who now reside in Palestine are comparatively recent 
settlers from Europe (see p. lxxxiii). 

By Syrians we understand the descendants of all those peoples 
who spoke Aramaic at the beginning of our era, with the exception 
of the Jews. The native Christians are descendants of the popula- 
tion which occupied Syria before the promulgation of El-Islam. Some 
of the population embraced El-Isl&m, while others adhered to their 
own religion. The Aramaic language gave place to the Arabic, 
though the former held its ground for a considerable time. The only 
trace of Aramaic at the present day is an admixture of that language 
with the Arabic spoken in three villages of the Anti-Lib anus. The 
race of Arabian dwellers in towns has been modified by admixture 
of the Syrian type (as it has been in Egypt by the Coptic). 

The Arabian Population consists of hddari, or settled, and 
bedawi (pi. bedu), or nomadic tribes. The latter are mostly of pure 
Arab blood; the settled population is of very mixed origin. The 
ancient place-names have indeed been retained by the villagers with 
remarkable tenacity, and frequently with very trifling changes of 
pronunciation (comp. p. lxiii). The explanation of this fact is that 
it was only by degrees that any newer Semitic nation was able to 
push its way into the existing settlements and assimilate itself with 
their population. In such cases the change of religion played a very 
unimportant part. And in this way not only most of the ancient place 
names were preserved with marvellous fidelity, but also other ar- 
bitrarily invented names and the false traditions connected with 
them. The Samaritans, for instance, tried to make out that all the 
ancient historical holy places were to be found in their territory 
(p. 262), and similarly the Jews, when their principal possession 
consisted of Galilee, endeavoured to locate holy places therein 
(p. 287) ; and these names have been preserved by the present 
population. On the other hand, in those parts of the country which 
have been seized by genuine Arabs (Beduins) the ancient names 
have mostly disappeared. 

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lxxviii POPULATION. 

The Beduins are professedly Muslims, but, as a rule, their sole 
care is for their flocks and their predatory expeditions , and they 
attend but little to their religious rites. They are the direct 
descendants of the half savage nomads who have inhabited Arabia 
from time immemorial. Their dwellings consist of portable tents 
made of black goats' hair. (Such doubtless were the black tents of 
Kedar mentioned in Solomon's Song, i. 5.) The material is woven by 
the Beduin women, and is of very close texture, almost impervious 
to rain. The tent is formed by stretching this stuff over poles , one 
side being left open to a height of five or six feet. It is then divided 
into two compartments, one for the women, the other for the men. 
In the centre of the latter is arranged a fire-place , the fuel used in 
which consists of dried brushwood and dung. The Beduins live by 
cattle-breeding, and possess immense herds of sheep and camels. 
They can rarely be induced to till the soil. Several tribes, however, 
are gradually becoming more settled, and this transition is actively 
promoted by government. The Beduins generally live very poorly, 
their chief food being bread and milk ; but when a guest arrives they 
kill a sheep or goat, and occasionally even a camel. The traveller 
should generally make for the first tent on the right of the entrance 
to the encampment, that being the tent of the shekh or chief. The 
Beduins regard the laws of hospitality as inviolable, and they deem 
it their duty to protect their guest for three days after his departure 
from their camp. 

War occupies much of the time of these tribes, the occasion 
being usually some quarrel about pastures or wells. The law of 
retaliation also causes many complications. Travellers, however, 
need be under no apprehension for their lives , unless they offer 
armed resistance, and have the misfortune to kill one of their 
assailants. Among these children of the desert life is highly prized 
and not lightly to be destroyed ; but they are notorious thieves, and 
have little respect for the property of others. For thousands of 
years there has been constant hostility between the peasantry and 
the nomadic tribes, and it requires the utmost efforts of government 
to protect the former against the extortions of the latter. It some- 
times happens, however, that the peasantry prefer paying 'brother- 
hood' (khuwweh, a tribute in grain), or black mail, to their predat- 
ory neighbours, to trusting to the protection of government, as the 
Turkish governors and tax-gatherers are often even more oppressive 
and rapacious than the Beduins. 

Fortunately for the government, these wandering tribes are 
seldom on amicable terms with each other. Thev co nsist of two 
main branches : one of these consists of the 'Aenezeh, who migrate 
in winter towards Central Arabia, while the other embraces those 
tribes which remain permanently in Syria. The 'Aenezeh at the 
present day form the most powerful section of the Beduins , and 
are subdivided into four leading tribes (Kabileh) — the Wuld ' Ali, 

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the Heseneh, the Ruwala, and the Bisher , numbering altogether 
about 25-30,000 souls. The settled tribes are those permanently 
resident in Palestine, the Hauran, the Bika', and N. Syria ; thus in 
the valley of the Jordan are the so-called Gh6r Arabs (Ghawarineh), 
and in Moab the Beni Sakhr. These are called i ahl esh-shemdV, or 
people of the North, while the Beduins to the S. of the Dead Sea 
are known as i ahl tl-lciUi% or people of the South. 

Every tribe of Beduins is presided over by a shekh, whose 
authority , however, is more or less limited by the jealousy of his 
clansmen ; nor is he the principal leader in time of war. The Beduins 
are very fond of singing, story-telling, and poetry, which last, 
however, is at present in a state of very imperfect development. 

The Turks (p. lxviii) are not a numerous class of the com- 
munity in Syria. They are intellectually inferior to the Arabs, but 
are generally good-natured. The effendi (av&tvtris), or Turkish 
gentleman, however, is sometimes proud and arrogant. There are 
two parties of Turks — the Old, and the Young, or liberal party. 
The governors in the provinces change with the change of govern- 
ment at Constantinople. As the two parties usually come into office 
in rapid succession, none of the governors can reckon with any 
certainty on his plans being carried out by his successor. The 
'young' Turks, who profess to imitate European manners, do so in a 
purely superficial manner. They generally begin at the wrong end, 
many of them fancying that the proof of a modern education consists 
in wearing Frank dress and in drinking spirituous liquors. Through- 
out Turkey, indeed, the whole race is in a decaying and degener- 
ate condition. In N. Syria, as well as on the Great Hermon, are 
still several nomadic Turkish tribes, or Turcomans, whose mode of 
life is the same as that of the Beduin Arabs. 

II. Statistics. The population of Syria has grown considerably 
of late years, owing to a large extent to immigration in consequence 
of the Russo-Turkish war. This increase is particularly noticeable 
in the seaport towns and in Jerusalem and Damascus. The sub- 
joined table gives the latest official figures for the principal 
vilayets, but these are perhaps not absolutely reliable. We may 
reckon in addition the population of the sanjafc of Jerusalem at 
about 320,000 and that of the sanjak of Zor at 100,000. The total 
population of Syria is therefore not more than 3 or 374 millionsT^ 
which for an area of 108,000 sq. M. gives about 27-30 inhab. per L 
sq. M., or about the same density of population as in the State oy 
Mississippi (New York State 122, Great Britain 309 per sq. M.). ' 

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Vilayet of 

Vilayet of 


Vilayet of 
























United Greeks 





Un. Syrians 





Un. Armenians 





Un. Chaldseans 





Syr. Jacobites 





Orthod. Nestorians 





Orthod. Greeks 





Gregor. Armenians 





























not separately counted 





per sq. M. 





III. Religions. The three Semitic races which people Syria, 
Jews, Syrians, and Arabs, are similar in intellectual character. The 
Semites possess a rich fund of imagination , but no capacity for 
abstract thought. They have therefore never produced any philosoph- 
ical system, properly so called, nor have they ever developed the 
higher forms of epic or dramatic poetry, or shown any taste for the 
fine arts. On the other hand, the three great religions, the Jewish, 
the Christian, and indirectly also the Mohammedan, have had their 
origin in Syria, and the Semites are thus entitled to a very impor- 
tant rank in the world's history. The last phase which religious 
thought assumed among the primitive and unmixed Semites was that 
of El-Islam, which was both the last practical attempt to establish 
the theocracy so indispensable to the feeling of a Semite and at the 
same time the conclusion of Semitic prophecy. 

The Muslims form about three-fourths of the whole population 
of Syria. They still regard themselves as possessors of the special 
favour of God, and as rulers of the world , preferred by Him to all 
other nations. In Egypt European influence, having been encouraged 
at court since the beginning of the present century, has greatly 
mitigated the arrogance of Muslims towards strangers j but in Syria 
the contrasts between the different sects are still very marked. El- 
Islam is conscious here of having retained its hold on the bulk of 
the population, but the Muslims can scarcely be said to be more 

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fanatical than the adherents of the other religions. On the whole, 
the Muslims are inferior in education, but superior in morals to the 
Christians, especially as regards trustworthiness. Of late years 
competition has induced the Muslims in their turn to establish 
numerous schools. Further details respecting El-Islam will be found 
on pp. lxxxi v et seq. 

The Christians of the East chiefly belong to the Oreek Church, 
and as, with few exceptions , they speak Arabic , their services are 
usually conducted in that language. Most of the superior clergy, 
however, are Greeks by birth, who read mass in Greek, and understand 
no other language. The Greeks possess many schools, in the upper 
classes of which the Greek language is taught. The members of 
this church are called * Orthodox Greeks', and those of Syria are 
divided into two patriarchates, that of Jerusalem, and that of 
Beirut. The patriarch of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over the 
greater part of Palestine , while a number of bishops 'in partibus 
inndelium' reside in the monastery at Jerusalem, being appointed 
with a view to enhance the importance of their chief. These are the 
bishops of Sebastfyeh, Nabulus, Lydda, Gaza, and Es-Salt- The 
bishops of Acre, Kerak, Petra, and Bethlehem , on the other hand, 
reside in their dioceses. To the patriarchate of Beirut belong the 
dioceses from Tyre to Asia Minor , including Damascus, Aleppo, 
Ba'albek, Sednaya, etc., the bishops being styled 'ma^ans' (metro- 
politans). The Greeks are generally very fanatical , but the Latins 
are far more bitterly hated by them than the Protestants. 

Armenians and Coptic Jacobites are almost unknown, except at 
Jerusalem, but there is a sect akin to the latter, called the Syrian 
Jacobite church. The Jacobites are monophysites ; that is, they adhere 
to the doctrine, condemned by the Council of Chalcedon, that Christ 
possesses one nature only ; or, in other words, they admit the exist- 
ence of his two natures, but maintain that in him they became one. 
They derive their name from a certain Jacob Baradai, Bishop of 
Edessa (d. 587), who during the persecution of this sect under Justin- 
ian I. wandered through the East in poverty, and succeeded in mak- 
ing numerous proselytes. Like the Greeks, they use leavened bread 
for the communion, and cross themselves with one finger only. The 
Greeks and Syrians use the Greek calendar; and the monks still 
sometimes reckon from the era of the SeleucidsB (beginning 3 12 B.C.). 
Their ecclesiastical language is ancient Syrian. The patriarch of the 
Jacobites now resides at Diarbekr and Merdin. Most of the Jacobites 
reside there , and some of them still speak Syrian. These Syrians 
are for the most part poor and of very humble mental capacity, and 
their monks are deplorably ignorant. The Jacobite monks, like the 
Greek, never eat meat ; with almost the whole sect, indeed, religion 
is a matter of mere external observance. 

Chaldaean Christians or Nestorians, formerly called in India 
Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. f 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

lxtxii RELIGIONS. 

'St. Thomas Christians*, are met with in N. Syria only, their main 
settlements being in the mountains of Kurdistan. They derive 
their name from Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople (d. ca. 440"), 
whose teachings were condemned at the Synod of Ephesus in 431. 
In contrast to the Jacobites, the Nestorians hold that the two natures 
of Christ are quite distinct and that though they are connected they 
never became one. They regard the epithet of 'Theotokos' or 
'Mother of God' applied to the Virgin as pagan. 

Generally speaking, the clergy of the Roman Catholic, or l Latin\ 
church in Syria, thanks to the propaganda of Rome and to the efforts 
of many Franks of that faith in Palestine , are far superior to the 
Greek and the Syrian. To the Latin church are affiliated the Oriental 
Catholic churches : vis. the Greek Catholic (United Greek), the Syrian 
Catholic (United Syrian), the Chaldaean (United Nestorians), the 
Armenian Catholic, and the Coptic Catholic. To this day Lazarists, 
Franciscans, Jesuits , and the Peres de Sainte Anne (missionaries 
from Algiers) are actively engaged in extending these churches. 
These churches, however, have hitherto asserted their independence 
of Rome in some particulars. They celebrate mass in Arabic (at least 
the Greek section), they administer the sacrament in both kinds, and 
their priests may be married men, though they may not marry after 
ordination. The Greek Catholic church (Melchites) is a very import- 
ant body. It is governed by a patriarch at Damascus and 13 bishops, 
and it includes the wealthiest and most aristocratic of the Christ- 
ians. The Syrian Catholics have a patriarch at Aleppo, who some- 
times also resides at Merdin, and 11 bishops. The Armenian Cath- 
olics have a patriarch at Constantinople and 14 bishops. The United 
Chaldaeans have a patriarch at Mossul and 11 bishops. 

Since 1182 the Maronites have also belonged to the Romanists. 
They were originally monothelites ; that is, they held that Christ 
was animated by one will only. Their name is derived from a 
certain Maron, who is said to have lived in the 6th century. The 
complete subjection of the Maronites to the Romish Church was 
effected about the year 1600 , after a Collegium Maronitarum had 
been founded at Rome in 1584, where a number of Maronite 
scholars distinguished themselves. The Maronite church still 
possesses special privileges, including that of reading mass in Syrian, 
and the right of the inferior clergy to marry. The patriarch , who 
resides in the monastery of Kan6bin (p. 381), is elected by the 
bishops , subject to the approval of Rome. The episcopal dioceses 
are Aleppo, Ba'albek, Jebeil, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, 
Tyre, Cyprus, and five others. Intellect and morality of the Maronites 
are undeveloped; they are most bitter enemies of their neighbours 
the Druses. Their chief seat is in Lebanon, particularly in the re- 
gion of Bsherreh, above Tripoli, where they possess many handsome 
monasteries some of which even contain printing-presses for their 
liturgies and other works, The MaTonites live by agriculture and 

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RELIGIONS. lxxxiii 

cattle-breeding, and the silk-culture forms another of their chief 
occupations. They have succeeded in asserting a certain degree of 
independence of the Turkish government (p. 332). 

Among the Latins must also be included the foreign Frank 
Monks, who have long possessed monasteries of their own in the 
Holy Land (p. xxxv). The Franciscans in particular deserve great 
credit for the zeal they have manifested in providing suitable 
accommodation for pilgrims at many different places. They are 
generally Italians and Spaniards, and more rarely Frenchmen. The 
schools over which they preside exercise a very beneficial influence 
on the native clergy. — A Latin patriarchate has been established 
at Jerusalem, and there is an apostolic delegate in Beirut. 

The Protestants in Syria have been converted chiefly through 
the agency of American missionaries. Beirut is the headquarters «£ 
the Americans (pp. 321, 322), whose influence is greatest among the 
Christians of Lebanon. The mission in Palestine is conducted by the 
English and Germans. — The chief reproach directed by the other 
religious communities against the Protestants is that they observe 
no fasts. 

The Oriental Jews are of several different classes. The Sephardim 
are Spanish-Portuguese Jews , who immigrated after the expulsion 
of the Jews from Spain under Isabella 1., and who still speak a 
corrupt Spanish patois. The Ashkenazim are from Russia, Galicia, 
Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Germany, and Holland, and speak 
German with the peculiar Jewish accent. These again are subdivided 
into the Perushim (Pharisees) and the Chasidim. The Karaites, who 
reject the Talmud, are almost extinct. The Jews of the East have 
retained their original character to a considerable extent, and are 
easily recognised, both by their physiognomy and their dress. They 
are generally tall and slender in stature, wear their peculiar side- 
locks of hair and broad-brimmed felt hats or turbans of dark cloth. 
The Sephardim wear black turbans. — The Jews generally dwell 
in a quarter of their own ; many of them are under the protection 
of European consuls. 

The Christians are also distinguishable by their costume. In 
the towns they generally wear the simple red fez, which is 
occasionally enveloped in a black or dark turban. The Muslims 
generally wear white turbans with a gold thread woven in the 
material, while the descendants (?). of the prophet wear green turbans. 
The Druses wear turbans of snowy whiteness. The peasants and 
Beduins generally wear merely a coloured cloth over their heads 
(keffiyeh), bound with a cord made of wool or camels' hair ( r agdl). 



VI. Doctrines of El-Id&m. 

Manners and Customs of the Mohammedans. 

El-Islam is still the most extensively disseminated of the great 
religions and its power is still on the increase. 

Mohammed + as a religions teacher took np a position hostile to 
the 'age of ignorance and barbarism', as he called heathenism. The 
revelation which he believed it was his mission to impart was, 
as he declared , nothing new. His religion was of the most remote 
antiquity, all men being supposed by him to be born Muslims, 
though surrounding circumstances might subsequently cause them 
to fall away from the true religion. Even in the Jewish and Christ- 
ian scriptures (the Torah, Psalms, and Gospels), he maintained, 
Ifcere were passages referring to himself and El-Islam, but these 
passages had been suppressed, altered, or misinterpreted. So far 
as Mohammed was acquainted with Judaism and Christianity, he 
disapproved of the rigour of their ethics, which were apt to 
degenerate into a body of mere empty forms, while he also rejected 
their dogmatic teaching as utterly false. Above all he repudiated 
whatever seemed to him to savour of polytheism, including the 
doctrine of the Trinity , which 'assigned partners' to the one and 
only God. Every human being who possesses a capacity for belief 

t Mohammed ('the praised', or 'to be praised') was a scion on the 
paternal side of the family of Hashim , a less important branch of the 
noble family of Kureish, who were settled at Mecca and were custodians 
of the Ka'ba. His father 'Abdallah died shortly before his birth (about 
570). In his sixth year his mother Amina died. The boy was then ed- 
ucated by his grandfather r Abd el-Muttalib, and , after the death of the 
latter two years later, by his uncle Abu Talib. Mohammed afterwards 
undertook commercial journeys, at first in company with his uncle, and 
then , ^when about twenty-five years of age, in the service of the widow 
Khadija, who became his first wife. On one of these journeys he is said 
to have become acquainted with the Christian monk Bahira (p. 190) at Bosra. 

About that period a reaction in the religious life of the Arabs had 
set in, and when Mohammed was about forty years of age he too was 
struck with the vanity of idolatry. He honestly believed he received revela- 
tions from heaven. He cannot therefore be called an impostor. A dream 
which he had on Mt. Hira near Mecca gave him the first impulse, and he 
soon began with ardent enthusiasm to promulgate monotheism and to warn 
his hearers against incurring the pains of hell. It is Uncertain whether 
Mohammed himself could read and write. His new doctrine was called 
Islam, or subjection to God. At first he made converts in his own family 
only, and the 'Muslims 1 were persecuted by the Meccans. Many of them, 
and at length Mohammed also (622), accordingly emigrated to Medina, 
where the new religion made great progress. After the death of Khadija 
Mohammed took several other wives, partly from political motives. 

"He now endeavoured to stir up the Meccans , and war broke out in 
consequence. He was victorious at Bedr, but lost the battle of the Uhud. 
His military campaigns were thenceforth incessant. He obtained great 
influence over the Beduins, and succeeded in uniting them politically. 
In 630 the Muslims at length captured the town of Mecca, and the idols 
were destroyed. Mohammed's health, however, had been completely 
undermined by his unremitting exertions for about twenty-four years: 
he died on 8th June, 632, at Medina, and was interred there. 

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he considered bound to believe in the new revelation of El-Islam, 
and every Muslim is bound to promulgate this faith. Practically, 
however, this stringency was afterwards relaxed , as the Muslims 
found themselves obliged to enter into pacific treaties with nations 
beyond the confines of Arabia. A distinction was also drawn 
between peoples who were already in possession of a revelation, 
such as Jews, Christians, and Sabians, and idolaters, the last of 
whom were to be rigorously persecuted. 

The Muslim creed is embodied in the words : 'There is no God 
but God (Allah), and Mohammed is the prophet of God' + (Id ildha 
ilf Alldh, wa Mvhammedcur-rastilu-lldh). This formula, however, 
contains the most important doctrine only ; for the Muslim is bound 
to believe in three cardinal points: (1) God and the angel6, (2) 
written revelation and the prophets, and (3) the resurrection, judg- 
ment, eternal life, and predestination, 

(1). God and the Angels. The emphatic assertion of the unity 
of God is by no means peculiar to Mohammedanism. As God is a 
Spirit, embracing all perfection within Himself, ninety-nine of his 
different attributes were afterwards gathered from the Koran , and 
these now form the Muslim rosary. Great importance is also attached 
to the fact that the creation of the world was effected by a simple 
effort of the divine will. (God said 'Let there be 1 , and there was.) 

The story of the creation in the Koran is taken from the Bible, 
with variations from Rabbinical, Persian, and other sources. God 
first created his throne ; beneath the throne was water ; then the 
earth was formed. In order to keep the earth steady, God created 
an angel and placed him on' a huge rock, which in its turn rests on 
the back and horns of the bull of the world. And thus the earth is 
kept in its proper position. 

In connection with the creation of the firmament is that of the 
Jinn (demons), beings occupying a middle rank between men 
and angels, some of them believing, others unbelieving. At a later 
period numerous fables regarding these jinn were invented, and this 
day the belief in them is very general. When the jinn became 
arrogant, an angel was ordered to banish them , and he accordingly 
drove them to the mountains of Kaf by which the earth is surround- 
ed , whence they occasionally make incursions. Adam was then 
created on the evening of the sixth day, and the Muslims on that 
account observe Friday as their sabbath. After the creation of Adam 
comes the fall of the angel who conquered the jinn. As he refused 
to bow down before Adam he was exiled and thenceforward called 
Iblts, or the devil. The fall of man is connected with Mecca and 
the Ka*ba; Adam was there reunited to Eve; and the black stone 
derives its colour from Adam's tears. At Jidda, the harbour for 
Mecca, the tomb of Eve is pointed out to this day. Adam is regarded 

t Allah is also the name of God used by the Jews and Christians 
Who speak Arabic. 

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as the first orthodox Muslim; foi God, from the earliest period, 
provided for a revelation. 

Besides the creative activity of God , his maintaining power is 
specially emphasised as being constantly exercised for the preserv- 
ation of the world. His instruments for this purpose are the 
Angels. They are the bearers of God's throne and execute his 
commands. They also act as mediators between God and men, 
being the constant attendants of the latter. When a Muslim prays 
(which he. does after the supposed fashion of the angels in heaven) 
it will be observed that he turns his face at the conclusion first over 
his right and then over his left shoulder. He thereby greets the 
recording angels who stand on each side of every believer, one on 
the right to record his good , and one on the left to record his evil 
dftds. The traveller will also observe the two stones placed over 
every grave in a Muslim burial-ground. By these sit the two angels 
who examine the deceased , and in order that the creed may not 
escape his memory it is incessantly chanted by the conductor of the 

While there are legions of good angels , who differ in form, but 
are purely ethereal in substance , there are also innumerable sa- 
tellites of Satan, who seduce men to error and teach them sorcery. 
They endeavour to pry into the secrets of heaven, to prevent which 
they are pelted with falling stars by the good angels. (This last is 
a notion of very great antiquity.) 

(2). Writtbn Rbvblation and thb Prophets. The earliest men 
were all believers, but they afterwards fell away from the true faith. 
A revelation therefore became necessary, and it is attained by 
intuition and by direct communication. The prophets are very 
numerous, amounting in all, it is said, to 124,000; but their ranks 
are very different. Some of them have been sent to found new forms 
of religion, others to maintain those already existing. The prophets 
are free from all gross sins ; and they are endowed by God with power 
to work miracles, which power forms their credentials ; nevertheless, 
. they are generally derided and disbelieved. The great prophets are 
Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jesus, and Mohammed. 

Adam, who has been already mentioned, is regarded as a pattern 
of human perfection , and is therefore called the 'representative of 
God'. — Noah' 8 history is told more than once in the Koran, where 
it is embellished with various additions , such as that he had a 
fourth, but disobedient son. The preaching of Noah and the occur- 
rence of the Deluge are circumstantially recorded. The ark is said 
to have rested on Mt. Judi near Mosul. The giant r Uj , son of 
r Enak , survived the flood. He was of fabulous size, and traditions 
regarding him are still popularly current. 

Abraham (Ibrahim) is spoken of by Mohammed, after the 
example of the Jewish writers , as a personage of the utmost im- 
portance, and, as in the Bible, so also in the Koran, he is styled the 

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'friend of God' (comp. James ii. 23). Mohammed was desirous of 
restoring the 'religion of Abraham' , and he attached special im- 
portance to that patriarch as having been the progenitor of the Arabs 
through Ishmael. Abraham was therefore represented as having 
built the Kaloa, where his footprints are still shown. One of the 
most beautiful passages in the Koran is in Sureh vi. 76, where 
Abraham is represented as first acquiring a knowledge of the one 
true God. His father was a heathen, and Nimrod at the time of 
Abraham's birth had ordered all new-born children to be slain (a 
legend obviously borrowed from the Slaughter of the Innocents at 
Bethlehem). Abraham was therefore brought up in a cavern, which 
he quitted in his fifteenth year. 'And when the darkness of night 
came over him he beheld a star and said — That is my Lord ; but 
when it set, he said — I love not those who disappear. Now when 
he saw the moon rise, he said again — This is my Lord ; but when 
she also set, he exclaimed — Surely my Lord has not guided me 
hitherto that I might belong to erring men. Now when he saw the 
sun rise, he spake again — That is my Lord ; he is greater. But 
when he likewise set, he exclaimed — people, I will have 
nothing to do with what ye idolatrously worship ; for I turn my 
face steadfastly towards Him who created heaven and earth out of 
nothing ; and I belong not to those who assign Him partners !' — 
Besides the slightly altered Bible narratives we find a story of 
Abraham having been cast into a furnace by Nimrod for having 
destroyed idols, and having escaped unhurt. — The history of Moses, 
as given in the Koran, presents no features of special interest. He 
is called the 'speaker of God', he wrote the Torah, and is very fre- 
quently mentioned. 

In the story of Jesus Mohammed has perpetrated an absurd ana- 
chronism, Mary being confounded with Miriam, the sister of Moses. 
Jesus is called f Isa in the Koran ; but r Isa is properly Esau, a name 
of reproach among the Jews ; and this affords us an indication of the 
source whence Mohammed derived most of his information. On the 
other hand, Jesus is styled the 'Word of God', as in the Gospel of 
St. John. A parallel is also drawn in the Koran between the creation 
of Adam and the nativity of Christ ; like Adam, Jesus is said to 
have been a prophet from childhood, and to have wrought miracles 
which surpassed those of all other prophets, including even Mo- 
hammed himself. He proclaimed the Gospel , and thus confirmed 
the Torah ; but in certain particulars the law was abrogated by him. 
Another was crucified in his stead , but God caused Jesus also to 
die for a few hours before taking him up into heaven. 

Modern investigation shows with increasing clearness how little 
originality these stories possess, and how Mohammed merely repeat- 
ed what he had learned from very mixed sources (first Jewish, and 
afterwards Christian also), sometimes entirely misunderstanding 
the information thus acquired. The same is the case with the 

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numerous narratives about other pretended prophets. Even Alexan- 
der the Great is raised to the rank of a prophet, and his campaign 
in India is represented as having been undertaken in the interests 
of monotheism. Alexander is also associated with the Khidr (also 
pronounced Khadr), or the animating power of nature, whioh is 
sometimes identified with Elijah and St. George. 

The only other matter of interest connected with Mohammed's 
religious system is the position which he himself occupies in it. Moses 
and Christ prophesied his advent, but the passages concerning him 
in the Torah and Gospel have been suppressed. He is the promised 
Paraclete, the Comforter (St. John xiv. 16), the last and greatest 
of the prophets ; but he does not profess to be entirely free from 
minor sins. He confirms previous revelations, but his appearance 
has superseded them. His whole doctrine is a miracle, and it, there- 
fore, does not require to be confirmed by special miracles. After his 
death, however, a number of miracles were attributed to him, and 
although he was not exactly deified, the position assigned to him is 
that of the principal mediator between God and man. The apotheosis 
of human beings is, moreover, an idea foreign to the Semitic mind, 
and it was the Persians who first elevated f Ali and the imams (lit- 
erally reciters of prayers) who succeeded him to the rank of super- 
natural beings. 

The Koran itself was early regarded as a revelation of entirely 
supernatural origin. The name signifies 'rehearsal', or 'reading', 
and the book is divided into parts called stirehs. The first revelation 
vouchsafed to the prophet took place in the 'blessed night' in the 
year 609. With many interruptions the 'sending down' of the 
Koran extended over twenty-three years, until the whole book, 
which had already existed on the 'well-preserved table' in heaven, 
was in the prophet's possession. During the time of the 'Abbaside 
khalife it was a matter of the keenest controversy whether the Koran 
was created or uncreated. (The Oriental Christians have likewise 
always manifested a great taste for subtle dogmatic questions, such 
as the Procession of the Holy Ghost.) The earlier, orMeccan Surehs, 
which on account of their brevity are placed at the end of the book, 
are characterised by great freshness and vigour of style. They are in 
rhyme, but only partially poetic in form. In the longer Surehs of a 
later period the style is more studied and the narrative often 
tedious. The Koran is nevertheless regarded as the greatest master- 
piece of Arabic literature. The prayers of the Muslims consist almost 
exclusively of passages from this work , although they are entirely 
ignorant of its real meaning. Even by the early commentators 
much of the Koran was imperfectly understood, for Mohammed, 
although extremely proud of his 'Arabic Book' , was very partial 
to the use of all kinds of foreign words. The translation of the 
Koran being prohibited, Persian, Turkish, and Indian children learn 
it entirely by rote. 

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The beat English translations of the Koran are those of Sale (1734; 
with a preliminary discourse and copious no'tes, ed. by Rev. E. H. Wherry, 
1882-86, 4 vols., and also obtainable in a cheap form)* Rodwell (London 
1861 * 2nd ed. 1878); and Palmer (London, 1880). 

(3). Future Statb and Predestination. That the main 
features of Mohammed's teaching on these points have been borrow- 
ed from the Christians is shown by the part to be played by Christ 
at the Last Day. On that day Chri6t will establish El-Islam as the 
religion of the world. With him will re-appear the Mahdi, the 
twelfth Imam (p. xciv), and the beast of the earth (p. lxxxv), 
while the peoples of Gog and Magog will burst the barrier beyond 
which they were banished by Alexander the Great (p. lxxxviii). The 
end of all things will begin with the trump et-hlasts of the angel 
Asrafil ; the first of these blasts will kill every living being ; a second 
will awaken the dead. Then follows the Judgment; the righteous 
cross to Paradise by a bridge of a hair's breadth, while the wicked 
fall from the bridge into the abyss of hell (p. 62). Some believe 
in a kind of limbo, like that of the Hebrews and Greeks, while 
others maintain that the souls of the dead proceed directly to the 
gates of Paradise. At the Judgment every man is judged by the 
books of the recording angels (p. lxxxvi). The book is placed in the 
right hand of the good, but is bound in the left hand of the wicked 
behind their backs. The scales in which good and evil deeds are 
weighed (p. 40) play an important part in deciding the soul's fate, 
and the doctrine of the efficacy of works is carried so far that works 
of supererogation are believed to be placed to the credit of the 
believer. The demons and animals, too, must be judged. Hell, as 
well as heaven, has different regions ; and El-Islam also assumes 
the existence of a purgatory, from which release is possible. Para- 
dise is depicted by Mohammed, in consonance with his thoroughly 
sensual character, as a place of entirely material delights. 

The course of all events, including the salvation or perdition 
of every individual , is , according to the strict interpretation of the 
Koran, absolutely predestined; although several later sects have 
endeavoured to modify this terrible doctrine. It is these views, 
however, which give rise to the pride of the Muslims. By virtue of 
their faith they regard themselves as certainly elect. 

In the second place the Koran is considered to contain, not only 
a standard of ethics, but also a code of civil law. 

The Morality of El-Islam is specially adapted to the character of 
the Arabs. Of duties to one's neighbour charity is the most highly 
praised, and instances of its practice are not unfrequent. Hospitality 
is much practised by the Beduins, and by the peasantry also in 
those districts which are not overrun with travellers. Frugality is 
another virtue of the Arabs, though too apt to degenerate into av- 
arice and cupidity. The law of debtor and creditor is lenient. Lend- 
ing money at interest is forbidden by the l£oran, but is nevertheless 

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largely practised, the lowest rate In Syria being 12 per cent. The 
prohibition against eating unclean animals , such as swine, is older 
than El-Islam, and is based on ancient customary law. Whether 
Mohammed prohibited the use of intoxicating drinks merely because, 
as we learn from pre-islamic poets, drunken carouses were by no 
means infrequent, cannot now be ascertained. Wine, however, and 
even brandy, are largely consumed by the upper classes, especially 
the Turks. 

Although Polygamy is sanctioned, every Muslim being permit- 
ted to have four wives at a time, and few men remain unmarried, yet 
among the bulk of the population monogamy is far more frequent, 
owing to the difficulty of providing for several wives and families 
at once. The wives, moreover, are very apt to quarrel, to the utter 
destruction of domestic peace , unless the husband can afford to as- 
sign them separate houses. Polygamy stands in close relation to the 
ancient Oriental view that women are creatures of an inferior order; 
hence the frequent treatment of women as chattels and slaves even 
among the Oriental Christians and Jews. It is probably owing to 
this degradation of women that the Muslims generally dislike to see 
women praying or occupying themselves with religion. The practice 
of wearing veils is not confined to the Muslim women, but is uni- 
versal in the East. An Oriental lady would, indeed, regard it as an 
affront to be called on to mingle in society with the same freedom 
as European ladies. Even in the Christian churches the place for 
women is often separated from the men's seats by a railing. The 
peasant and Beduin women, on the other hand, are often seen 
unveiled. The ease with which El-Islam permits divorce is due to 
Mohammed's personal proclivities. A single word from the husband 
suffices to banish the wife from his house, but she retains the dowry 
which she has received* from her husband. The children are brought 
up in great subjection to their parents, often showing more fear 
than love for them. 

The repetition of Prayers five times daily forms one of the 
chief occupations of faithful Muslims. The hours of prayer are 
proclaimed by the mu'eddins (or muezzins) from the minarets of the 
mosques: (1) Maghreb, a little after sunset; (2) 'Ashd, nightfall, 
about II/2 hour after sunset; (3) Subh, daybreak; (4)I)uftr, midday; 
(5) f ii*r, afternoon , about 3 hrs'. after midday. These periods of 
prayer also serve to mark the divisions of the day. The day is also 
divided into two periods of 12 hours each, beginning from sunset. 
Most people, however, content themselves with the sonorous call of 
the mu'eddin : Alldhu akbar (three times) ashhadu anna Id ildha 
ill' Alldh, anna Muhammedar-rasiUu-lldh (twice) heyyd 'ala-ssald 
(twice); i.e. ' Allah is great; I testify that there is no God but 
Allah, and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah; come to prayer'. 
This call to prayer sometimes also reverberates thrillingly through 
the stillness of night, to incite the faithful who are still awake to 

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good -works. — The duty of washing before prayer is a sanitary in- 
stitution, and tanks are provided for the purpose in the court of 
every mosque. In the desert the faithful are permitted to use 6and 
for this religious ablution. 

The person praying must remove his shoes or sandals and turn 
his face towards Mecca, as the Jews and some of the Christian sects 
turn towards Jerusalem or towards the East. The worshipper 
begins by holding his hands to the lobes of his ears , then a little 
below his girdle , and he interrupts his recitations from the Koran 
by certain prostrations in a given order. On Fridays the midday 
recital of prayer takes place three quarters of an hour earlier than 
usual, and is followed by a sermon. Friday is not, however, regarded 
as a day of rest, and it is only of late that the courts of justice have 
been closed in imitation of the Christian custom of keeping Sunday. 
The Beduins seldom pray j on the other hand, the Wahhabis in Cen- 
tral Arabia call the muster-roll at morning-prayer, and absentees 
are punished. The Muslims frequently recite as a prayer the first 
Sureh of the Koran, one of the shortest, which is used as we em- 
ploy the Lord's prayer. It is called el-fdtiha[Hlie commencing 1 ), and 
is to the following effect : — 'In the name of God, the merciful and 
gracious. Praise be to God , the Lord of creatures, the merciful 
and gracious , the Prince of the day of judgment ; Thee we serve, 
and to Thee we pray for help ; lead us in the right way , the way 
of those to whom Thou hast shown mercy , upon whom no wrath 
resteth , and who go not astray. Amen'. 

Another important duty of the believer is to observe the Fast 
of the month Ramaddn. From daybreak to sunset eating and 
drinking are absolutely prohibited, and the devout even scrupulously 
avoid swallowing their saliva. The fast is for the most part rigor- 
ously observed, but prolonged repasts during the night afford some 
compensation. Many shops and offices are entirely closed during 
this month. As the Arabic year is lunar, and therefore eleven days 
shorter than ours, the fast of Ramadan runs through all the seasons 
in the course of thirty-three years, and its observance is most severely 
felt in summer when much suffering is caused by thirst. The 
'Lesser Beiram' follows Ramadan. 

The Pilgrimage to Mecca, which every Muslim is bound to 
undertake once in his life, is also deserving of mention. In Syria 
the chief body of pilgrims start from Damascus in the month Dhul- 
ka'deh and follow the pilgrimage-route (p. 184) to Mecca by Medina. 
In the neighbourhood of Mecca the pilgrims undress, laying aside 
even their headgear , and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over 
the left shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Ka r ba, kiss 
the black stone, hear the sermon on Mt. 'Arafat near Mecca, pelt 
Satan with stones in the valley of Mina, and conclude their pil- 
grimage with a great sacrificial feast. On the day when this takes 
place at Mecca, sheep are slaughtered and a festival called the Great 

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Beiram observed throughout the whole of the Mohammedan coun- 
tries. Many of the pilgrims who travel by land fall victims to the 
privations of the journey, but most of them now perform the greater 
part of the distance by water. The month of the pilgrimage is 
called Dhul-hijjeh (that 'of the pilgrimage'), and forms the close 
of the Muslim year. 

In order approximately to convert a year of our era into one of the 
Muslim era, subtract 622, divide the remainder by 33, and add the quotient 
to the dividend. Conversely, a year of the Mohammedan era is converted 
into one of the Christian era by dividing it by 33, subtracting the quotient 
from it, and adding 622 to the remainder. On May 22nd, 1898, began the 
Muslim year 1316. 

The Worship op Saints was inculcated at an early period. The 
faithful undertook pilgrimages to the graves of the departed in the 
belief that death did not interrupt the possibility of communication 
with them. Thus the tomb of Mohammed at Medina and that of 
his grandson Hosein at Kerbela became particularly famous, and 
every little town soon boasted of the tomb of its particular saint 
(comp. pp. xl, xli). Shreds of cloth are often seen suspended from 
the railings of these tombs, or on certain trees which are considered 
sacred, having been placed there by devout persons. This curious 
custom is of ancient origin. The saints (seldom of the feminine 
gender) are known by the titles Nebi, prophet; Im&m or Shekh, 
spiritual head ; Seyyid (Syriac M&r), lord ; their chapels are called 
Kubbeh, dome ; Makam, standing place ; Mezdr, place of pilgrimage. 

Most of the Arabic Literature is connected with the Kor&n. 
Works were written at an early period to interpret the obscure pass- 
ages in the Koran, and there gradually sprang up a series of ex- 
egetic writings dwelling with elaborate minuteness upon every 
possible shade of interpretation. Grammar, too, was at first studied 
solely in connection with the Koran, and a prodigious mass of 
legal literature was founded exclusively upon the sacred volume. 
Of late years, however, some attempts have been made to super- 
sede the ancient law and to introduce a modern European system, 
The Beduins still have their peculiar customary law. 

With regard to theological, legal, and still more to ritualistic 
questions, El-Islam has not always been free from dissension. There 
are in the first place four Orthodox Sects : the Hanefttes, the Shdfe- 
'ites, the Malekites, and the Hambalites, who are named after their 
respective founders. In addition to these must be mentioned the 
schools of Free Thinkers who sprang up at an early period, partly 
owing to the influence of Greek philosophy. The orthodox party, 
however, triumphed, not only over these heretics, but also in its 
struggle against the voluptuousness and luxury of the most glorious 
period of the khalifs. 

Mysticism and Asceticism were also largely developed among 
professors of El-Islam, chiefly in Persia. The mystics (rQfi) inter- 

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piet many texts of the Koran allegorically, and this system there- 
fore frequently degenerated into Pantheism. It was by mystics who 
still remained within the pale of El-Islam (such as the famous 
Ibn el- f Arabi, born in 1164) that the Orders of Dervishes were 
founded. The dervishes, as well as insane persons, are still highly 
respected by the people. They generally carry about a wooden 
goblet into which the pious put alms or food. They are still reputed 
to be able to work miracles. One of their practices is to shout for 
hours together the word hti, (he, i.e. God) or Alldh, in order to work 
themselves into a state of religious frenzy. 

Dervishes (darwsh, plural dardwith). The Koran frequently gives 
utterance to the doctrine that our life on earth is "without value, is an 
illusion, a period of probation. This pessimist philosophy was further 
strengthened by the gloomy conception of God, the terrible aspect of whom 
Mohammed loved to depict, and so evoked a deep feeling of awe among the 
followers of Islam. Thus religiously disposed minds turned to the con- 
templative life, withdrew from the wicked world and devoted themselves 
to ascetic exercises, in order by this means to make sure at least of the 
next world. The mystic love of God was the great spell with which 
to throw oneself into the mysterious ecstasy and by complete absorption 
in contemplation to destroy self, and by this destruction of self (/and) 
to merge oneself in God (ittihdd). Just as in Europe the monasteries and 
mendicant friars developed out of penitents and hermits, so too did Mus- 
lim asceticism develope into an organised system of mendicancy. In the 
beginning great thinkers and poets (the Persians Sa r di and Hafiz for 
example) joined the movement, but nowadays the dervishes have degen- 
erated, the soul has departed and nothing remains but the external me- 
chanism, so far as it relates to the methods of throwing oneself into 
ecstasy and rendering the body insusceptible to external impressions. 

About the end of the 18th century a reaction against the abuses 
of El-Islam sprang up in Central Arabia. The Wahhabites, or 
Wahhabis, named after their founder f Abd el-Wahhab, endeav- 
oured to restore the religion to its original purity ; they destroyed 
all tombs of saints, including even those of Mohammed and Hosein, 
as objects of superstitious reverence; they sought to restore the 
primitive simplicity of the prophet's code of morals ; and they even 
forbade the smoking of tobacco as being intoxicating. They soon 
became a great political power, and had not Mohammed r Ali deemed 
it his interest to suppress them, their influence would have been 
far more widely extended than it now is. At the present time they 
are very weak. For a time the Wahhabites exercised a kind of 
supremacy over the Beduin tribes. The whole of this revo- 
lution may be regarded, in its political aspect, as a protest against 
the Turkish re*gime , the Turks being far more to blame than the 
Arabs for the deplorable degeneracy of the East, owing to their 
culpable neglect of education, as well as other shortcomings. 

We have hitherto spoken of the doctrines of the Sunnites (from 
sunna, 'tradition'), who form one great sect of El -Islam. At an early 
period the Sht'ites (from shVa, 'sect') seceded from the Sunnites 
(see p. lxiv). They assigned to f Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, 
a rank equal or even superior to that of the prophet himself; they 
regarded him as an incarnation of the Deity, and believed in the 

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divine mission of the Imams descended from r Ali. El-Mahdi, the 
last of these, is believed by them not to have died, but to be 
awaiting in concealment the coming of the last day. The Shfites 
are extremely fanatical, refusing even to eat in the society of per- 
sons of a different creed. The Persians are all Shfites, and towards 
the West also Shfitism was widely disseminated at an early period, 
particularly in Egypt under the regime of the Fatimite sovereigns. 
In Syria also are several native sects of that persuasion. Among 
the Syrian sects that of the Metdwileh has maintained the ShMte 
doctrines in the greatest purity. They possess villages in N. Pal- 
estine and in Lebanon as far as the neighbourhood of Horns, and 
even farther to the N. , and have a very bad reputation as thieves 
and assassins. In N. Syria, also, near Horns is found the similar sect 
of the Ismrfilians, who derive their name from Ismail, the sixth 
of the imams (latter half of the 8th cent.), and are identical 
with the notorious Assassins (literally 'hemp - smokers', p. lxvi) 
of the middle ages. These early ages of Mohammedanism witnessed 
the most extraordinary religious fermentation : ancient heathen 
superstition, misapprehended Greek philosophy, early Persian 
dualism, the theory of the transmigration of souls, and even ma- 
terialistic systems were combined to form a series of the most 
fantastic religions. Several of these religions exist to this day in the 
form of secret doctrines, known to the initiated only ; but, so far as 
they have been unveiled, they consist for the most part of mere mystic 
mummery, without any solid foundation of principle. The adherents 
of these sects are generally ready to profess Christianity to Christians, 
and El- Islam to Muslims, in order to escape being questioned regard- 
ing their religion. There are several degrees of initiation among 
them ; the higher the degree, the greater is the extent to which the 
allegorical interpretation of the Koran is carried, until little or 
nothing is left of the original system of Mohammed. — Attempts 
have recently been made to identify the Nusairtyeh with the Mani- 
chaeans and other sects ; but all that is known of them with cer- 
tainty is that they made their appearance as early as the 10th cent, 
of our era, and were originally settled on the banks of the Euphra- 
tes. They appear to have retained many of the heathen superstitions 
of ancient Syria; but they also celebrate a species of Eucharist, 
and believe in a kind of Trinity, and possess certain religious books. 
When praying they turn towards the rising and the setting sun at 
morning and evening. They inhabit the so-called Nusairiyeh Mts. 
in N. Syria, where they live by agriculture and cattle-breeding. 

From the same chaos of superstition emanated the religion of 
the Druses. The khalif Hakim Biamrillah (996-1020) having 
declared himself in Egypt to be an incarnation of r Ali, his doctrine, 
together with that of the transmigration of souls, was promulgated 
in Southern Lebanon (Wadi et-Teim) by Mohammed ibn Ismail 
ed-Darazi , a shrewd Persian sectary , who succeeded in making 

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many converts. Another sectary, called Hamza, reduced the new re- 
ligion to a system. The Druses, though for centuries they have 
held themselves aloof from the other inhabitants of Syria, are not 
a foreign race, hut of mixed Syrian and Arabian origin, the ancient 
Syrian element decidedly predominating. They describe themselves 
as 'unitarians'. They believe in the existence of a God, inscrutable 
and indefinable, but who has occasionally manifested himself in 
human form, his last incarnation having taken place in the person 
of Hakim. This Hakim, the last prophet, and the founder of the 
true religion , is said to have subjected himself to death only with 
a view to ascertain whether any of his followers embraced his 
doctrine from worldly motives. At a future day he will return, 
found a vast empire, and convert the whole world to the Druse 
religion. The Druses possess numerous religious writings. The 
most highly initiated among them are called r akkdl, or the 'under- 
standing 1 . The initiated abjure tobacco-smoking. They perform 
their worship in solitary chapels called khalweh. Their women 
wear the tantur, or horned head-dress. The Druses are generally a 
hospitable and amiable race, and on good terms with the British 
consulates. They are noted and feared for their bravery, and were 
it not for their internal dissensions they would often have proved 
most formidable enemies to the Turkish government. Their princely 
families have from an early age been too ambitious to submit to 
the authority of any one of their own number. For a considerable 
period the Druses maintained themselves as an independent power 
in Syria, and to some extent this is still the case. One of their 
most powerful princes was the Emir Beshir, of the Shehab family, 
whose power, however, declined when Mohammed f Ali lost poss- 
ession of Syria. The greatest enemies of the Druses are the Ma- 
ronites in Lebanon (p. lxxxii). In 1860, when an attempt was made 
to chastise the Druses for the massacre of the Christians at Damas- 
cus, many of them migrated to the Hauran. They are governed by 
village-chiefs, or shekhs, who when on horseback and fully capar- 
isoned present a most imposing appearance. 

Customs of the Mohammedans. The traveller will often have 
occasion to observe that the customs of the population of Syria in 
many respects still closely resemble those described in the Bible. 

Circumcision is performed on boys up to the age of six or seven, 
or even later, the ceremony being attended with great pomp. The 
child is conducted through the streets on a handsomely caparisoned 
horse, the procession frequently joining some bridal party in order 
to diminish the expense of the proceedings. The boy generally 
wears a turban of red cashmere, girls' clothes of the richest poss- 
ible description, and conspicuous female ornaments (especially 
gold coins), which are designed to attract attention, and thus avert 
the evil eye from his person. He half covers his face with an em- 

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broidered handkerchief; and the barber who performs the operation 
and a noisy troop of musicians head the procession. Two or more 
boys are frequently thus paraded together. 

Girls are generally married in their 12th or 13th, and some- 
times as early as their 10th year. The man in search of a bride 
employs the services of a relative , or of women whose profession 
it is to arrange marriages, and he never has an opportunity of seeing 
his bride until the wedding-day, except when the parties belong 
to the lowest classes. When everything is arranged, the affianced 
bridegroom has to pay the purchase-money, which is higher when 
the lady is a spinster than it is if she is a widow. Generally speak- 
ing, about two-thirds of the sum , the amount of which always 
forms a subject of lively discussion, is paid down, while one-third 
is settled upon the wife , being payable on the death of the hus- 
band, or on his divorcing her against her will. The marriage-con- 
tract is now complete. Before the wedding the bride is conducted in 
gala attire and with great ceremony to the bath. This procession is 
called l zeffet d-hammdm\ It is headed by musicians with hautbois 
and drums ; these are followed by several married friends and re- 
lations of the bride in pairs , and after these come a number of 
young girls. The bride is entirely concealed by the clothing she 
wears, being usually enveloped from head to foot in a cashmere 
shawl, and wearing on her head a small cap or crown of pasteboard. 
The procession moves very slowly, and another body of musicians 
brings up the rear. The hideous shrieks of joy which women of 
the lower classes utter on the occasion of any sensational event aie 
called zagh&fit. The bride is afterwards conducted with the same 
formalities to the house of her husband. 

The ceremonies observed at funerals are not less remarkable 
than those which attend weddings. If the death occurs in the morn- 
ing the funeral takes place the same day, but if in the evening 
the funeral is postponed till next day. The body is washed and 
mourned over by the family and the professional mourning-women 
(nedddbeh8) ; the fikth, or schoolmaster, reads several surehs of the 
Koran by its side : the ears and nostrils of the deceased are filled 
with cotton; the body is then enveloped in its white or green 
winding sheet, and is at length carried forth in solemn procession. 
The foremost persons in the cortege are usually six or more poor, 
and generally blind men, who chant the creed — 'There is no God 
but God ; Mohammed is the ambassador of God ; God be gracious 
to him and preserve him 1' The bier, with the deceased enveloped in 
a winding-sheet, is borne by friends. After the bier come the fe- 
male relatives, with dishevelled hair, sobbing aloud, and frequently 
accompanied by professional mourning-women whose business it is 
to extol the merits of the deceased. The body is first carried into 
the mosque and prayers are there offered on its behalf. The pro- 
cession then moves towards the cemetery, where the body is intoned 

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in such a position that its head is turned towards Mecca. Another 
custom peculiar to the Muslims is that the separation of the sexes 
is as strict after death as during life. In family vaults one side is 
set apart for the men, the other for the women exclusively. Between 
these vaults is the entrance to the tomb, which is usually covered 
with a single large slab. The vaults are high enough to admit of 
the deceased sitting upright in them when he is being examined by 
the angels Munkar and Nekir on the first night after his interment 
(see p. lxxxvi); for, according to the belief of the Muslims, the 
soul of the departed remains with his body for a night after his 
burial. — The catafalque bears two upright columns (shdhid) of stone. 
On one of these, over the head of the body, are inscribed texts from 
the Koran and the name and age of the deceased. On the upper 
extremity is represented the turban of the deceased, which shows 
his rank. In the case of persons of high position a dome borne by 
four columns is erected over the tomb, or the closed form of the 
tombs of the shekhs is adopted (p. xli). On festival days the cata- 
falque is adorned with flowers. On such occasions the female relat- 
ives frequently remain for days together by the tomb , occupying 
themselves with prayer and alms-giving. As it was necessary to 
provide accommodation for these mourners, it became customary to 
construct mausolea with subsidiary apartments, almost as spacious 
as those of the mosques themselves, including apartments for the 
family, sebils and schools, stabling for the horses, a residence for 
the custodian, and other conveniences, giving the establishment, 
when unoccupied, somewhat of the appearance of a small deserted 
town. A mausoleum of this larger description is called a hdsh. 

VII. The Arabic Language. 

Throughout Syria, except in a few localities which are decreas- 
ing in number, the language of the country is that of its Muslim 
conquerors. The golden era of Arabic literature was coeval with the 
great national development of the race, which was favoured by the 
introduction of El-Islam. The poems of that period and one 
somewhat earlier, together with the Koran, constitute the classical 
literature of the Arabs. Besides the language of literature, which 
is the dialect of Kureish (the family of Mohammed) , different 
dialects were prevalent among the various Arabian tribes, just 
as different dialects of English prevail in various parts of Great 
Britain ; though in the case of Arabic, notwithstanding the vast 
tract of country throughout which it is spoken — from Yemen to 
Mesopotamia, from Bagdad to Morocco — a greater degree of uni- 
formity is observable. To this day classical Arabic is still written 
with greater or less purity according to the education of the writer 
and the colloquial expressions he is in the habit of using. The 
language of the present day, however, has been considerably 

Pftleatine and Syria. 3rd Edit. g, h 

Digitized by UOOQ 1C 


modified by the introduction of foreign words, as the Turks have 
been in possession of the country for centuries , and Turkish is 
the official language of the government , and to some extent that 
of the courts of justice. The Aramaic language, which was spoken 
before the Mohammedan conquest, has also exercised some influence 
on the Arabic of Syria. Lastly, it must be mentioned that a patois 
called the lingua franca, composed of a mixture of Arabic with 
several European languages, was for a considerable time spoken in 
the seaport-towns. 

Arabic belongs to the Semitic group of languages, and has no 
relationship with the languages of Europe. It is this entire dissim- 
ilarity between Arabic and the language of the learner which ren- 
ders it so difficult to beginners. Arabic, however, and particularly 
the colloquial dialect, has many points of resemblance to Hebrew, 
and a slight knowledge of the latter will often be found useful. The 
Arabic characters have been developed from the Syriac, which in 
their turn were derived from the Hebrew-Phoenician. In old MSS. 
the letters are generally better formed than in modern writing, and 
the present running hand is small, indistinct, and unpleasing. The 
vowel signs are now very rarely added , so that it is impossible to 
read Arabic correctly without an accurate acquaintance with the 
grammatical rules. — The language of the peasantry and the inhab- 
itants of the desert is purer and more similar to the classical lan- 
guage than that of the dwellers in towns. The Muslims generally 
speak more correctly than the Christians , being accustomed to a 
more elegant diction and pronunciation from their daily repetition 
of passages of the Koran. The chief difference between the lan- 
guage of the Koran and the modern colloquial dialect is that a 
number of terminal inflexions are dropped in the latter. The proper 
pronunciation and accentuation of Arabic is only to be learned by 
long and attentive practice. 

We annex here a few of the most important grammatical rules 
of the ordinary Arabic of Syria, and add a list of some of the com- 
monest words and phrases. 

Alphabet. We give the corresponding sounds, so far as it is 
possible to represent or describe them to the English reader. It 
should also be observed that in the following pages we use the 
vowel sounds of a, c, i, o, u as they are used in Italian (ah, eh, 
ee, o, oo). The circumflex (d } 2, % 6, u) indicates that the vowel 
is long. The sound of the French u or German u is denoted by u, 
that of the French eu or German 6* by 6*. The diphthongs ci, ai have 
the sound of the English i in high; the diphthong au has the sound 
of ou in bough. The long d is frequently pronounced in Syria with 
a sound resembling the English a in hare. This system of trans- 
literation will be found most convenient , as the words will then 
generally resemble the forms used in German, French, and Italian, 
instead of being distorted to suit the English pronunciation. Thus ; 

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emir, is pronounced 'aymeer' ; shtkh (or sheikh), 'shake' (with a gut- 
tural k) ; tul&l, pronounced 'toolool'; Beir&t (or Berut), pronounced 
'bayroot'; Hilleh, pronounced 'hoolay'; etc. 












































accompanies an initial vowel, and is not 
pronounced as a consonant. 

as in English. 

as th in 'thing', but pronounced t in the 

towns, and * by the Turks, 
as in English, but pronounced g in Egypt 

and by the Beduins. 
a peculiar guttural A, pronounced with 

emphasis at the back of the palate, 
like the harsh Swiss German ch. 



(j^ as th in 'the 1 , hut pronounced d in the towns, 
and z by the Turks and country-people. 

T pronounced with a vigorous vibration of the 

S > as in English. 


§ emphasised s. 

• 1 both emphasised by pressing the tongue 
* I firmly against the palate. 

Z generally pronounced in Syria like No. 15. 
a strong and very peculiar guttural. 

rrh a guttural resembling a strong French or 
o German r. 










emphasised guttural ifc, pronounced g by the 
Beduins, and replaced by townspeople 
by a kind of hiatus or repression of 
the voice. 

Kaf (k) is often pronounced tch by the Be- 
duins and country-people. 

as in English. 



The numerous gutturals of Arabic render the language un- 
pleasing to the ear. The consonants Nos. 15, 16, and 21, which 
are sometimes called 'emphatic*, are very peculiar, and modify the 
vowels connected with them : thus after them a and u approach the 
sound of o, and i that of e. The sounds of the French u and eu 
(German u and o) are rare in colloquial Arabic , and so also are 
diphthongs (except in Lebanon). 

Address. The inhabitants in towns use the 2nd person plural 
in addressing a person , or a periphrasis , such as jendbak (your 
honour), khadrtak (your presence), or to a patriarch ghubtetkum, 
to a pasha scfddetak (both phrases meaning 'your good fortune 1 ). 
Yd 8idt (0 sir) is also frequently used. Instead of ana, the first 
person singular (I), people of the lower classes use el-fakir (the 
poor man). 

Possessives. These are expressed by means of affixes. Thus, 
farasi, my mare ; farasak, your mare (tft, when the person addressed 
is feminine); farasu (6), his mare; faras-ha, her mare; farasna, 
our mare ; faraskum, your mare ; faras-hum, their mare. 

Article. The I of the definite article el and of the demon- 
strative hal is assimilated before dentals and sibilants, and before 
n and r, as also generally before j : thus, esh-shems, the sun. 

Demonstratives. Hdda (haida, hat), this ; pi. hdddli. Hdddk, 

Relative. EM, which is omitted after an indefinite substantive. 

Declension. The substantive is not declinable. The genitive 
of a substantive is formed by simply placing it immediately after 
the substantive to be qualified, the latter being deprived of its ar- 
ticle : thus, ibn el-bdsha, the son of the pasha. The feminine ter- 
minations a, e, i are in such cases changed into at, et, it: thus 
mara, wife ; marat el-kddi, the wife of the judge. 

Dual. The dual termination is In, fern, etin: thus seneh, year; 
senettn, two years ; ijr, foot ; ijrtn, two feet. 

Plural. In the masculine the termination is in (as fellahin, 
peasants); in the feminine dt (as hdreh, town, quarter, etc., pi. 
hdrdt). The plural is, however, usually formed by a change of the 
vowel sounds of the singular, the change being effected in thirty or 
forty different ways, so that it becomes necessary for the learner to 
note carefully the plural form of every substantive: thus, r ain, 
spring, pi. 'uyiln; tdjir, merchant, pi. tujjdr; jebel, mountain, pi. 
jibdl; kabileh, tribe of Beduins, pi. kabdil. 

Verb. Paradigm of the irregular verb. 
Perfect. Imperfect. 

katab he wrote yiktub or byiktub he is writing 

katabet she - tiktub - btiktub she 

katabt you (a man) - tiktub -btiktub you (a man) are - 
Jcatabti you(a woman)- tiktebi - btiktebt you (a woman) are - 

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katabt I wrote ektub - bektub I am writing 

katabU they - yiktebU - biktebti they are 

katabtti, you (plural) - tiktebti - btiktebti, you (plural) 
katabnd we - niktub - mniktub we 

Many of the verbs consist of different cognate roots, somewhat 
in the same manner as the English verbs lay and lie are akin to 
each other. Each verb consists of a perfect and present imper- 
fect tense, an imperative, a participle, and an infinitive. 
Paradigm : katal, he killed. 
Perfect. Imperfect. Imperat. Act. Part. Pass. Part. 



fktul,uktul kdtil maktdl 

Causative kdttal 



mekdttil mekdttal 




mekdtil mekdtal 




mijctil miktal) 

Reflexive takdttal 








Passive or inkatal 




Reflexive iktatal 




Desiderat. istdktal 



mistdktil or mustdktil 

Stress. In Arabic stress falls on (I.) the last syllable of the word, 
if this syllable has along vowel and ends in a consonant: e.g., 
itnln, two; muslimin, Muslims; (II.) in other cases on the last syllable 
in the word which either (a) has a long syllable : e.g., teldteh, three; 
tdliteh, the third; or (b) is closed by a consonant: e.g., katdbtu, 
you wrote ; tfktebu, you are writing ; (III.) if there is no such long 
syllable, then on the first: e.g., kdtabu, they wrote. 

one — \ wdhidy fern 
two — f itnln 
three— {^ teldteh - 

Arabic Vocabulary. 

wahdeh the first — dwwel, fern. <lld 

four — f 
five — e> 
six — *\ 
seven — v 
eight— A 
nine — *| 
ten — f. 
11— hedd'sh 
12 — etnd'sh 


khdmseh - 



temdnyeh - 



20— r ashrin 
30— teldttn 






sSb r a 


tis r a 


the second 
the third 
the fourth 
the fifth — 
the sixth — 
the seventh — 
the eighth — 
the ninth — 
the tenth — 

13 — telatt&sh AO—arba'in 

14 — arba'td'sh 50 — khamsin 

15 — khamstffsh 60 — sittin 

16— sittd'sh 70— seba'in 

17— aeVat&'sh %^—temdntn 

18— tmantd'sh 90— tfsin 

19 — tis'at&'sh 100 — miyeh; or,before nouns, mit, 

tdni - tdniyeh 

tdlit - tdliteh 
rdbi r - rdbi f a 
khdmis - khdmiseh 
sddis - sddiseh 
sdbV - sdbVa 
tdmin - tdmineh 
tdsf - tdsi'a 

'dshir - r dshireh 
200 — miyeten 
300— telatmiyeh 
400 — arba'mfyeh 
2000— alfen 
3000— telattdldf 
4000— arba'tdldf 
100,000— mitalf 
,1,000,000— milydn 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


once — marra a half — nus 

twice — marratln a third — tult 

thrice — teldtmarrdt etc. a fourth . — rub r a etc. 

The substantives following the numerals above ten are used in 
the singular; thus: 4 piastres, dr bcf kurdsh ; 100 piastres, mitkirsh. 

I, dna; thou, inte, fern, inti; he, hH; she, hi; we, ndhen; you, 
Intu; they, hum. 

Yes, na f am, c; no, Id; not, m#; no, I will not, Id, md berid; 
it is not necessary, mush Idzim; there is nothing, mdfish; I will, 
ana berid; wilt thou, terid enteh; we will, nerid; will you, terfaft2. 

I go, ana rdih; I shall go, ana beruh; we shall go, menr&h; go, 
r<2ft; go ye, rtihil. 

I have seen, shuft; he has seen, sfcoy,- see, shUf; I want to see, 
beddi eshuf. 

I speak, behki; I do not speak Arabic, ana md behki biVarabi; 
do you speak Italian, btehki bil-italydni ; French, fransdwi; English, 
inglizi ; what is your name, shti, ismak. 

I want to drink, beddi eshrab; I have drunk, ana shirtbt; drink, 

I want to eat, beddi dkul; I have eaten, anaakalt; eat, kul; 
we will eat, bedna ndkul. 

I want to sleep, beddi endm; get up , kdmCi; I am resting, 

I mount, berkab; I start, besdfir; I have ridden, rikibt. 

I have come, jit; I come, biji; come here, ta'dl or ta'd; he has 
come, jd; he is coming, yiji. 

To-day, el-y6m; to-morrow, bukra; the day after to-morrow, 
ba'd bukm ; yesterday, embdreh ; the day before yesterday, awwel 

Much, very, ketir; great, kebir; a little, shwoyyeh; good, tayyib; 
bad (not good), mush tayyib; very good, tayyib ketir; slow, slower, 
shwoyyeh shwoyyeh, r ala mdhlak; forwards, yallah yallah. 

How much, kem; for how much, bekem; enough, bes; how many 
hours, kem sd r a? 

For, for what purpose, minshdnish ; never mind, md'alish. 

Everything, kul; together, sawasawa; each, kulwdhid; one 
after the other, wdhid wdhid. 

Finer, better, dhsan ; the best of all, el-dhsan min el-kul. 

Here, hdn; hither, lahon; hence, minhon; there, hdnik; above, 
fok; below, taht; over, r ala; deep, ghamik; far, ba'id; near, karib; 
within, inside, juwwa; outside, bdrra; where, win; yet, lissa; 
not yet, md lissa (with a verb); when, emteh; still, ba T d; later, 
ba'dln; never, abadan; always, ddiman; perhaps, belki. 

Old, kebir; celebrated, meshhUr; occupied, mashghUl; knavish, 
khauwdn; drunken, sekrdn; blind, a f ma; stupid, ghashim; lazy, 
kesldn; fat, semin; strange, gharib; glad, ferhdn; healthy, sdh, 
mabsut (also content); hungry , jWdn ; untruthful, kedddb; tired, 

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ta'bdn; satisfied, shib'dn; weak, da'tf; dead, meyyit; mad, mejntin; 
trustworthy, amin. 

Bitter, murr; sour, hdmud; sweet, hilu. 

Broad, 'arid; narrow, dayyik; large, r adim, keb\r ; hot, har; 
high, *dli; empty, khdli, fddi; new, jedid; low, u?#*i; bad, battdl; 
dirty, wusife/i; steep, f d*i; dear, ghdli. 

White, abyad; black, dark, aswad; red, ahmar; yellow, as/tor,- 
blue, azrdk; green, akhdar. 

Hour, clock, sd f a; what o'clock is it? kaddesh es-sd'a? it is 
3 o'clock, essd'a bitteldteh; it is half-past four, essd'a arbcf unuss; 
it is a quarter to 5, essd'a chdmseh ilia rub'eh. 

Forenoon, ddhd; noon, duhr; afternoon (l£ hr. before sunset) 
*asr; night, Ul; midnight, nuss el-lel. 

Sunday, ydm el-ahad; Monday, ydm el-itnen; Tuesday, ydm et- 
teldta; "Wednesday, ydm el-arba r a ; Thursday, ydm el-khamis ; Friday, 
ydm el-jum r a; Saturday, Sabbath, ydm es-sebt. The word ydm 
(day) is, however, generally omitted. The week, usbtf ; month, 
shahr, pi. ushhur. 

January, kdniln et-tdni; February, eshbdt; March, addr; April, 
nisdn; May, iydr; June, hezirdn; July, tamxtz; August, db; Sep- 
tember, Uh,l; October, tishrin el-awwel; November, tishrin et-tdni; 
December, kdnUn el-awwel. 

The Muslim months form a lunar year only (comp. p. xcii). 
Their names are : muharrem, safar, rebV el-awwel, rebV et-tdni, 
jumdda el-awwel , jumdda et-tdni , rejeb , sha'bdn , ramaddn (the 
fasting month), shawwdl, dhul-Mdeh, dhul-hijjeh (pilgrimage 

Winter, shita; summer, stf; spring, rebV. 

Rain, malar, shita; snow, telj; draught of air, hawa. 

Heaven, semd; moon, kamar; new moon, Midi; full moon, 
bedr; sun, shems; sunrise, tultf eeh-shems; sunset, maghreb; star, 
kdkab, pi. kawdkib. 

East, sherk; West, gharb, maghreb; North, shemdl; South, kibla. 

Father, abu; mother, umm; son, ibn, pi. beni; daughter, bint, 
pi. bendt; grandmother, sitt; brother, akh, pi. ikhwdn; sister, ukht, 
pi. akhwdt; parents, wdliden; wife, mdra; women, niswdn, harim; 
boy, weled , pi. <tidd ; man, rijdl ; human being , insdn , pi. nds ; 
friend, sadik; neighbour, jdr; bride, r arQ,s; bridegroom, 'arts; 
wedding, e ors. 

Fastening of the keffiyeh, r agdl; Beduin cloak, f abdyeh; fez, 
tarbtish; felt cap, libdeh; girdle, zunndr; trousers, shelwdr; jacket, 
fermeliyeh; kaftan, kumbdz; skull-cap, 'arjciyeh; silk, harir; boot, 
jezmeh; woman's boot, mest; slipper, bdb'dj; shoe, surmdyeh; stock- 
ing, jerdb ; turban, shdla, leffeh. 

Eye, r ain, dual 'ainin; beard, dakn, lihyeh; foot, ijr, dual, ijrfa; 
hair, sha'r; hand, id, dual idin; "right hand, yemin; left hand, 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


shemdl; fist, keff; head, rds; month, fum, turn; moustache, 
shawdrib; back, dahr; stomach, batn; nose, unf. 

Fever, sukhtineh ; diarrhoea, insihdl ; pain, wafa ; quinine, kina ; 
opinm, afiytin. 

Abraham, ibrdhim; David, ddtid; Gabriel, jibrdil, jubrdn, 
jebbUr, jabHra; George, jirjis (or jwjus)] Jesns, f isd; John, 
hanna (a contraction of ytihanna) ; Joseph , y&sif, y&suf; Mary, 
maryam; Moses, m&sd; Panl, b<Uus; Peter, budrus; Solomon, 

American, amerikdni, amelUcdni; Arabic, 'arabi; Austria, bilad 
nemsd; Austrian, nemsdwi; Bednin, bedawi, pi. bidu, or el-arab ; Con- 
stantinople, stambul; Drnse, durzi, pi. ed-dertiz; Egypt, mast; Eng- 
land, ingiltarra, bildd el-ingiliz; English, inglizi; France, fransa; 
French, fransdwi; Frank (i.e. European), frenji; Frankish gentle- 
man, khowdja (literally 'the respected'), pi. khowdjdt; Germany, 
alemdniya; Greece, rhm; Greek, rami; Italian, italyani; Italy, 
bildd itdlia; Prussia, bildd brussiya ; Prussian, brussidni; Russia, 
bildd moskow; Russian, moskdwi; Switzerland, suitsera; Syria, esh- 
shdm; Turkish, tHrki. 

Christian, nustdni, pi. nasdrd; Jew, yehUdi, pi. yehUd; Greek 
orthodox, rum kadim; Greek catholic, rum kdt&lik; Catholic, 
JcdtHliki , pi. kuweteleh ; descendant of Mohammed , seyyid ; Prot- 
estant, protestant; Mohammedan, muslim, pi. muslimin. 

Saint (or grave of a Mohammedan saint), weli, or (Syrian) mdr; 
prophet, nebi, or (applied to Mohammed) rastil. 

Army, 'asker; baker, khabbdz; barber, halldk; Bednin chief, 
shtkh el-arab ; bookseller, Mtubi ; butcher, kassdb ; caller to prayer, 
mueddin; consul, kunsul, unsUl; consul's servant (gensdarme), 
kawwds; cook, tabbdkh; custom-house officer, gumrukchi; doctor, 
hakim, pi. hukamd; dragoman, terjumdn; gate-keeper, bawwdb; 
goldsmith, sdigh, pi. siydgh; judge, kadi, pi. kuddt; missionary, 
mursal, pi. mursalin; money-changer, sartdf; monk, rdhib, pi. 
ruhbdn; muleteer, mukdri (corrupted to mukr), pi. emkdriyeh; 
pilgrim , hajji ; police , zdbtiyeh ; mounted policeman , khayydl ; 
porter, hammdl; robber, hardmi, -pl.hardmtyeh; scholar, 'dlim, pi. 
( ulemd; servant, khddim; shoemaker, surmdydti; cobbler,; 
soldier, 'dskeri; tailor, khayydt; teacher, mtftillim; village-chief, 
shekh el-beled; washer, ghassdl; laundress, ghassdleh; watchman, 
ghaftr, pi. ghufard. 

Almond, loz; apricot, mishmish; banana, mUz; barley, sha'ir ; 
bean, fCLl, lUbiyeh; citron or lemon, ttrndn; cotton, kutn; date, 
temr; fig, tin; flower (blossom), zahr, pi. azhdr; garlic, tfan (fum) ; 
grapes, 'onab; melon (water), battikh, (refyjebzeh; olive-tree, zltdn; 
onion, basal; oranges, bortugdn; peach, durrdk; pistachio, fustuk; 
pomegranate, rummdn; Carob or locust tree, kharrub; tree (shrub), 
sajara, pi. asjdr. 

Brandy (generally prepared from raisins in Syria) , ( arak, raki 

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bread, kkubz; flat Arabian bread, raghif, pi. rughfdn; breakfast, 
fup&r, (second) ghddd; cigarette-paper, warakat sigdra; coffee, 
kahweh; dinner, r ashd; egg, bt&a; eggs, bid, (boiled) bid berisht, 
(baked) bid makli; honey, 'asal; milk (fresh), halib, (sonr) leben; 
oil, zit; pepper, fulful; poison, semm; rice, ruz; salt, tnilh; sugar, 
sukkar; sweetmeats, haldwa; water, mdyeh; wine, nebid. 

Book, kitdb, pi. leutub; letter, mckttib, pi. mekdtfb. 

Tent, khlmehj (Arabian) 6#; tent-peg, watad, pi. autdd; tent 
pole, ^arnHd. 

Carpet, &e«dt; chair, fcum; garden, bustdn or jenlneh, pi. jandin; 
gate, 6#6, bawwdbeh; house, 6ft (pi. fctytM), ddr; inn, lokanda; 
room, dda; sofa, dttodn; stair, dSrejeh; straw-mat, hastra; table, 
md.ida; wall, 8<k; window, tdfea. 

Dervish - monastery , tekkiyeh; hospital, mUristdn; minaret, 
mQdineh; monastery, dlr; mosque, jdmi% mesjid, pi. masdjid; 
prayer-niche, mihrdb; pulpit, mimbar; tomb, 'fta&r, pi. hubfir. 

Bridle, lejdm; fodder-sack, 'altka; luggage, 'afsh, himl; horse- 
shoe, ncfl; saddle (European) , serj frenji, (Arabian) serj beledi; 
saddle for luggage, jel&l; stirrup, rekdb, pi. rekdbdt; travelling-bag 
(Arabian, for laying over the saddle), khurj. 

Dagger, khanjar; gun, bunduktyth; gunpowder, milh; pistol, 
tabanja; sword, slf. 

Axe, kaddtim; candle, shem'a; candlestick, shemfaddn; drinking 
glass, hubdyeh; fan, mirwdh; knife, sikkin; lantern, f&nfa; pail, 
delu; soap, sdbtin; stick, 'dsdyeh; string, cord, habl; thread, khlt; 
water-skin, kirba, pi. kirab. 

Bath, hammdm; cistern, bir; fountain (public), 9tbil; pond, 
birkek (pi. burdk~), bob&ta; spring, 'ain, nebef. 

Charcoal, coal, fahm; Are, n&r; iron, hadid; lead, res&s; light, 
ndr; stone, hajar; wood, khashab. 

Anchorage, mersd; harbour, n&na; island, jeztreh; promontory, 
rds; river, nahr; sea, bahr; ship, merkeb, pi. mardfttfc; steamer, 
todftdr; swamp, ghadir. 

Bridge, jisr; castle, kasr; casern, megh&ra, pi. mughr; desert, 
berrtyeh, bddiyth; district, native country, bildd; earth, ard; fortress, 
kaVa; hill, tell, pi. tul&l; market, «d&, pi. aswtik; meadow, merj; 
mountain, jebel, pi. jibdl; plain, watd, sahl; road, tartfc, pi. turuk; 
high-road, tarty es-mlt∋ ruin, khirbeh; school, kuttdb (reading 
school), medrcseh, pi. maddris (higher school); street, zekdk, sikkeh; 
town, medtneh, pi. mudun; village, beled, karya, kefr (Aramaic) ; 
way, derb, pL durtib ; wood, fc&fc. 

Ass, humdr, pi. fcamfa; bee, nahleh; bird, tgr, pi. Jit/dr; bug, 
bak; camel, jemel, pi. jim&l, tern, n&kth, pi. *n2fc'; camel for 
riding, dhelHl; chicken, ferrty; cock, dik, dog, fceift, pi. kildb; 
dove, Aomflm; duck, bat; eagle (vulture), mar; Ash, semek; fleas, 
bar&gtitt; fly, dubbdn; foal, muftr; gazelle, ghazdl; hen, ,/#; horses, 
fc&&; lamb, fcMrd/"; leech, 'atafc, pi. 'flWft; lizard, jabb; louse, 

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kaml; mare, faras; nag, gedhh; pig (or wild boar), khanzlr j porcu- 
pine, kunfud; scorpion, r akrab, pi. 'akdrib; snake, hayyeh; stallion, 
humn; stork, legleg; tortoise, zdLhafeh. 

On Arrival. For how much will you take me to land (to the 
ship)? Bikim tdkhudni lil-barr (lil-merkeb)? 

For five francs. Bikh&ms frahkdt. 

Too much ; I will give you one. Ketir; ba'tik w&hid. 

You must take me alone, or I will give you nothing. Tdkhudni 
wahdi, willa md ba'tik she. 

There are three of us. Nahn teldteh. 

For four piastres each. Kul wdhid bi arbcf kurHsh. 

Take this trunk (these trunks) down to the boat. Ntzzil has- 
sandtik (has-sanddik) lil-merkeb. 

At the Custom House (Oumruk). Open the trunk. Iftah es- 

I have nothing in them. Md r andi shl. (Gratuity, bakhshish.') 

Give me your passport. Hdt et-ttzkereh (passaport). 

I have no passport. Md fi tezkereh 'andi. 

I am under the protection of the English (American) consul. 
Ana taht el-kunsul el-Inglizi (el-Amerikani). 

At a Cafb. Boy, bring me a cup of coffee. Yd weled, jib finjdn 
kahweh (kahweh besiikkar , with sugar ; minghlr sukkar , or mtirra, 
without sugar). 

Bring me a chair, some water. Jib kursi, mdyeh. 

Bring me a nargileh. Jib natgtleh (or nefes~). 

A clean new tube. Marbish nadif, jedid. 

Bring me a piece of red-hot charcoal. Jib basset ndr. 

Change the pipe (t. e. bring a fresh-filled bowl). Ohayyir en- 

At the Bath (fil-hammdm). Bring the pattens. Jib el-kabkdb 
CaVdb). — Take me in. Waddini lajuwwa. — Leave me for a little. 
Khalltni shwoyyeh. — I do not perspire yet. Lissa mdni 'arkdn* 

— Rub me well. Keyyisni melih. — You need not rub me. Mush 
Idzim et-tekyis. — Wash me with soap. Ohassilni bisdbdn. — That 
will do ; enough. Bikeffi ; bes. — Bring me cold water. Jib mdyeh 
bdrideh. — Bring some more. Jib kemdn. — We will go out. 
Bedna nitk? bdrra. — Bring a sheet (sheets). Jib ftita (fuwat). 

— Where are my clothes? Win hudtimi? — Bring my shoes. Jib el- 
jezmeh. — Where is the bath-attendant, the coffee-seller? Wen el- 
mukeyyis, el kahweji? — Here is your fee. Khud bakhshishak. 

At the Barber's (* and el-muzeyyin). Cut my hair with scissors. 

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Kuss shaW rdsi bilmakdss. (The Mohammedans have their heads 
shaved, an operation which is not only disfiguring to the patient, but 
often causes an unpleasant eruption.) — Shave me well. Ihlak 
dakni melXh. — Shall I wash your head? Eghassil rdsak? — No, it 
is not necessary. Ld, mush lazim. (Yes : I ndam.') 

When the barber has finished, he holds a mirror before his 
customer and says : Nd'iman (may it be pleasant to you) ; to which 
reply : Alldh yin'am r al$k (God make it pleasant to thee). 

Washing. Take the clothes to be washed. Waddi el-hudurn 
lil-ghastl. (The articles should be counted in presence of the 
washerman). — How much does the washing cost? Kaddesh 
terntn el-ghasil? 

With a Muleteer (mukdri). Have you horses? 'Andak khU? 
— - 1 have no beasts. Mdfish dawdbb r andi. — What do you ask for 
a horse per day? Kaddtsh tdkhud kira kul ydm 'aid ddbbeh? Thirty 
piastres. Teldtin kirsh. — That won't do ; we will give you fifteen. 
Md bisir; naftik khamstd'sh. — We want two horses and two mules. 
Bednd husdnln ubaghlln. — For how much will you take me there ? 
Bikem idkhudni Ua hdriUc? — A journey of three days. Sefer telatt- 
iydm. — We will try the animals. Menjerrib ed-dawwdbb. — This 
one does not go well ; bring another. Hdda ma biyimshi; jib wdhid 
gheru. — Give me earnest-money. A'tini ghabfin. 

On the Journey. When will you start? Emteh tesdferu? — 
We shall start to-morrow at sunrise. Menrid (bednd) nesdfir bukra, 
ma'ash-shems; an hour before sunrise, sd'a kabl esh-shems ; two hours 
after sunrise, sd'aten ba r d eshshems. 

Do not come too late. Ld tete'dwwak. — Is everything ready ? 
Kul shthddir? — Have you bought wine? Ishtaret neMd? — No, 
not yet. Ld, lissa. — Pack, load. Shiyyilu. 

How many hours is it from ... to ... ? Kem sd r a min . . . 
ila . . . ? (As, however , few of the natives appear to know what an 
hour is , their answers are seldom to be relied on.) — Seven hours 
and a half. Seb'a sa'dt unuss. 

Hold the stirrup. Imsik er-rekdb. — I will mount. Beddi erkab 
(pi. bednd nerkab'). — Will it rain to-day? Rdih yimtur el-yom? 
-*- Wait a little. Istenna shwoyyeh. 

What is the name of this village, mountain, valley, tree, 
spring? Shti ism hal-beled, jebel, wddi, (hasj-sajara, haWain? 

We will rest, breakfast. Beddend nisterih, neteghddda. — Is there 
good water there (on the route)? Fi mdyeh tayyibeh (fid-derb)? — 
Where is the spring? Win eWain? — We will dismount. BSdna 
nimil. — Bring the dinner. Jib el-dkel. — Remain at a little 

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distance. KhallVcum bald f anni. — Take away the dinner. ShH 

Come. Ta'd ta'dl. — Go away. Rdh. — Where are yon going? 
Win rdih? — Whence do yon come? Min win jdi? — The time 
has passed ; it is late! Fdt el wakt. 

Shall we go straight on? Menrtih dughri? — Straight on. Dughri 
dughri. — Is a guide necessary? Yilzemna delU? — Yon have lost 
yonr way. Qhalattu (tihtu) 'an ed-derb. — Are there Bednins 
(robbers) on the route? Fih bcdwin (hardmiyeh) fid-derb? — No, it 
is quite safe. Ld, kullu amtn. 

Fear me. Khdfminni. — What shall I do? Shti bcsauvA? 

A gift, O sir! Bakhshish, yd khowdja! — I have nothing for 
you ; begone. Mdfish; r&h I 

Where does this road lead to? Had-derb tuwaddi ila win ? — * 
Where does this road come from? Had-dtrb tiji minen? 

I have become very tired. 'Ana tfibi kefir. — I have headache. 
Rdsi bytijtfni. 

We will dismount early in order that we may rest. Nestd'jil 
bidna nintil bakir minshdn nesterih. — Evening has come on. Sdr 
moghreb. « — When shall we reach our quarters? Emteh n&sil lil- 
menzil? — In a short time. Ba'd sd'a. — Where is the plaee to 
dismount, the monastery? Win el-meddfeh (cl-kdnvk), cd-dlr? 

Open the door. Iftah el-bdb. — Shut the door. Selckir el-bdb. — 
Clean the room and sprinkle it. Ktnnis It cl-6da urishha. 

We will eat. Bidna ndkul. — Spread the table. Hutt es-sufr*. 

— Bring a bottle of wine. Jib kaninet nebid. — What is there to 
eat? ShH fth lil-tikel? — Cook me a fowl. Itbukh It jdjeh. — Give 
me water to drink. Askini. — Bring me a clean napkin. Jtb fdta 
nadtfeh. — Clean this glass properly. Neddif hal-kubdyeh mefih. 

Prepare the bed. Hdddir el-ferdsh. — Wake me early to-morrow. 
Kayyimni bukra bakir. 

I will take a walk in the open air. Beshimm el-Mwa. — We 
snail soon be back. Nirja r kawwdm. — Where is the post-office? 
Win bit el-b6sta? — Are there no letters for me? Mdfi makdfib 
min shdni? 

At a Shop. What do you want? What do you seek? 8hti btdddk? 

Have you a keffiyeh, a fez? 'Andak kefftyeh, tarbtish? — What 
does it cost? Kaddlsh yiswa (or simply bik£m)1 — A hundred and 
twenty piastres. Miyeh u'ashrin kirsh. 

That is dear, very dear. Hdda ghdli, ghdli kefir. — Cheap, sirt 
Rakhis yd sidit — I will give you seventy piastres. Ba'tik seba'tn 
kirsh. — As you please. 'Ala klfdk (or simply klfcSt). — No , it 
won't do. Ld, md yeslr. 

Will you buy it for a hundred piastres? Tishtertha bimft kirsh? 

— No; I have but one speech, the word of a Frank. Ld, 'andi 
kaldm wdhid, kilmeh frenjiyeh. 

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Kalilj min shdnak (it is little, but for your sake) is the expression 
used by the seller when he has decided to accept the price named 
by the buyer. Or he sometimes says: KhUdu baldsh (take it for 

Yield a little. 7Ad shwoyyeh. — Give me the money. Hdt el- 
fulus. — Change me a gold piece. Sarrif It lira. — For how much 
will you take this gold piece? Bikem tdkhud el-lira? — It does not 
matter. Md bisdil. 

Salutations and Phrases. Good day. Nehdrak 8a r id. — An- 
swer : Your day be blessed. Nehdrak mubdrak. — Good morning. 
Sabdh el-kher. — Answer : God grant thee a good morning. Alldh 
yesabbihak bil-kher. 

Good evening. Masd H-kher. — Answer: God grant thee a good 
evening. Alldh yemessik bil-khtr. — May your night be happy, 
blessed. LUtak sa'ideh, mubdrekeh. Answer, the same. 

On visiting or meeting a person, the first question after the 
salutations is : Kefhdlak, or kef klfak? How is your health? The 
usual answer is: El-hamdu lilldh, tayyib. Well, thanks be to God. 
— The Beduins and peasants sometimes ask the same question a 
dozen times. 

After a person has drunk, it is usual for his friends to say : Ha- 
niyan yd sidi. May it agree with you, sir. — Answer: AUdhyehan- 
nik. God grant that it may agree with thee also. 

On handing anything to a person: Ddnak, or khud, take it. 
Answer: Kdttar kherak. (God) increase your goods. — Reply: 
XJkherak. And thy goods also. 

On leaving : Khdtrak, farewell. To which the host replies : Ma'as- 
saldmeh; fare ye well; to which the answer sometimes given is: 
Alldh yesellimak; God grant it may go well with thee. 

On the route : Ahlan wasahlan, or marhabd, welcome. Answer : 
marhabten, twice welcome. 

I beg you. Tafdddal, pi. tafdddalu. 

Take care. Khalli bdlak, dir bdlak or simply bdlak. 

To make way for a rider: Take care of your back. Ddhrakt 
JDdhrak yd khowdjal Ddhrak yd bint! — according to the rank and 
sex of the person addressed. 

My house belongs to you. BUi betak (my house thy house). — 
Be so good. Tmil el-maWUf. 

Mdshdilah (expression of surprise). Literally 'what God will' 
('happens', understood). — Inshdllah; as God pleases. Wallah, or 
loalldhi; by God. Bihaydt or wahdyat rdsak; by thy head. Istdgh- 
fir alldh ; God forbid. 

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Vll. History of Art in Syria. 

Syria has never produced any original form of art. The native 
development of the arts has ever been hindered by the peculiar 
aversion entertained by the Semitic race for images of all kinds, as 
well as its own remarkable deficiency in power of conception. There 
are, however, scattered throughout the country vestiges of art- work- 
manship belonging to the most widely different schools and ages. 

a. Syria possesses numerous relics of Prehistoric Culture. 
At various points along the Nahr el-Kelb (p. 325) flint tools have 
been found, united by the influence of calc-sinter into a firm breccia, 
along with the teeth of deer, chamois, bears, bisons, and a species 
of tiger. Shaped flints have been collected in numbers at Gilgal 
(p. 154) and Tibna (p. 147), and near some of the dolmens. The 
country to the E. of the Jordan is particularly rich in stone monu- 
ments, including Menhirs , Cromlechs , Cairns (especially in E. 
Moab), and (most of all) Dolmens. The last seem to have been 
partly sacrificial spots, partly tombs, even in the age of metal, for 
rings of copper wire have been found in one of them. The space 
inside the tombs is so short that the bodies could only have been 
buried in a bent position. Skeletons in this position have been 
discovered in the dolmens of the mountains of Sinai. The object of 
the Tumuli j or artificial hills, partly constructed of sun-baked 
bricks and from 3 to 30 feet high, which exist in such large numbers 
in the valley of the Jordan (p. 154) and on the plain of Jezreel, has 
not yet been established. 

b. The mountains of Syria abound in Caverns, and there is 
ample evidence to show that the aboriginal inhabitants of the coun- 
try were troglodytes, or dwellers in caves. The first and most nat- 
ural effort of art would be directed towards the extension of natural 
caverns, and the next to forming new excavations in the rocks. 
Remains of such dwellings are still to be found in the Ilauran, and 
the caverns in the region of Bet Jibrin (p. 138) belong to the same 
class. The use of these caves as dwellings was determined not so 
much by a low stage of civilization as by the nature of the soil and 
the character of the climate. Many of the series of caverns clearly 
testify to the skilful use of tools of metal. 

In a land so deficient in springs as Palestine it was also ne- 
cessary to dig Cisterns and line them with masonry, or to hew them 
out of the solid rock. These cisterns were often extended so as to 
form large reservoirs (pp. 46, 47). Many of them have their mouths 
closed with large stones. Springs were conducted to the villages by 
means of aqueducts (comp. p. 129) ; and the water of these springs, 
as well as rain-water, was often collected in tanks. These re- 
ceptacles, which the character of the country rendered necessary, 
were used at a very remote period (Deut. vi. 11). 

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The Oil and Wine Presses which occur so frequently in Syria 
are also very ancient. These last consist of square or circular holes 
in the rocks, about 3-4 ft. deep and up to 13 feet long, with a 
hole at the bottom through which the wine or oil flowed into a vat. 
The Phcenician oil-presses are more carefully constructed than the 
Hebrew. All these excavations must have required considerable 
experience in the use of the chisel, although the rock is not part- 
icularly hard. 

The whole country is full of ancient Rock Tombs, but it is very 
difficult to ascertain the periods to which they respectively belong. 
A favourite practice was to excavate these chambers in the face of a 
precipitous rock, with their entrances sometimes at an apparently 
inaccessible height from the ground. Where no such slopes were 
available, a shaft was sunk in the rock and the tomb excavated in 
tlie side of the shaft, in which a staircase descended. 

These tombs are classified as follows : — (1). Sunken Tombs, 
hollowed in the rock like modern graves, and then closed with a 
slab of stone. — (2). Shaft Tombs (Heb. fctffctm), consisting of 
openings 5-6 ft. long and l 1 /^ ft. square, usually hewn horizont- 
ally in the rock, into which the body was pushed. — (3). Shelf 
Tombs, shelves or benches for the reception of the dead, about 2 ft. 
from the ground} sometimes these were hewn out of the rock, gen- 
erally with vaulted roofs. — (4). Niche Tombs, hewn laterally in 
the face of the rock, about 2^2 ft* fr° m the ground, of the length of 
the body, and about li/ 2 ft. square. Strictly speaking, this variety 
is a combination of Nos. 1 and 3, the sunken tomb being hollowed 
out in the shelf hewn in the rock. 

The Tomb Chambers are of three kinds : — (1"). Single chambers 
which are open and have one sunken tomb in the floor. — (2). Single 
chambers but containing several graves of different varieties (espe- 
cially shelf-tombs and shaft-tombs). — (3). The third kind con- 
sists of aggregates of chambers, and has a portal, having a lintel or 
pediment, leading into a vestibule, whence small doors open into 
various chambers shaped like No. 2. The architectural decorations 
consist chiefly of wreaths of flowers, and the Egyptian hollow- 
moulded cornice frequently recurs. — Many tombs of this last 
description betray GraBco-Roman influence, especially those in which 
Ionic and Corinthian capitals have been employed. Egyptian in- 
fluence is also apparent in the case of the pyramids which some- 
times surmount monumental tombs. — For the rock-tombs of the 
Phoenicians, comp. p. 315. 

The Sarcophagi, or stone coffins, which were only employed by 
the wealthier members of the community, were borrowed by the 
Hebrews and Phoenicians from the Egyptians. These sarcophagi 
were frequently arranged in pairs, covered by a single lid. Many 
of the old Syrian sarcophagi are now seen in use as fountain 

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The custom of engraving inscriptions on stone was much less 
common among the ancient Hebrews and Phoenicians, owing to 
their want of taste for history, than among the Assyrians and 
Egyptians ; and it is this which lenders it so difficult for ns to de- 
termine the age of their architectural remains. 

c. Phoenician Architecture. The Phoenicians borrowed their 
types from Assyrian and Egyptian sources, and the Jews were wholly 
dependent on Phoenician architects. David's palace and Solomon's 
temple were works of Phoenician architecture. A distinctive pecu- 
liarity of this architecture consisted in the fact that, instead of the 
column, as in Greece, the fundamental source of their style was the 
sculptured rock, of which the separate piers afterwards used were 
merely an imitation. Hence it is that the supports of these build- 
ings are so massive in size, and that, quite contrary to the prin- 
ciples of classical architecture, the plan of the structure is entirely 
subservient to them. Hence also, probably, the use of enormous 
blocks of stone in building (comp. pp. 67, 376). On the other 
hand it is possible that the builders of the most ancient period 
were not acquainted with drafting, such as appears e.g. in the build- 
ings of Herod, while, on the other hand, the mediaeval stone-ma- 
sons frequently used drafting. The drafting is formed by slightly 
sinking the face of the stone round its outer margin to a width of 
2-4 inohes, thus giving the wall a kind of fluted appearance. The 
surface of the blocks was either left rough ('rusticated'), or slightly 
hewn, or completely planed. The tones, though fitted together 
without mortar, are jointed with marvellous accuracy. 

d. Greek and Roman Architecture. It is probable that Greek 
influence had begun to make itself felt in Syria, or at least in Phoe- 
nicia, even before the time of Alexander. It has frequently been 
asserted that a number of Ionic forms and the art of overlaying cer- 
tain parts of buildings with metal were imported by the Greeks from 
the nearer regions of the East. This may have been the case ; but 
it is certain that the Syrians received in return from Greece the 
fully elaborated forms of Greek sculpture, although the hard lime- 
stone used in Syria was inferior to the Greek marble as a material 
for Corinthian capitals and figures. Numerous though the monu- 
ments of the period of the Diadochi must have been, hardly one of 
them is now extant in Syria, but those of the Roman re*gime are 
still abundant. The Romans extended their military roads even to 
the most remote districts, and the milestones of some of them are 
still in existence. It was with a view to ingratiate himself with the 
Romans that Herod caused sumptuous edifices in the Roman style to 
be erected in various towns. After the destruction of Jerusalem the 
Roman colonisation was actively extended, and new towns sprang up 
under the auspices of the governors, or at the expense of the em- 
perors, particularly of Trajan. The characteristic feature of these 
towns was that they were intersected by a colonnade leading from a 

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triple gate. At the point where the colonnade was crossed by an- 
other of smaller size, there appears to have been a 'tetrapylon'. 
On each side of the chief colonnade lay the temples, baths, theatres, 
and naumachiae. Those relics which have been preserved date from 
the later Roman period, that is from the 2nd centnry downwards, 
when a falling-off from the severe and dignified taste of the classical 
period is manifested in superabundant decoration, in the adorn- 
ment of niches surmounted by broken pediments , and in the ab- 
sence of harmony of design. Palmyra, Ba'albek, and Jerash afford 
examples of this style, and likewise Petra, where the tombs, ex- 
cavated in the native fashion, are externally adorned with huge 
facades chiselled in the rock in a style somewhat resembling the 
later rococo period, especially where the cornices have been con- 
structed in curves. The numerous small temples (perhaps tombs), 
relics of which are scattered throughout Lebanon, date from the 
same period, though all turned towards the East in the Greek 
fashion, and are generally 'in antis', with Ionic capitals; the stylo- 
bate has a cornice running round it, and the cella is entered from 
its raised W. end by a door leading through the stylobate. — A 
peculiar style of architecture is seen in the Synagogues erected in 
Galilee during the 3rd-6th centuries. They are quadrangular in 
form, and the interior is frequently divided into five aisles by 
means of four rows of massive columns. These columns bore an 
architrave of stone, the roof was of wood, and the ornamentation, 
especially that of the cornices, was extremely rich. The two last 
internal supports towards the N. end always consist of square pillars 
rounded off towards the interior. It is remarkable that figures of ani- 
mals were frequently carved on the synagogues. 

e. Christian Architecture. Towards the close of the third 
century it became customary to employ vaulted domes to cover large 
spaces, and the important invention of uniting the dome with the 
quadrangular substructions by means of 'pendentives' or brackets 
was next adopted. At the same time simple basilicas supported by 
rectangular piers, and afterwards by columns, were also frequently 
erected. — The northern group of the buildings of that period, 
between Hama and Aleppo, is still more interesting. Columnar 
basilicas and dome-covered structures occur here also, but basilicas 
borne by piers are rare. The facade consists of an open colonnade ; 
the apse is generally round internally and quadrangular externally ; 
and numerous windows, and as a rule side-doors also, are inserted 
in the aisles and upper part of the nave. The capitals of the 
columns sometimes approach the acanthus type, but are occasionally 
in the shape of a calyx which has been developed by the native 
architects after a fashion of their own. The apses, as well as the 
windows and portals, are adorned with decorated string-courses 
terminating in knots resembling volutes. The ornamentation of the 
friezes consists of foliage, fruit, grapes, and the acanthus; but 
Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit _> h 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


vases, peacocks, and other objects also occur, while crosses are in- 
variably introduced. — In the chief towns of Palestine, and parti- 
cularly in places of religious resort, the Greek emperors after the 
time of Constantine the Great erected a number of spacious Basi- 
licas. The Empress Helena, in particular, enjoys a high reputation 
as a builder. To her (or else to Solomon) every considerable build- 
ing of unknown origin is ascribed. The ancient basilica of Bethlehem 
(converted by Justinian) has been preserved, but of the earliest 
constructions of the church of the Holy Sepulchre few relics now 
exist. The Afcsa affords an example of an ancient basilica which 
the Arabs have restored in the original style and converted into a 

f. Arabic Abchitbctubb. The Arabs at first employed Greek 
architects and builders : hence the strong resemblance of their edi- 
fices to those of the Christians. The rotunda of the church of the 
Sepulchre served as the model for that of the mosque of r Omar 
(es-Sakhra) ; the dome, which had already long been familiar to the 
Syrians , had meanwhile been frequently employed in the West 
also. Like the Byzantines, the Arabs were in the habit of covering 
their walls and domes with mosaic. While the Arabs in their ar- 
chitectural works chiefly followed the style which already existed 
in Syria, they nevertheless developed various forms peculiar to 
themselves. At a later period taste degenerated. They began ca- 
priciously to give their domes a pointed, bulbous form, and to 
cover their vaulting internally with a superficial structure of minia- 
ture arcading, reminding the spectator of a honeycomb. This is 
the so-called 'stalactite vaulting', in which the impression of solid- 
ity properly conveyed by a vaulted structure is entirely neutralised. 
The Arabs also frequently stilted the sides of the round arch above 
the capitals of the supporting pillars , and at an early period (as 
early as the 9th cent, in Egypt) they also began to use the pointed 
arch and the horseshoe arch, the latter being exclusively an in- 
vention of their own. The great fault of Arabian architecture is its 
want of strict organic coherence ; instead of having regard to the 
general effect of their buildings the minds of the architects were 
entirely devoted to ornamentation and other details ; and hence the 
unsatisfactory impression produced by these edifices, notwith- 
standing all their showy wealth of arabesques. One often observes, 
for example, ancient columns with beautiful capitals placed im- 
mediately beside modern Arabian columns or clumsy piers. The 
coloured arabesques, the idea of which was probably borrowed from 
woven tapestries, are often very cleverly designed, but they soon 
weary the eye of the beholder. 

Syria cannot boast of many original buildings in the Arabian 
style, the reason being that the Arabs here found abundance of 
ancient edifices which they could easily adapt for their own pur- 
poses. Taking advantage of the wonderfully substantial foundations 

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of antiquity, and using either ancient materials or inferior ones of 
their own, they erected on these foundations their town-walls, their 
towers, and their castles, all of which speedily again fell to decay. 
They supposed that additional strength was imparted to their walls 
by building fragments of columns into them ; and they often en- 
deavoured to produce the appearance of such a construction arti- 
ficially. This was also done by the Crusaders. Thus in the vicinity 
of ancient harbour- fortifications in particular , one often observes 
numerous scattered portions of columns, most of which were once 
incorporated with the badly built walls of which no other trace is 
now left. 

g. Frank Castles and Churches. In the case of many of 
the mediaeval castles of Syria it is difficult to determine whether 
they were erected by the Saracens or by the Crusaders ; but they 
may be distinguished from each other by the fact that diagonal or 
sometimes almost horizontal lines generally appear on the face of 
the blocks used by the Crusaders. The churches erected by Europ- 
eans on the soil of the Holy Land, however, are easily distin- 
guishable from the Arabian buildings. These churches are of two 
classes. The first embraces all the churches built by the Franks 
between 1099 and 1187. These are all in one style. They possess 
a nave and aisles of equal length, a transept, and three apses ad- 
joining each other. The vaulting is smooth and without a trace of 
groining, and rests on simply constructed piers. Above the inter- 
section of the nave and the transept rises a dome, springing from 
pendentives. The rest of the building is covered with a flat 
roof. The buttresses project but slightly beyond the outside walls, 
and pointed arches are universal. — The second class of these 
churches embraces those of the 13th century. They are all situated 
on the sea-coast, and they closely resemble French churches of the 
same period, but have flat roofs. — The pointed arch, which pre- 
vails in these buildings, is not the early Muslim arch, but that 
which was afterwards perfected by western architects, so that this 
European architecture may properly be termed an early development 
of the pointed style on Arabian soil. 

h. Antiquities. Lastly, we must notice some of the ancient 
relics which are still to be found in Syria, and at the same time 
caution the inexperienced traveller against purchasing any of the 
imitations which are now largely manufactured in that country and 
in Egypt. Old Hebrew coins (shekels; very seldom genuine) are par- 
ticularly valuable ; and next to them Phoenician coins and gems, 
Grseco-Roman coins of various towns, and Arabian coins of very 
various periods. The tombs often contain tear- vases, small statues 
and reliefs, and (on the Phoenician coast) scarabaei, etc. In the 
case of such antiquities being offered for sale, enquiry should always 
be made as to the place where they were found, and unless this 
can be ascertained with certainty, they possess no scientific value. 

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All stones bearing Inscriptions are valuable, especially when freshly 
discovered, and such relics are still frequently turned up by the 
plough. Inscriptions are found in Syria bearing the following char- 
acters: — (1) PheBnician, ancient Hebrew, and Samaritan; (2) 
Aramaic (or 'Nabataan'; the Nabataeans were Arabs who wrote 
Aramaic), in the Hauran and at Palmyra; (3) Greek (very numer- 
ous) ; (4) Latin ; (5) Arabic, which in the earlier periods (Cuflc) 
more nearly approaches the Aramaic character, but in later times 
often became very involved ; (6) Medieval Frank writing. 

With regard to the method of obtaining impressions of in- 
scriptions, see p. xxvii. 

IX. Works on Palestine and Syria. 

The literature , of Palestine especially, is enormous : we give here 
merely a few important works, which travellers may be recommended to 
study before starting on their trip. The literature on certain special 
topics is briefly enumerated at various places in the Handbook. Pro- 
fessional scholars may be referred to R. Rohrichfs Bibliotheca Qeographica 
Palaestinae (Berlin, 1&90). Since 1867 the Palestine Exploration Fund has 
taken a foremost place in the exploration of Palestine. The results of its 
work will be found in its Quartei'lt/ Statements. The German Palestine 
Exploration Society (Deutscher Verein zur Erforschung Paldstinas) also issues a 
scientific journal. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the traveller is assumed to 
have his Bible with him. 


The Survey of Western Palestine, 9 vols., London 1884 (3 vols. Me- 
moirs ; 1 vol. Name List ; 1 vol. Special Papers ; 1 vol. Jeru- 
salem; 1 vol. Fauna and Flora; 1 vol. Geology; 1 vol. Index). 
— The Survey of Eastern Palestine, 2 vols., London 1889. — 
These works, published for the Pal. Explor. Fund, are the found- 
ation of all modern exploration in Palestine, and practically 
supersede all books of travel of earlier date. 

Robinson, Biblical researches in Palestine, etc. London 1841. 

Robinson, Later Biblical researches, etc. London 1856. 

Robinson, Physical Geography of the Holy Land. London 1865. 

Conder, Palestine (with maps). London 1889. 

Conder, Tent work in Palestine. London 1889. 

Conder, Heth and Moab. London 1889. 


Names and places in the Old and New Testament with their modern 

Identification. London 1889. 
(Eusebius) Onomastica sacra, ed. P. de Lagarde. Gottingen 1887. 
Itinera Latine (Publications de la Soci&e* de V Orient Latin). 1879. 

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Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, established for the translation and 
publication of the mediaeval literature (annual subscription one 

O. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 3rd ed., Lon- 
don 1896. 

Neubauer, La ge*ographie du Talmud. Paris 1868. 

Guy le Strange, Palestine under the Moslem. London 1890. 

Great map of Western Palestine, in 26 sheets. 
Reduced map of Western Palestine, in 6 sheets. 
The same map, water basins in colour and sections. 
Old and New Testament map of Palestine, in 21 or in 12 sheets. 
Modern map of Palestine, in 21 or in 12 sheets. 
Old and New Testament map of Palestine, in 12 sheets. 
Fischer § Guthe, Karte von Pal'astina. Leipsic 1890. 


J. WeUhausen, History of Israel. Translated by W.Robertson Smith, 

Edinburgh 1889. 
B. Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel. 2 vols., Berlin 1890. 
E. Schurer, A history of the Jewish people in the time of Christ. 

Translated by J. Macpherson. 2 vols., Edinburgh 1890. 
W. D. Morrison, The Jews under Roman rule. London 1890. 
Dean Milman, History of the Jews, 3 vols., London 1829. New ed. 

1883 ; cheap ed. in one vol., 1887. 
J. JST. Hosmer, The Jews. London 1886. (Story of the Nations series). 
Q. Bawlinson, History of Phoenicia. London 1889. 
A. H. Sayce, The races of the Old Testament. London 1891. 
Dean Farrar, The Herods. London 1897. 
J. F. Michaud, History of the Crusades. Translated by W. Robson. 

3 vols., London 1881. 
Cox, History of the Crusades. London 1878. 

Manners and Customs. 
W. B. Smith, The religion of the Semites. New ed., London 1894. 
E. W. Lane, The Manners and Customs of the modern Egyptians. 

London 1836, new ed. 1882. 
Post, Essays on the sects and nationalities of Syria and Palestine : 

Pal. Explor. Fund. Quart. Statements 1890. 
Thomson, The Land and the Book. 3 vols., London 1880, 1883. 
J. L. Burckhardt, Notes on the Beduins andWahebys. 2 vols., Lon- 
don 1831. 

Modern Travels (and Illustrated Works). 
Temple, Palestine illustrated. London 1888. (ill.) 
Harper, Walks in Palestine London 1888. (ill.) New ed., 1894. 

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Harper, The Bible and Modern Discoveries. London 1890. 

Hull, Mount Seir, Sinai, and Western Palestine. Being a narrative 

of a scientific expedition. London 1885. 
F. and E, Thivot, Palestine illustrated. London 1891. 
Hill, With the Beduins. London 1891. 
Helen Miller, Alone through Syria. London 1891. 
A. Heber Percy, Moab, Amnion, and Gilead. London 1897. 
The earlier works by Dean Stanley, Laurence Oliphant, Dr. Porter, 

and Canon Tristram may also be mentioned. 

Natural Histobt and Geology. 

Post, Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai. Beirut 1896. 
Tristram, The Fauna and Flora (Survey). London 1889. 
Tristram, The natural history of the Bible (8th ed.). London 1889. 
Hull, Memoir on the physical geology and geography of Arabia 

Petraa, Palestine, etc. (Survey). London 1886. 
Hart, Some account of the fauna and flora of Sinai, Petra, and W&di 

Arabat. London 1891. 

Histobt of Abt. 

Perrot § Ckipiet, History of Ancient Art in Judaea, Sardinia, and 

Syria. London 1890. 
Vogui, Syrie oentrale, architecture civile, etc. Paris 1861-1877* 
VoguS, Lee Eglises de la Terre Sainte. Paris 1860. 
Bey j Etudes sur les monuments del' architecture militairedes Croistfs 

en Syrie etc. Paris 1871. 

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1. Approaches to Palestine : 

I. From Europe to Alexandria and Port 8 aid 3 

II. From Port Sa f id to Jaffa and Beirut 5 

2. Jaffa 6 

3. From Jaffa to Jerusalem : 

A. By Railway 10 

B. By the Road 15 

From Jaffa to Lydda 18 

From Lydda to Jerusalem via Jimz{\ and El-KubSbeh . 18 

From Lydda to Jerusalem via, B&t- f Ur and El-Jib ... 18 

From Ramleh to Jerusalem via BSt Nuba 18 

4. Jerusalem 19 

History of Jerusalem 21 

Topography, Population, etc 31 

The Haram esh-Shertf 36 

History 30 

Gates of the Haram. Kubbet es-Sakhra 39 

Kubbet es-Silseleh. Kiibbet el-Mi f raj. Kubbet en-Nebi. 45 
Kubbet el-Arwah. Kubbet el-Khidr. Sebft Kait Bei. Pul- 
pit of Kadi Bornaneddin. El-Kas. King's Cistern. . 47 

Bir el-Waraka. The Mosque El-Aksa 48 

Substructions of the Haram. Double Gate. Cradle of Christ 50 
Solomon's Stables. Single Gate. Triple Gate. Eastern 

Wall 51 

The Golden Gate. Throne of Solomon. Bab el-Asbat. 

Birket Isra'in ". 52 

N. Side of the Haram : Bab Hitta. Bab el- f Atem. Kubbet 

Shekif es-Sakhra ...'.' "... 54 

Walk round" the Walls: Serai 54 

Bab el-Kattanin. Hammam esh-Shifa. Wilson's Arch. 

El-Burak' Pool. Mehkemeh. Bab es-Silseleh 55 

Wailing' Place of the Jews. Barclay's Gate 56 

Robinson's Arch 58 

S. and E. Sides of the Haram 58 

Church of the Sepulchre 59 

History 59 

Entrance Court 61 

Side Chapels. Clock Tower. Southern Facade .... 62 

Interior of the Church of the Sepulchre. Stone of Anointment 63 

Rotunda of the Sepulchre. The Holy Sepulchre .... 64 

Chapel of the Angels. Chapel of the Sepulchre .... 65 
Chapel of the Syrians. Chapel of the Apparition. Column 

of the Scourging 66 

Latin Sacristy. Church of the Crusaders. Catholicon. Centre 

of the World 67 

Prison of Christ. Cbapel of St. Longinus. Chapel of the 

Parting of the Raiment. Chapel of St. Helena. ... 68 
Chapel of the Finding of the Cross. Chapel of the Derision. 

Golgotha. Chapel of the Raising of the Cross ... '69 
Cleft in the Rock. Chapel of the Nailing on the Cross. 

Chapel of the Agony. Chapel of Adam. Monuments 

of Godfrey and Baldwin 70 

Easter Ceremonies 71 

East Side of the Church of the Sepulchre. Basilica of 

Constantine ?1 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 1 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Dar Ishak Beg. Abyssinian Monastery. Monastery of 

the* Copts. Cistern of St. Helena 72 

Walks within the City 72 

I. The Muristan 72 

II. From the Gate of St. Stephen through the Via Dolorosa 75 

Church of St. Anne . 75 

Pool of Bethesda. Chapel of the Scourging. Via Dolorosa 76 
Convent of the Sisters of Zion. Ecce Homo Arch. Aus- 
trian Pilgrims' Hospice. House of the Poor Man. House 

of Dives. lst-5th Station 77 

House of St. Veronica. Porta Judiciaria. 6th-14th Station 78 

III. Christian Street Old Bazaar. Jewish Quarter ... 78 

Greek Monastery 78. 

Patriarch's Pond. Monastery of St. John. David Street. 

Old Bazaar. Jewish Quarter. Synagogues .... 79 

IV. Castle of Goliath, Citadel, etc 79 

New Bazaar 79 

Latin Patriarchate. Castle of Goliath. Citadel. Christ Church 80 

Armenian Quarter 81 

V. The Jaffa Suburb 81 

Space in front of the Jaffa Gate. Mamilla Pool .... 81 
French Hospital. St. Paul's Chureh. Russian Buildings. 

Talitha Kumi. Syrian Orphanage 82 

German Hospital. British Consulate 83 

VI. The So-called Zion Suburb 83 

Bp. Gobat's School. Coenaculum 83 

Monastery of Mt. Zion. Habs el-Mesih. Gate of Zion . 84,85 

5. Environs of Jerusalem .......* 85 

1. The Mount of Olives 85 

Bath of Our Lady Mary. Tomb of the Virgin .... 85 

Garden of Gethsemane 87 

Mount of Olives 88 

. Chapel of the Ascension. Vault of St. Pelagia .... 89 

Russian Buildings 90 

Latin Buildings (Church of the Creed, Church of the Lord's 

Prayer). Tombs of the Prophets 91 

Viri Galilsei (Karem es-Sayyad). Scopus. Bethphage 93 

2. The Valley of the Kid'ron 94 

Tomb of Absalom 94 

Tomb of Jehoshaphat. Grotto of St. James 95 

Pyramid of Zacharias. Siloah. Mountain of Offence . . 96 

St. Mary's Well 97 

Pool of Siloam. Job's Well 98 

BSt Sahur el- r Atika ... 99 

3. The Valley of Hinnom 99 

Mount of Evil Counsel 99 

Necropolis 99-101 

Building of the Field of Blood 101 

German Colony of the Temple 101 

Lepers' Hospital. Birket es-Sultan 102 

4. N. Side of the City. Tombs of the Kings , Tombs of 

the Judges, etc 103 

Damascus Gate. Cotton Grotto 103 

Grotto of Jeremiah 104 

Church of St. Stephen. Tombs of the Kings 105 

Tombs of the Judges 107 

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1. Approaches to Palestine. 

Palestine and Syria are reached from Europe either via Egypt (Alex- 
andria or Port Sa r id) or via Smyrna (from Constantinople or the Piraeus). 
From England the journey may he made all the way by steamer or over- 
land to the Mediterranean (see Bradshavfs Continental Railway Guide, monthly, 
2*.) and thence by steamer. Travellers from the United States may sail 
direct from New York to Gibraltar, Naples, or Genoa by German steamer 
(weekly ; fares 90-175 $) or Anchor Line steamer (monthly ; 70 $). The 
handbooks of the various steamship-companies (p. xvii) give full informa- 
tion as to the steamer-routes. Travellers who desire to return from the 
E. by one of the larger mail-lines should engage berths at Cairo or Port 
Sa r id as soon as possible, for the steamers are apt to be crowded from 
Feb. to April inclusive. At intermediate ports these steamers are some- 
times behind itinerary time, and not unfrequently a day or two in advance. 
In either case they proceed at once on their voyage. — Additional partic- 
ulars as to the steamship-lines are given at pp. xvii et seq. 

I. From Europe to Alexandria and Fort Said, 
a. Steamers from England direct. 
From London to Port Sa'U in 12-14 days, by 'P. & 0.' steamer 
via Gibraltar and Marseilles, or by Orient Line via Plymouth, Gib- 
raltar, Marseilles, and Naples, see p. xviii. 

From Southampton to Port Sa'id in 13 days, by North German 
Lloyd via Genoa and Naples, see p. xx. 

From Liverpool to Egypt and Syrian Ports, see p. xviii. 

b. From Mediterranean Ports and Constantinople. 

Overland Routes feom London to Mediterranean Poets. To BHndisi, 
59 lira., via Paris and Mont Cenis (fares 1st cl. 122. 9*. &d., 2nd cl. 8/. 12s. 9d.), 
52 hrs., via Ostend and Bale (11/. 18*. 10d., 81. Is. Id.), or, 43 hrs., by the 
4 P. & O. Express* leaving London every Frid. evening (ticket, including 
sleeping berth, 171. 10s. 6d., obtainable only of the Sleeping Car Co., 
14 Cockspur St., S.W., or of the l P. & 0/ Co., 122 Leadenhall St., E.C.). — 
To Genoa, 81 hrs., via Paris and Mont Cenis (71. 8s. 9d., 51. 2s. 4d.). — 
To Venice, 34 hrs., via Ostend and Bale (8;. 3*. id., 5J. 19*. id.). — To 
Marseilles, 22*/4 hrs., via Calais and Paris (6*. 14*. 8d., 4/. 12*. Id.), or, 
19 hrs., by the 'P. & O. Express' leaving London every Wed. afternoon 
{SI. 9*. Sd.. 1st cl. only* tickets at 14 Cockspur St. and 122 Leadenhall St., 
see above). A Mediterranean Express' for Marseilles, etc. leaves Calais 
on Mon., Tnes., and Frid., and Paris on Wed., Thurs., and Sat. (tickets 
only from the Sleeping Car Co., see above). — To Trieste, 50 hrs., via Ostend 
and Vienna (fares about 10?. 3*. 10d., 7/. 7*.), or 46 hrs., once weekly by the 
'Ostend- Trieste Express 1 (ticket, 12/. 12*. 10d., from the Sleeping Car Co. 
only), in connection with the Austrian Lloyd steamers to Alexandria. 

From London to Constantinople, 83 hrs., via Cologne and Vienna 
(16*. 10*. 3d., 121. Os. 8rf.), or, 72 hrs., by the 'Ostend -Vienna Express' (19;. 
18*. 10d ), once weekly, or by the 'Orient Express' via Paris, thrice weekly 
(2U. 11*. Sd.). Tickets for the two last trains from the Sleeping Car. 
Co. only. 

From Brindisi, by 4 P. & 0.', Austrian Lloyd, or Navigazione 
Generate, see pp. xix, xx. The steamers steer S.E. through the 
Straits of Otranto (generally rough) and cross the Ionian Sea, with 
Corfu, CephaUonia, and Zante on the left (see Baedekers Greece). 
Farther on Crete is skirted. Alexandria or Port Sa'U is reached in 
4 days. 

\ + 

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4 Route 1. ALEXANDRIA. Approaches 

From Naples by Orient Line, North German Lloyd , or Navi- 
gazione Generale, see pp. xviii, xx. The steamers sail through the 
Straits of Messina to (4 days) Port Sa'id. 

From Venice by 'P. & 0.' or Navigazione Generale, see pp. xviii, 
xx. The steamers touch at Brindisi (p. 3). 

From Genoa by North German Lloyd or Navigazione Generale, 
see p. xx. The steamers sail vi& (20 hrs.) Naples (see above). 

From Marseilles by 'P. & 0.', Orient Line, or Messageries 
Maritimes, see pp. xviii, xix. Steering to the S.E. in sight of land for 
some time, the steamers pass through (20 hrs.) the Straits of Boni- 
facio, between Sardinia (S.) and Corsica (N.). Thence they proceed 
either via Naples, or direct through the Straits of Messina to (4^2 days) 
Alexandria or (5 days) Port Sa'id. 

From Trieste by Austrian Lloyd, see p. xix. The steamers 
touch at (33 hrs.) Brindisi, see p. 3. 

From Constantinople by Austrian Lloyd, Messageries Mari- 
times, Russian, or Egyptian steamer, see p. xix. Beyond the Sea 
of Marmora and the Dardanelles the steamers skirt the coast of Asia 
Minor with its numerous islands to (2 days) Smyrna. Thence they 
proceed via Chios or Rhodes to various Syrian Ports (p. xix). 

Alexandria. — Arrival. The channel into the harbour is narrow 
and rocky, and the passage can only be effected by daylight. Vessels 
arriving in the evening must ride outside at anchor till next morning. — 
The coast being flat, Alexandria is not visible until shortly before the 
steamer enters the harbour: to the right, in the background, is Pom- 
pey^s Pillar; on the coast, the half-ruined Chdteau of Meks with its domes 
and slender towers, and a number of windmills*, to the left, on the Rds 
et-Ttn (cape of figs), the Khedivial palace and arsenal. The interior of the 
harbour presents an animated scene. The steamers lay-to at the quay. 
After the brief formalities of the sanitary police have been complied with, 
a crowd of porters and commissionnaires precipitate themselves on the 
passengers' luggage. Messrs. Cook and Gaze as well as the hotels send their 
agents on board, and the best way is to entrust the luggage to one of them. 

Personal attendance is necessary at the Custom House and the Passport 
Office. Passports must be given up (see p. xxx), but will be restored at 
once in exchange for a visiting-card. The Custom House is in the same 
building \ the officials are very obliging (no bakhshish should be offered). 

Cabs (numbers always in front of the Custom House) : to the hotel, 
1 person W\i-1 fr., several persons 3-4 fr. 

Hotels. (It may again be remarked here that all the hotels in the 
East charge a fixed sum per day for board and lodging, exclusive of 
liquors, whether the traveller takes his meals in the house or not.) 
Hotel Khedivial, near the Cairo station, at the corner of the Rue Che'rif 
Pacha and the Rue de Rosette, Hotel Abbat, in the Rue de TEglise, both 
fitted up in the European style, pens. 15 fr. — Hotel du Canal de Scez, 
Boulevard Ramleh, Hotel des Voyageurs, Rue de TEglise Ecossaise, two 
good 2nd class houses, with moderate charges ; Hotel Bonnard, R. 3, B. 1 fr. 

Cafes, chiefly in the Place Me'he'met-Ali. In the side -streets near 
the sea are several cafe's, mostly kept by Greeks, with evening concerts 
(sometimes female orchestra). — 'Cafe noir* 1 , in the European style, or 
*cafe" forf in the Arabian, 1 pias. per cup. — Beer. Dockhorn, Delacovias, 
both in the street leading from the Place Me'he'met-Ali to the sea ; Finck, 
Rue Cherif Pacha, opposite the Hotel Khddivial. — Restaurants. De 
V Vnirers, in the slreet leading from the Exchange to tbc Boulevard Ramleh j 
Jfctrie Fix, Rue de TEglise Ecossaise, German, beer. 

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to Palestine. PORT SA'ID. 1. Route. 5 

Alexandria, founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, has 
250,000 inhabitants (*/4 Europeans), and is the most important sea- 
port of Egypt. By taking a carriage the city may easily be seen in 
half a day. From the Place Mehe*met-Ali, the centre of the European 
quarter, drive to Pompey's Pillar, which was utilized as the ped- 
estal for a statue of the Emp. Diocletian in 302 by a Roman pre- 
fect named Pompeius, who, however, did not erect the pillar. It is 
the only ancient monument in a good state of preservation in the 
town. Return to the Place Me*he*met-Ali and proceed to the Palace 
of the Khedive on the Rds et-Ttn. A drive may also be taken along 
the Mahmfidiyeh Canal. The Museum of Oraeco-Roman Antiquities 
is well worth a visit. — For farther details, sea Baedeker's Egypt. 

From Alexandria to Port Sa'id. — 1. By Sea. Steamers, see 
pp. xviii et seq. The voyage is devoid of interest. It will be observed 
that near the coast the water is rendered turbid by the mud of the 
Nile, which gives it a yellowish-green tint. The violence of the 
current carries the mud hither inconsiderable masses, which threaten 
to block up the harbour. The great breakwater , constructed to the 
W. of the harbonr, is interesting. It is composed of artificial blocks 
weighing 20 tons each. — The steamers usually stay some hours 
at Port Sa'id. Boat to the land, 60c. ; at night, 1 fr. 

2. Via Cairo. Most travellers via Alexandria will pay a visit 
to Cairo (129 M., railway in 372-6 hrs., several trains daily. Fares: 
express, 1st cl., 29 fr. 25, 2nd cl., 19 fr. 25; ordinary, 24 fr. 25 
and 16 fr. 25 c). From Cairo to Port Sa r id the shortest route is via 
Isma'iliya on Lake Timsah (4 hrs. from Cairo : express twice daily), 
thence to Port Sa f id by railway (one train daily in 3 hrs.) or by the 
small Suez Canal steamer (once daily, in 4*/2 hrs). These steamers 
can only accommodate a limited number of passengers, and large 
parties during the season had better secure places by telegraph. 

Port Said (Grand Hotel Continental, on the quay, cuisine better 
than the R., pens. 12 fr. ; Hotel du Louvre $ de France, Rue du 
Port, good and moderate ; Eastern Exchange, well spoken of; Hotel 
d? Europe, both in the Place de Lesseps) is a town of 37,000 inhab- 
itants and owes its origin to the Suez Canal ; the transit traffic is 
considerable. — For farther details, see Baedekers Egypt. 

II. From Port Said to Jaffa and Beirut. 

Time-tables of the steamers, see p. xix. For this Syrian route, the French 
steamers of the Messageries Maritime* are the best. — In the height of 
the season (Easter) travellers who embark at Port Sa r id for Syria will 
do well to secure places by telegraph or even in Alexandria. — The voyage 
from Port Sa'id to Jaffa takes 12-13 hrs. 

From Port Sa^d to Jaffa the voyage is mostly done by night. 
Early in the morning, if the weather is fine, Oaza may be discerned 
with the naked eye. A line of bluish heights (the mountains of 

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6 Route 2. JAFFA. Arrival. 

Judaea) in the distance, a yellow shore, then a view of the town of 
Jaffa, rising in terraces like a fortress on the slope of a hill , an- 
nounce that we are approaching the Holy Land. 

As Jaffa (see below) possesses no good harbour, steamers are 
obliged to anchor in the roads about 1/2 M. from land. When the 
weather is stormy this is impossible, and the steamers then proceed 
to Haifa or to Beirut. 

From Jaffa to Beirut the steamers usually leave Jaffa in the 
evening. The visit to the Custom House (export duties , p. xxxi) 
may be avoided by a bakhshish of 2-3 fr. 

The steamer keeps close to the shore, which generally remains 
within view. (For the shore, see pp. 270 et seq. and pp. 304 et seq.) 
The greater part of the voyage is done by night. The plain of the 
shore is gradually hemmed in more and more by Mount Carmel, 
which finally terminates in a promontory rising out of the sea (on its 
summit are a monastery and lighthouse, visible from the steamer). 
At Haifa (p. 264), 7 hrs. from Jaffa, the Austrian steamers stop 
some hours, while the steamers of the other lines proceed direct to 
Beirut. The mail-steamers also pass, without stoppage, Tyre and 
Sidon. A small British steamer is the only means of transit between 
Haifa and Acre (p. 268). 

In about 8 hrs. more (after leaving Haifa) the steamer doubles 
the promontory of Rds Beiritt, with a lighthouse, to cast anchor 
shortly afterwards in the roads of Beirut (p. 317). The *View is 
magnificent : in front, the large and beautiful town, surrounded by 
a broad belt of large gardens enclosed by cactus hedges; in the back- 
ground, Lebanon with the peaks of Sanriin (N.) and Keneiseh (S.), 
which remain covered with snow till the beginning of summer. 
Steamers usually lie here for a day. 

2. Jaffa. 

Arrival. The debarcation at Jaffa, as everywhere else in the Bast, is 
invariably conducted with the least possible order and the greatest pos- 
sible noise. The best plan is to make up a party of three or four before 
arriving, and to engage a boat for them. Messrs. Cook and Son and Gaze 
and Sons send well equipped boats to the steamer (preferable in rough 
weather; 5 fr. each person including carriage to the hotel), and the 
agents of the hotels also come on board. Travellers should energetically 
protest against any attempt at overloading. Care should also be taken that 
the luggage is placed in the proper boat, and that none of it falls over- 
board owing to the confusion and rocking of the boats. No attention 
should be paid to the dragomans who importune the traveller with 
offers of service. — Fares : boat for 1 pers. (not always obtainable), when 
the sea is calm, 5 fr.; if the sea is rough, 20 fr. ; for a party, 1 fr. 
each (with a minimum of 5 fr.). The boatmen are never content with 
their fees, and on the passage they frequently endeavour to alarm their 
passengers as to the dangers of the landing with a view to extort an ad- 
ditional gratuity. No attention, however, should be paid to their noisy 
representations and violent gestures. 'Mush l&zim? means 'it is unneces- 
eary"'; 'mush l dwezak\ *I do not care for you'-, l iskvt\ 'be quiet*; 'rdfc, rUTi* 
or HmshV 'begone* (a word which may be accompanied by a significant 

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1:0 100 

From a suitct by Ttl . Saitrlel . 

1 French Post Office 

2. Austrian - 

3. Turkish - 

4. LighQwusc 

5. French Hospital 

6. Za&rc Hospice 

1. Rom. Cath. Church Jerusalem Hotel \ u— fVrn - 

8. Jlospittiun, Wmum fffosp. Terrae sanctae > Palestine Hotel f see ' ihpo 2™™™"* 

9. Government (Serai k Telegraph ' 
Mb. Greek Monastery 
12 . Jifa^Z . School for Girls 

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Prom aru Original Survey bv 

>4 Jtepth-fint ofJlbthoms. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Accommodation. JAFFA. 2. Route 7 

motion with one's stick) ; 'yalta, yalla\ 'forwards', 'onwards* ; '&«*, bes' 
'enough*. — The harbour of Jaffa is a small basin formed by natural rocks, 
partly under water, on which the remains of an ancient port are said to 
be still traceable. The entrance from the N. is broad, but endangered 
by sandbanks, while that from the N.N.W. is very narrow. The landing- 
place is near the Custom House, at the S. angle of the port. — Passport, 
as in Alexandria, p. 4; avoid giving it up by offering a bakhshish. The 
same means will serve to overcome the difficulties which frequently arise 
with the Customs officials. As to cigars and cigarettes, see p. xxxix. 

Accommodation. It may here be repeated (comp. p. xxxiv) that 
travellers will do well, at all hotels in Syria and Palestine, to arrange 
prices beforehand, and, if necessary, to bargain. — ^Jerusalem Hotel 
(landlord, Mr. Hardegg, American Consular Agent ; Cook's hotel) , in the 
German colony ; Hotel du Parc (landlords, Hall Brothers), adjoining the 
preceding. Pension at these, 12 1 /* fr. (for a prolonged stay, 10 fr.); after 
the season, 8 fr. When the hotels are full, the landlords provide com- 
fortable rooms in other houses in the German colony. — Palestine Hotel 
(landlord, Kaminilz), also in the street (Bustrus-St., p. 9) leading to the 
railway-station, with Gaze's office; Frank's Hotel (German landlord), 
in the German colony, with restaurant. These two are simpler and a 
little cheaper. — The Latin Monastery of the Franciscans (Hospitium La- 
tinum, Arab. DSr el-Latin; PI. 8) is 8 min. to the N.E. of the Custom 
House, on the quay; beautiful terraces with a view over the sea; rooms 
small, but clean. Payment, see p. xxxv. 

The Railway Station lies to the N.E., outside the town, 10 min. from the 
German colony, and l fe from the quay (see the map of the neighbourhood). 

Steamboat Offices, in the street which leads to the Jerusalem gate, 
along the quay. In starting from the Custom House, the order is as follows : 
Egyptian, Russian, Austrian, N. German Lloyd, and French. 

Post Offices. Turkish (PI. 3), in the Bustrus Street (p. 9); Austrian 
(PI. 2), near Lloyd's office (up the steps to the right) ; a little farther up 
is the French post office (PI. 1); Russian post-office, on the quay. 

Telegraph (international), in the Post Office (PI. 3). 

Vice-Consuls. American, duties discharged by Mr. Hardegg, of the 
Jerusalem Hotel; British Consular Agent, Bairn Amzalah; French V.-C, 
M. Fornier; Russian, Slriboulaief ; Austrian C, Pascal; German V.-C, 
Schmidt; Italian, Alonzo. 

Horses and Carnages at Kappus"s, 8chanz*s, or at the hotels. Saddle- 
horse, 1 fr. per hr. Carriage, 1/2 day 10, whole day 20 frj to Jerusalem, 
see p. 15; to Gaza, 40 fr. (there and back 70 fr.); to Haifa (IV2 day; 
p. 270), 100-140 fr. according to the weather. 

European Firms. David Weller (formerly Breisch A Co.), on the quay 
(the largest import house in Palestine, does banking business and forwards 
luggage) ; ironmongery at Aberje & CoSs , in the street which leads to the 
S. from the Jerusalem gate (on the right) ; travelling requisites at Rabino- 
vntz's in the same street, at C. Besserer's, etc. ; enquire at D. Welter's. — 
Photographer, Sabundji. — Cook's Offices, in the German colony, opposite 
the Jerusalem Hotel; Gaze's Offices, in the Palestine Hotel. — Rates of 
Exchange, see p. xxx. 

Physicians: Dr. Kaiser (English); Dr. Lorch (German); Dr. Linne" 
(French). — German Chemist, Paulus, Wolfert A (He., in the German colony 
(p. 9) and on the road to the S. from the Jerusalem gate. 

Benevolent Institutions. Church Missionary Society^ Station with a 
hospital and two schools for boys; English boarding school for girls (PI. 12); 
French Hospital (PI. 5), conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph ; German 
Hospital and Schools, see p. 9. 

History. Jaffa was anciently a Phoenician colony in the land of the 
Philistines. The meaning of the ancient name Japho is doubtful ; but the 
Hebrews translated it 'the beautiful'. According to an ancient myth An- 
dromeda , the daughter of Cepheus and Joppa (daughter of .flSolus), is said 
to have been chained to the rocks here, in order that she might be devoured 
by a huge sea-monster, but was released by Perseus. The prophet Jonah , 
too, is said to have just quitted Joppa when he was swallowed by the whale 

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S Route 2. JAFFA. Latin Monastery. 

(Jonah i. 3). Throughout the Roman period, and even down to the end of 
the 16th cent., the place was shown on the rocks of the harbour where 
Andromeda was bound, or at least her chains (Josephus, Bell. Jud. Ill, 
9. 3). So, too, the huge bones of some marine monster were long an 
object of curiosity here. Jaffa is mentioned as a fortress, in the list of 
cities overthrown by Thutmosis III. (p. lviii). In the days of Solomon it 
was the port for Jerusalem, to which Hiram, king of Tyre, undertook to 
send timber from Lebanon 'in floats', for the building of the Temple (2 
Chron. ii. 16 ; comp. Ezra iii. 7). In the inscription relating to the vic- 
torious campaign of Sennacherib, the town is called Ya-ap-pu. Jaffa was 
definitively brought under the Jewish yoke by the Maccabees (1 Mace. x. 
74 f.), after which it fell successively under the Greek and Roman sway, 
and received the name of Joppa. Christianity wu introduced here at an 
early period (Acts ix. 36, etc.). Before the Jewish war Joppa was captured 
and destroyed by the Roman general Cestius; it was then rebuilt, but was 
soon again destroyed by Vespasian as being a haunt of pirates. Several 
bishops of Joppa are mentioned as having attended various church synods. 
The bishopric was restored by the Crusaders, and the town raised to the 
rank of a county (1099). In 1126 the district of Joppa came into the pos- 
session of the knights of St. John. The town was captured and destroyed 
by Melik el- f Adil, brother of Saladin, in 1187, and by Safaddin in 1191, 
recaptured by Richard Cceur de Lion, taken in 1197 by Melik el- f Adil, 
restored to the Christians in 1204, and finally destroyed in 1267 by Beibars. 
— For a long period the town was represented by a few scattered houses 
only ; but towards the end of the 17th cent, the importance of Jaffa began 
to revive, and from that period dates the construction of the quay. To- 
wards the end of the 18th cent, we find the town surrounded by walls, 
which enabled the inhabitants to resist the attacks of the French army 
under Kle'ber in 1799 for a few days until the place was taken by storm. 
It was then fortified by the English, and afterwards extended by the Turks. 
Jaffa has now become an important town in consequence of the great 
numbers of pilgrims (about 15,000 annually) ; the ancient walls of circum- 
vallation have been razed. The population is estimated at about 35,000 
(23,000 Mohammedans, 5000 Christians, 7000 Jews). The trade of the town 
is considerable. The exports (8 million fr. in 1895) consist of oranges and 
other fruit, maize, sesame, wine, soap, and wool. The imports in 1895 
were valued at 11 million francs. — Jaffa is the residence of a Turkish 
Kaimmakam, subordinate to the Mutesarrif or Governor of Jerusalem. 

Jaffa, or Y&fd, lies on the sea-coast, at the foot of a rock 116 ft. 
in height. The houses are built of tuffstone. The streets are gener- 
ally very narrow and dusty, and after the slightest fall of rain ex- 
ceedingly dirty. There are few sights at Jaffa. The Greek Monastery 
(PI. 10) accommodates numerous pilgrims. The Latin Monastery 
(PI. 8) was founded in 1654, from which period dates the tradition 
that it occupies the site of the house of Simon the tanner (Acts ix. 
43) ; but a new building has been erected on the site of the old one, 
while the site of Simon's house is now pointed out in an insignificant 
mosque near the Fanar, or lighthouse (PI. 4), on the S. side of the 
town, where, however, the view is the sole attraction (fee 1 piastre). 
In the Armenian Monastery , situated to the N. of the Latin, tradition 
points out the room in which Napoleon caused plague patients to be 
poisoned in 1799. — The Bazaar is reached by following the quay 
to the N. end , and then turning a little to the right. A few paces 
further on a small lane to the left leads to the Mosque (PI. 11), 
the architecture of which is interesting ; there is a pretty fountain 
in the centre of an octagonal court surrounded by columns. Farther 

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German Colony. JAFFA . 2. Route. 9 

on we enter the Arabian bazaar, which usually presents a motley 
throng of purchasers, among whom the traveller will have the first 
opportunity of observing the pure Semitic type of the natives of this 

The new quarters, to the E., N., and S. of the old town, make a more 
favourable impression. Proceeding along the lane from the quay to 
the bazaar till we reach its end, we arrive at the Jerusalem Gate (now 
pulled down). The open space outside the gate always presents a 
lively scene ; here are the stables of muleteers ; horses are tried here ; 
caravans arrive and depart, and a number of Arabian cafes have con- 
gregated here in consequence. This spot is the starting point of three 
great roads : in front (E.) is the road to Jerusalem (p. 16) ; on the right 
(S.) that to Gaza; on the left that to N&bulus. The Jbbusalbm 
Road leads to the S.E. through the new suburbs, then between lofty 
cactus-hedges. After 12 min. we reach a handsome SebU or fountain, 
founded by Abu NebbUt, a former pasha, who is buried here. A little 
to the N. is the site of the house of Tabitha and, farther on, the spot 
where tradition places her tomb (Acts ix. 36). Close by are a Greek 
church and monastery. — The Gaza Road skirts the town-wall 
past the Bdb el-Jedid and passes through the southern suburb. On 
this road, on the left, are the English Protestant cemetery and the 
English boarding school for girls (PI. 12); opposite, on the right, the 
French hospital; farther on, beyond the town, the Jewish and 
Armenian cemeteries, and the English church and hospital. To the 
W. of this road is the tomb of the Shtkh Ibraliim , with a beautiful 
view of the town. — The Nabulus Road leads past the new bar- 
racks, opposite which is the new Serai, or government-building. 
Farther on it follows the Bustrus Street, in which are to the left the 
Turkish Post and Telegraph Office, then to the right the Palestine 
Hotel. Beyond the Mohammedan cemetery a road to the left leads 
to the Railway Station and to the new N. suburb, which is inhabited 
mainly by Jews and Mohammedans. The main road straight on 
leads past the first orange-gardens and a fountain with an Arabic 
inscription (left), to the pleasant- looking houses* of the German 
Colony. On the right, at the entrance to the colony, is the Jeru- 
salem Hotel (p. 7). This colony, founded in 1868 by the members 
of the 'German Temple' sect, numbers about 320 souls, who are 
chiefly engaged in trade and commerce; it possesses two German ? 
schools and a hospital. /-< 

The constitution of the free religions community of the 'Temple' or 
'Friends of Jerusalem' in I860 was the result of a religious movement in 
Wiirtemberg, mainly stimulated by W. and Chr. HoiTmann. Starting from 
the principle that the task of Christianity is to embody the Kingdom of 
God on earth, they came to the conclusion that a really Christian social 
life was impossible on the basis of the current ideas of the Trinity, the 
Divinity of Christ, etc. On the contrary, they derived their religious and 
social programme for the construction of the Christian community from the 
O.T. prophecies. They accordingly considered it to be their task, first 
of all to erect the ideal Christian community in the 'Land of Promise'; 
and from this spot to begin regenerating the church and social life of 

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10 Route?. SARONA. 

Europe. The realization of this plan was begun in 1868 by the foundation 
of a colony in Haifa and almost simultaneously of another in Jaffa. There 
has been no lack of schisms in the new community, but it still numbers 
some 1200 members in 4 colonies and has unquestionably done very much 
to promote the colonization of the country. 

A second road to the colony diverges from the Jerusalem road soon 
after its commencement, and passes by a large garden belonging to the 
Murad family (on the spot where Napoleon encamped). 

About V2 M. farther, on the road to Nabulus, is a new German 
settlement (a few houses and a steam-mill), and still farther on, 
1^2 M. to the N. of the town, lies Sarona (see map, p. 7), another 
colony of the German Temple. The plain of Sharon, which extends 
along the sea-board between Joppa and Caesarea, was famed in an- 
cient times for its luxuriant fertility and pastures (Is. lxv. 10). 
Excellent soil is found at a depth of 1 Y2 <> r 2 ft. beneath the surface 
of the sand, and water is found everywhere without having to dig 
deep for it. Vines- thrive admirably ; about 154,000 gallons of wine * 
are annually made and exported chiefly to Egypt and Germany. 
Apiculture also is pursued with success. — The colony is exclusively 
devoted to the cultivation of grain and wine ; it numbers 270 mem- 
bers and has a German school. 

A beautiful excursion of 2-8 hrs. may be made along the Nabulus road 
as far as the Nahr eWAujd. This river, next to the Jordan, the largest in 
Palestine, rises near Rds el- r Ain y about 10 M. to the N.E. of Jaffa, and 
although its fall is very trifling drives a number of mills. Near MuMbbU, 
close by, is a Jewish colony (Pesah Tiktoeh). Return on horseback along 
the coast (see Map). 

From Jaffa to Nabulus, 42 M., carriage-road. The road leads from 
Jaffa to Sarona (see above), thence to Mulebbis and the Nahr eWAvjd (see 
above) which it crosses by a bridge; it then runs along the E. edge of the 
plain by the villages of Bir 'Adas, Kafr Saba, Kilkiliyeh, et-Tayyibeh, TUl 
Karm and Dann&beh. Here it turns to the E. and ascends the Wddi Zemir 
(called Wddi esh-8haHr in its upper course) to Nabulus (p. 259) by r Andbeld 
and D8r esh-Sheraf. 

From Jaffa to Haifa, carriage-road, see p. 270. 

3. From Jaffa to Jerusalem. 
A. By Railway. 

53 M. {One train daily in each direction (from Jaffa at 1.20 p.m. ; from 
Jerusalem at 8 a.m.). To Ramleh in 45 min. for IS pi. 80 pa. (2nd cl. 7 pi.) ; 
to Syed in 1 hr. 19 min., for 32 pi. 20 (2nd cl. 12 pi.); to D€r Abdn in 
1 hr. 47 min., for 41 pi. 20 (2nd cl. 15 pi.); to Bitttr in 2 hrs. 4 min., for 
60 pi. 30 (2nd cl. 22 pi.); to Jerusalem in 3 hrs. 35 min., for 75 pi. (2nd cl., 
25 pi.). — Return tickets from Jaffa to Jerusalem (1st cl. only) 20 fr. — In 
these fares one mejidi = 20 piastres, one napoleon = 94 pi. 20. — The 
railway-carriages are not very comfortable; ladies should always travel 
first class, but gentlemen may use the second-class carriages, which cor- 
respond to 3rd cl. carriages on European lines. 

Travellers are recommended to visit Ramleh (and Lydda) either on 
the journey to or from Jerusalem. In the former case they should drive 
in the morning to Ramleh, dine there (Hotel Reinhardt), and continue the 
journey by train. In the latter case a carriage from Jaffa should be ordered 
to meet the traveller at Ramleh. 

The line describes a great cnrve towards the N. and skirts the 
luxuriant plantations (oranges , lemons) of the immediate environs 

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LYDDA. 3. Rovte. 11 

(about 1 ife M.) of Jaffa. Sarona remains on the left. At the N.E. 
extremity of the plantations the line turns to the S.E. and crosses 
the plain of Sharon, following the depression of the Wddi Miserclra. 
In front, fields alternate with meadows; towards the E., the bluish 
mountains of Judaea come gradually into view. On the right, close 
by, are the villages of (4i/ 3 M.) Ydz&r^ and Bit Dejan ; on the left, 
S&kiya, then, farther to the E., Kafr'And (Ono, Nehera.xi.36) and 
EL- Yehudiyeh. The line passes (8 M.) Sdfiriyeh (perhaps Sariphaea, 
which was an episcopal see in 536). Towards the N. we see KafrJenis 
and El-Kcntseh (church); then, on the spurs of the hills, Et-Tirch, 
Dlr Tdrtf and Bet Nebdla. Next, on the left, the little town of — 

li 3 / 4 M. Lydda. — The Station is about 26 min. to the S. of the 
town, near St. George's church, on the road from Lydda to Ramleh. 

History. Ltd is first mentioned after the Exile (Ezra ii. 33; Neh. 
vii. 37). It became of some importance in the period of the Maccabees 
(Jos. Ant. xx. 6, 2), and in 145 B.C. it was detached from Samaria and 
included in Judaea (1st Hacc. xi. 34 etc., where it is named Lydda). Under 
the Romans it was the capital of a district of Judeea, and it was the seat 
of an early Christian community (Acts ix. 32). It was burned by Cestius 
Gallns in the time of Nero, but soon recovered its importance. It was 
afterwards famed for its learned rabbinical school. The bishops of Lydda 
are mentioned at an early period, and though the town was for a time 
called Diospolu, its ancient name was retained in the episcopal lists. In 
415 an ecclesiastical council was held at Lydda, at which Pelagius defended 
himself. Lydda lost its importance after the foundation of Ramleh, but the 
Crusaders again founded a bishopric there in 1099. In 1191 Lydda was 
destroyed by Saladin. In 1271, after its re-erection, it was sacked by the 
Mongols, and since that period it has never recovered its former impor- 
tance, although situated on the principal caravan route between Egypt 
and Syria. 

The only attraction at Lydda is the Church of St. Qeorge, on 
the S. side of the village. The key is kept by the sacristan of the 
Greek convent (fee 5 pi.). 

Lydda is mentioned at a very early period in connection with St. 
George. According to tradition, Mohammed declared that at the Last Day 
Christ would slay Antichrist at the gate of Lydda. This is doubtless a 
distorted version of the story of St. George and the dragon. Over the 
tomb of St. George at Lydda a church stood as early as the 6th century. 
In the following century this was destroyed by the Persians at the same 
time as the rotunda over the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, but it was 
again built and existed until its second destruction by Khalif Hakim 
Biamrillah in 1010. Once more rebuilt in the middle of the 11th" cent., 
it was once more destroyed in 1099 by the Mohammedans in order not to 
interfere with the defence of the town against the Crusaders. The latter 
found a 'magnificent tomb 1 here and in the second half of the 12th cent, 
erected a new church near the site of the old one, which, however, was 
destroyed by Saladin in 1091. A church is again spoken of here in the 
middle of the 14th cent., but was in ruins at the beginning of the 15th. 
The site of the original Byzantine church was then occupied by a mosque 
and minaret, while the court of the mosque embraced part of the site of 
the mediaeval church. Since 1870 this building has been in the possession 
of the Greeks, who have restored it. (Revue Arche'ologique xix. 223 f.) 

The church possesses a nave, aisles lower than the nave, and 
three apses. Of the older church , built about the middle of the 
12th cent. , the apses and a few arches and pilasters on the W. side 
are still extant. The square buttresses of the nave are adorned with 

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12 Route-l KAMLKIT. Fr cm Jaffa 

small columns. The ceiling has been restored with little taste, 
while the modern pilasters are distinguishable from the ancient at 
a glance. Below the altar is the crypt, which has been restored and 
is said to have contained the Tomb of St. George. 

From Lydda the train proceeds S.E. (to the left, r AnndbeK) and 
in 7 min. reaches — 

1372 M. Ramleh. — The Station is about 1/4 hr. to the B. of the 
town, near the Jerusalem road. From the station to the 'Tower of Ram- 
leh', past Reinhardt's hotel, 1/2 hr. — Accommodation. Reinhardt's Hotel, 
well spoken of, pens. 10 fr. — Franciscan Monastery, on the traditional 
site of the house of Joseph of Arimathea (Mat. xxvii. 59). 

History. The tradition that Ramleh occupies the site of the Arima- 
thea of the New Testament is a fabrication of the 13th century. The town 
was founded in 716 by the Omayyad khalif Suleiman, the son of f Abd el- 
Melik. The truth of this statement is confirmed by the facts that the 
name of the town is of purely Arabic origin {ramleh signifying 'sand''), 
and that we find the name 'Ramula 1 applied to the place for the first time 
in the year 870. The place soon became prosperous , and was perhaps 
even larger than Jerusalem. At one time it was walled and had four 
large and eight smaller gates. Christians lived at Ramleh and had churches 
here before the time of the Crusades. In 1099 a bishopric of Lydda and 
Ramleh was founded. In 1177 the town was much damaged by a fire. 
During the wars between the Franks and Saladin Ramleh was captured 
twice by the Saracens. After 1266, when it was wrested from the Franks 
by Beibars, it was exclusively occupied by Muslims, but continued to enjoy 
a share of its former prosperity down to the close of the 15th cent., after 
which it fell entirely to decay. Napoleon once had his headquarters at 
Ramleh and occupied a room in the Latin monastery, which is still shown. 

Ramleh contains 6500 inhabitants, about 2000 of whom are 
Christians , chiefly of the Greek faith. Schools are maintained 
by the English Missionary Society and by the Franciscans and the 
Sisters of St. Joseph. The town is wretched and has no trade. The 
orchards around Ramleh are luxuriant ; there are also a few palm- 
trees , but they do not bear fruit. The fields yield rich crops, and 
are enclosed by impenetrable cactus-hedges, in which numerous wild 
pigeons build their nests. The climate is mild, pleasanter than 
that of Jerusalem, and healthier than that of Jaffa. 

On the E. side of the town is the Chief Mosque (JdrnV el-Kebir), 
once a church of the Crusaders (12th cent.). Unbelievers are not 
always permitted to visit it, but the effect of the all-powerful 
bakhshish may be tried (5 pi. ; shoes must be taken off). 

On the W. side is a small minaret, which was probably once a Chris- 
tian bell-tower. The principal entrance was on the W. side, but the W. 
front has now been covered by masonry; the entrance is on the N. siae. The 
mosque is about 55 yds. long by 27 wide. The nave is loftier than the two 
aisles, from which it has been divided by two rows of columns running 
from W. to E. Each row has seven arcades , a plain cornice, and seven 
pointed windows. The windows in the aisles are also pointed. 

The most remarkable monument is the * Tower of Ramleh, or 
Jdmi r el-Abyady the 'white mosque' (to the S.W. of the town). 

The mosque was built by the founder of the town. It was of vast 
extent, and its quadrangular outer walls are still traceable. The building 
was restored in the time of Saladin (1190), and Sultan Beibars also erected 
a dome and a minaret here (1268). An Arabic inscription over the door 

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to Jerusalem. SEJED. 3. tloute. 1 3 

of the mosque dates from the period of the Mameluke prince, Nasir Abul- 
Fath Mohammed ibn Kilaun (1318), but many authorities ascribe the tower 
to the Crusaders. A later Mohammedan tradition is to the effect that forty 
companions of the prophet, or, if the Christian version is to be believed, 
forty Christian martyrs, repose in the subterranean vaults of the mosque. 
The entrance to the vaults is now about 40 paces to the S.E. of 
the portal of the tower; the whole of the ground here was under- 
mined with similar chambers. (Care should be taken when walking 
about.) On each side of the great quadrangle formed by the build- 
ing there were ten recesses, and the gateway by which we now enter 
the court formed the chief entrance and was beautifully decorated. 
In the centre of the court are remains of a fountain. In the 17th cent, 
a hospital or lunatic asylum (mUristdn) was established here. — 
The pointed doorway and the elegant little windows of the five 
stories, especially on the S. side, are remarkably interesting. At 
the four corners of the tower are slender buttresses. The top is 
reached by 110 steps. The upper part of the tower (added in 1652) 
tapers, and here we enter a kind of gallery. The ascent is recom- 
mended for the sake of the admirable *Vibw from the top. 

Towards the S. is a large olive-plantation $ towards the E. are tombs 
and the town of Ramleh. Farther distant, towards the N. and S., stretches 
a beautiful fertile plain} in the distance to the W. is the silvery band 
of the Mediterranean-, to the E. the blue mountains of Judeea. The most 
conspicuous of the neighbouring towns and villages is Lydda, to the N.E.; 
to the right of it is the large village of B&t Nebala, and adjoining it, 
to the left beyond Lydda, is Der Tarif. Towards the E. lies Jimzu, to 
the right of which are Yalo, Kubab," and Latrdn. In the extreme distance, 
to the E.S.E., appears En-Nelji Samwil (p. il4). — The view is finest by 
evening light, when the mountains are gilded by the setting sun. 

About 8 min. to the N. of Ramleh is situated the so-called Cistern of 
St. Helena (p. cxiv), consisting of six vaults, each 30 paces long, and 
borne by eleven pillars. It was probably constructed by Suleiman (p. 12). 
Immediately after leaving Ramleh , the line crosses the road 
from Jaffa to Jerusalem and turns to the S. across the marshy plain, 
past the small Arab village of (18 M.) Nd'aneh. A short distance 
to the right (W.) of the railway lies 'Akir (Ekron; 2 Kings i. 2 etc.), 
one of the five chief cities of the Philistines, now a Jewish colony, 
with almost no traces of ruins. On a hill to the left (E.), near the 
village of Abu Shiisheh, are the ruins of Tell Jezer. 

_ Gfez &F* mentioned in the letters found at Tell el- f Amarna (p. lviii), was 
an ancient Canaanitish city, not occupied by the Israelites (Josh. xvi. 10 ; 
Judg. i. 29). It was afterwards captured by Pharaoh and presented by him 
to Solomon, his son-in-law , as his daughter's dowry (1 Kings ix. 16). The 
place was an important fortress in the time of the Maccabees (1 Mace. iv. 15 ; 
ix. 52, etc.). Gezer has been identified with the episcopal city of Gadara 
in Palsestina Prima and with the Mont Gisart of the Crusaders, who under 
Baldwin IV. here defeated Saladin in 1177 (Ac. des Inscrip. C. R. 1888, 
pp. 396 f.). The ruins are extensive, and there are rock-tombs and basalt 
quarries in the environs; also a large reservoir and a European farm. 

241/2 M. Sejed; the station is situated in an insalubrious but 
fertile plain, one of the Sultan's private domains. From Sejed, the 
line follows the depression of the Wadi es-Sardr (the 'valley of 
Sorek'; Judg. xvi. 4), which is wide at its mouth, but afterwards 
narrows. Bit <Atab, finely situated on the top of the hills to the 

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14 Route 3. BITTIR. From Jaffa 

left, remains for some time in sight; farther on, also to the left, 
the Weli Sar'a; to the right, the Weli of r Ain Shems (the ancient 
Beth Shemesh, 1 Sam. vi. 9; 1 Kings iv. 9). 

31 M. Der Aban; the station is about 3 M. distant from each of 
the three villages, T)ir Abdn y Artfif, and Sar'a (the ancient Zorcah, 
Josh. xv. 33, xix. 14; Judg. xiii. 2), that are served by it. 8ar r a 
(see above) is conspicuous on a hill to the left; adjacent to the E. 
is Artdf, with several modern houses with tiled roofs. The moun- 
tains now begin. Shortly after entering them we see high up in 
the rocks to the left the mouth of a grotto, the so-called Samson's 
Cavern (the story of Samson is localised in this district; Judg. xiii- 
xvi). The line passes along precipitous walls of rock and ascends 
the Wddi es-Sardr, the windings of which it follows , crossing it 
twice by bridges of 16 yds. span. We pass (38 J /2 M.) Dir esh-Shekh, 
situated on a hill to the right, and (407 2 M.yAkiir, on a hill to the 
left; beyond it, the Wddi Kaldniyeh opens on the left. The line 
follows the W&di es-Sarar, turning towards the S., and then towards 

471/4 M. Bittir. — The Station is close to the village, where there 
is a copious spring. 

History. The Baither of Joshua xv. 59 in the Septuagint (Beth-arabah 
of Jos. xv. 61 in the A.V.), or Bethar, played an important part in the in- 
surrection of Bar Cochba against the Romans, and the Romans succeeded 
in capturing it only after a siege of 3 1 /* years (A. D. 136). The Talmud 
states that the blood of the Jews who were slain reached to the nostrils 
of the horses and flowed down to the sea. 

Bittir , which is now inhabited by Muslims, lies on a terrace 
between the Wddi Bitttr and another valley. Proceeding to the W. 
from the spring, and then turning towards the N.W., we ascend a 
steep path to a second terrace. Traces of walls, known as Khirbet 
et-Yeh&d, or 'ruin of the Jews', prove that the place, admirably 
adapted for a stronghold , was once fortified. On the E. side are 
chambers in the rock and old cisterns, with some remarkable niches 
between them. Bittir has become a popular place for excursions 
from Jerusalem. 

From Bitttr the line ascends the Wddi el-Werd (valley of roses, 
p. Ill) at a pretty steep gradient. El-Welejth is on the left; 
farther on, the fountain of Philip ( r Ain el-Hantyeh, p. Ill) and the 
villages of r Ain Ydlo and Esh-Sherdfdt are seen on the right; then, 
on the left, El-Mdliha and Katamon (p. 118). Bit Safdfd and the 
monastery of Mar Elyds (p. 118) are visible on the right. After Bet 
Safafa the line traverses in a straight line the plateau of El-Buke¥a, 
which is probably identical with the valley of Rephaim, through 
which the boundary between Judah and Benjamin ran (Josh. xv. 8). 
Here the Philistines were defeated by David (2 Sam. v. 18, etc.). — 
We now reach the station of — 

54 M. Jerusalem, to the S. of the town. Close by, in the Temple 
colony, is the Restaurant Lendhold (p. 19). 

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to Jerusalem. YAZta. 3. Route. 15 

B. ByEoad. 

41 M. Good road, 8 hrs. to drive and 11-12 hrs. to ride. This route is 
Interesting and should be taken at least once, either going or returning. — 
Carriages, which may be procured through the landlord of the hotel (p. 7) : 
during the season, 50-60 fr. (a single seat. 10-15 fr.); landau, 125 fr. and 
5fr. to the driver. — Horses: for riding, 10-15 fr., for luggage, 8-10 fr. 5 a 
mukari (p. xxi) accompanies the animals. — Start early, so as to reach 
Jerusalem before night. Two or three stoppages are made on the road: 
at Ramleh (3»/4 hrs.' ride); at Bab el-Wddi (8V2 hrs. from Jaffa; breakfast, 
p. 16)*, and again at KaWniyeh (9V2hrs. from Jaffa). 

To the (12 min.) Sebil Abu Nebbut, see p. 9. — After */* hr. 
we enter the plain of Sharon (p. 10). On the right is a farm called 
Mikweh Israel, established by the Alliance Israelite, where Jews 
are taught agriculture. After a ride of 3 /4hr. from Jaffa, a watch 
tower is seen rising on the right. It is the first of 17 which were 
built in 1860, at intervals of 1-1 V* M., to guaTd the route to Jeru- 
salem. They are now without garrisons. We reach Ydz&r (beautiful 
retrospect) */* hr. later, and farther on the Well Imam r AU with its 
numerous domes; adjoining it is a well of excellent water CAin 
Dilb). The road to Lydda (p. 11) diverges here to the left. After 
Y2 hr. the 2nd watch-tower is seen on the right. To the left we soon 
perceive the villages of Sdkiya and Bit Dejan (p. 11). In */2 hr., 
to the S., the Jewish colony of Rishon le-Zion. Near the 3rd watch 
tower (20 min.) we reach plantations., chiefly of olives. After 
25 min, we pass a lonely spot called the Maktaleh, or place of 
slaying, which is said once to have been a haunt of robbers. We 
next pass the 4th watch-tower, whence the tower of Ramleh becomes 
visible. Farther on (22 min.) the village of Sarafand peeps from 
amidst cactus-hedges on a hill to the right. After 12 min. , on the 
left, the 5th watch-tower. In 25 min. more we reach Bamleh 
(p. 12). At the entrance to the town we keep to the left; the road 
to the right leads to the tower. 

Beyond Ramleh the route crosses the railway near the station. 
After 7 min. a large pond {Birket el-Jdmfis, or 'buffalo well'). 
22 min., the 6th watch-tower, on the left. The land is richly cul- 
tivated, but the plantations of trees soon disappear. 29 min., the 
7th watch-tower; on a hill to the N.E., BH 'Enndbeh; to the left, 
the road to Bit Nubd (p. 19); to the right is the hamlet of Berriyet 
er-Ramleh, or 'outwork of Ramleh'. Every village possesses its heaps 
of dried dung used as fuel. V2 hr., to the left , the insignificant 
ruin of Kafr Tdb, the ancient Cafartoba mentioned in the history of 
the Jewish war, with the weli of Shekh Suleimtin ; on the right, to 
the S., Abu Shusheh and beside it, the ruins of Oezer (p. 13). 

In !/ 4 hr. more we see, to the left, on a little hill, the village of 
El-Kubdb (Cobe of the Talmud). Beyond (4 min.) the 8th watch 
tower we descend to the bed of a valley, where there is a bridge 
(6 min.). In front of us we see Ldtrun, 'Amwds, Ydl6, Bit Nubd, 
and, on the hill, the two Bivtfr. 20 min., on the right, the 9th watch 

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16 Route 3. 'AMWAS. From Jaffa 

tower; 18 min. (5 ! /2 hrs. from Jaffa), on the left, Ltitr&n appears on 
a hill, with f Amwds close by to the N. 

L&tr&IL. — This name, which was originally Ndti'Hn^ was connected 
in the middle ages with the Latin 'latro\ a robber. Hence arose the 
mediaeval legend that tbis was the native place of the penitent thief ( ; boni 
latronis 1 , who is said to have been called Dismas), or of both thieves. The 
ruins probably belong to the ancient fortress of Nicopolis and the partly 
preserved walls date from several different periods. The choir of a church 
is also said to be traceable. 

Am WAS. — The Emmaut of the Old Testament is frequently mentioned 
as a place of strategic importance in the time of the Maccabees (e. g. 
1 Mace. iii. 40). It afterwards became the capital of a district of Judaja 
(Jos. Bell. Jud.ii. 20, 4* Pliny, Nat. Hist. v. 70); and an inscription men- 
tions the 5th legion as encamped here in 63-70 A.D. The town was named 
Nicopolis from the days of Julius Africanus (about the beginning of the 
3>-d cent.). During the Christian period it was an episcopal see. In the 
early days of El-Islam several fierce skirmishes took place here. — The 
Emmaut of the N.T. can be identified with ' Amwds (about 175 stadia from 
Jerusalem) only if we accept the reading 160 stadia, found in some MSS. 
of Luke xxiv. 13. Kaldniyeh (p. 18), on the other hand, is only 34 stadia 
from Jerusalem. Tbe most probable site is El-Kubebeh (p. 115), about 
64 stadia from Jerusalem, where, moreover, the tradition of the middle 
ages seems to place it. Whether one of these two Emmauses is to be 
identified with Vespasian's military colony of the same name (30 stadia 
from Jerusalem; Jos. Bell. Jud. vii, 6, 6), and if so, which, cannot be deter- 
mined (comp. ZDPV. xv. 177; xvi. 146; xvii. 224). 

A little to the S. of the village is a famous spring to which sana- 
tory properties were once attributed. The only noticeable antiquities 
are the remains of a church, consecrated to the Maccabees, partly of 
the times of the Crusaders, partly Byzantine. 

We now descend into the Wddi el-KhalU, which runs towards 
the S.W. After 25 min. the 11th watch-tower rises on the left, and 
after 16 min. more the 12th. A well here, on the right, is called 
Btr EyyUb (Job's well). On a height to the left, at some distance, 
rises the dilapidated house of Dtr Eyy&b (Job's monastery). In 
10 min. from the well we reach the narrow entrance to the Wddi 
(Imdm) f AJi, called Bab el-Wdd, or gate of the valley, on the left 
of which is the 13th watch-tower and on the right the Cafi Bdb el- 
Wdd (dirty; the traveller should order chairs to be brought outside). 

The road now enters the Wadi r Ali and leads in i/ 4 hr. to the 
ruins of a mosque situated at a spot called Mtfsara, the narrowest 
part of the valley. After 1/4 hr. more, at the junction of the valleys, 
we come to the 'Trees of the Imam f Ali'; close by is a ruined 
mosque shaded by large trees. The hills are overgrown with under- 
wood ; besides the wild olives the carob-tree is frequently observed. 
The route then reaches (25 min.) a plateau with numerous olive 
trees; on the right is the village of Sdrts. The path then winds up 
the side of another valley, ascending the hill on which lie the 
ruins of the ancient Sdrts. At the top (12 min.) is discovered a 
beautiful view of the plain and the sea beyond. After 12 min. we 
perceive below us S&bd (p. 17) to the E., while to the S. opens 
the bleak Wddi Saris. None of these valleys contain water except 

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to Jerusalem. ABU GHOSH. 3. Route. 17 

after heavy rain. After 28 min. the top of a hill is reached where 
we take leave of our view towards the W. On the opposite hill 
lies the ruin of Kastal (see below). A little further on we reach 
El-Karya or — 
_— Abu Gh6sh. — The village is so named after a powerful village shSkh 
of that name. For many years at the beginning of this century this chief 
with his 6 brothers and 85 descendants was the terror of the whole district. 
The village was formerly called Karyet eWEndb , or the town of grapes, 
a name which occurs for the first iime in the 15th century. A Greek tra- 
dition places the Emmaut of the N. T. here (but comp. p. 16). Eusebius 
appears to have here Sought for Kirjath-Jearim (forest-town $ 1 Sam. vii. 
lj, but the identification is very doubtful. 

The well-preserved Church , at present in possession of the French 
government, lies to the right of the road. It is remarkable for the small 
spiral enrichments which also occur in Arabian structures, whose archi- 
tects borrowed them from Christian monuments of the 6-7th century. The 
three apses are externally concealed by masonry. The nave is loftier and 
wider than the aisles, and is supported by three pilasters on each side; 
its arches rest on pillars of peculiar form, in which Vogu£ detects Arabian 
influence. The arches and the windows above them, as well as the windows 
of the aisles, have a slightly pointed character. The whole building is 
on the same level, and there is no transept. The walls of the church, 
particularly those of the apse, and those of the crypt likewise, were adorned 
with frescoes in the Byzantine style, and partly covered with mosaics, of 
which distinct traces still exist. Under the whole length of the church 
runs a crypt, which is now partly filled up. The entrance to it is by 
a small door in the S. wall. An opening in the floor of the crypt, near 
the centre, descends to a spring (Rev. Arch. xix. 223 seq.). The theory 
that recognizes the building as originally a fort of Vespasian is improb- 
able; still more so the identification of the site with Emmaus and the 
Crusaders' fortress of Fontenoide. — The church is mentioned for the 
first time in 1519 under the name of the church of St. Jeremiah, and the 
name of that prophet is also applied to the spring below the church. The 
name, however, has been used in consequence of a mistaken identification 
of Karyet el- f Enab with Anathoth, the birthplace of the prophet (p. 116). 
In an open space to the N. of the church, near the path, is the monument 
of the Shekh Abu Gh6$h, with a Sebil (fountain). — The fine village-well 
lies under palm-trees to the S.E. of the church. 

The route skirts the outside of the village. We observe on a hill 
to the right (S.) the village of Subd, erroneously identified by tra- 
dition 6ince the 13th cent, with Mtdein (1 Mace. ii. 1), the native 
place of the Maccabaean family. Modem is now generally recognized 
in El-Mejeh, a village with interesting rock-tombs, to the N.E. of 
Lydda, though even this identification is open to doubt (comp. 
1 Mace. xiii. 27 f.). In 27 min. after leaving Abu Gh6sh we reach 
(to the right) a spring called r Ain Dilb, beside which is an Arabian 
cafe*. On a hill to the left lies Bit Nakubd. To the right (5 min.) 
are some ruins; farther S., in the bed of the valley, the ruins of 
Kebdla (once perhaps a monastery). The route skirts the S. side of 
a low hill, on which there are a few ruins. In 14 min. more we 
attain the top of the hill on which the village of Kastal lies above us 
to the right. The name is doubtless of Roman origin, being derived 
from ca8tellum. En-Nebi Samwtl is visible towards the N. , and , */ 4 hr. 
farther, r Ain Kdrim in the distance towards the S. (p. 112). We 
now descend by great windings into the Wddi Kaldniyeh or Wddi 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 2 

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18 Route 3. KALONIYEH. 

Bet Hanind, frequently though erroneously identified with the 
'valley ofElah'(t.e. of terebinths) of 1 Sam. xvii. 2 (p. 146). 20 min. 
farther (9 4 /2 nTS - fr° m Jaffa) is a bridge ; close by are several cafe's 
(the 2nd, to the left, is the best). On the hill to the left lies Ka- 
ldniyeh, a name derived by some scholars from 'colonia' ; but a place 
named Koulon is found in the Septuagint (Josh. xv. 59). For the 
identification of Kal6niyeh with Emmaus, comp. p. 16. (A little 
farther on is Bit Mizzth, perhaps the ancient Mozah, Josh, xviii. 26.) 
The new road now ascends the Wddi BU Hanind in long windings 
(the old road crosses a hill on which the 14th watch-tower stands, 
and proceeds directly to the E.) ; En-Nebi SamwU is soon seen again ; 
on the hill to the left, BU Iksd. In a small valley, also to the left, 
lies Liftd , with a large spring and the stones of some very ancient 
buildings at the E. entrance to the village. This place corresponds 
perhaps with Nephtoah on the confines of Judah(Josh. xv. 9). The 
road traverses a stony region of increasing dreariness. After 45 min. , 
we pass, on our right, the road to r Ain Karim (p. 112); immedi- 
ately beyond it, on the left, the 15th watch-tower (the 3rd from Je- 
rusalem) with the weli of Shekh Bedr; on the right are the Greek 
Monastery of the Cross (p. 110), MarElyas, and Bethlehem. In front 
of us is the glittering dome of the mosque of 'Omar and behind it 
the tower of the Mount of Olives, but the city itself is still hidden. 
Passing between the houses of the Jewish colony, which begin soon 
afterwards, we arrive in 11 min. at the Town Hospital; opposite it 
is a military post on the site of the 16th watch-tower. Ascending 
the hill, we first perceive the extensive pile of buildings belonging 
to the Russians, with its church of five domes, beyond which is the 
chapel on the Mt. of Olives. The domes of the church of the Se- 
pulchre, etc. , are also visible. A little farther on, the walls come 
in view, and in 18 min. more, we reach the Jaffa Gate. 

From Jaffa to Lydda, 374 hrs. — As far as the (1 hr.) fountain r Ain 
Dilb, see p. 15; hence to the S.E. In 15 min., on the left, we see the vil- 
lage of Sdkiya; 17 min., on the right, BU Dejan. 25 min., B&firtyeh (on 
the left ; p. 11). Several villages lie in the plain to the N. : Kafr 'JLnd 
(p. 11); YehUdiyeh; further E., Kafr Jents and El-KenUeh (church) ; on the 
spurs of the hills to the N., El-Tireh, Dir Tdilf, and BU Neb&la. 40 min., 
cactus-hedges; 20 min. later, an* olive-grove (avoid the path to the left). 
In 4 min. more we arrive at Lydda (p. 11). Thence to Ramleh, carriage 
road in 40 minutes. 

From Lydda to Jerusalem via JimzC and El-Kubebkh, 8 hrs. From 
Lydda S.E. to (50 min.) JimzH (Qimzo, 2 Chron. xxviii. 18), visible on a 
height. The road proceeds to the right beyond the village; 45 min., Ber- 
filya (on a hill to the right); 55 min., Btr el-Mcftn; 1 hr., Bit Lekyeh; 
H/4 hr., Bet ( En&n, a large village ; 35 min., El-Kubibeh (p. 115). 

From Lydda to Jerusalem via Bet 'Ub and El-JIb , 8»/* hrs. As far 
as JimzH, see above. Beyond the village the. path turns to the left; 2 hrs. 
10 min., the rnins of Umm Rfoh, 1 hr.,„Bet TJr et-Tahta, half-way up the 
mountain, on a low hill. 1 hr., Bet r Ur el-Fdka, admirably situated on 
the top of a mountain-spur between the two valleys. The 'lower* and the 
'upper' BSt f Ur occupy the site of the Beth-ffororu of antiquity (Josh. x. 
10 ; xviii. 13, etc.). Solomon fortified the lower town (1 Kings ix. 17), and 
here Judas Maccabeeus defeated the Syrians under Nicanor (1 Hacc. vii. 39). 

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Plan, of Jerusalem. 

1 . Jksa-Mosaue fr.5. 

2.S*Jmr, Church of 6.2. 

Arabian, Trot. Church ....... B.l. 

Baiaara : 

i.Bew Bazaar C.*\ 

5..filA el-Jtifrrfc E.4\ 

6. » el-Bhawafat E.*. 

7. " es-Sabaghm ■( el-Khozur J . . E.*. 

8 . " esh-Shawahvrv . E. *. 

9. •• es-Senv'ahi I KJtdn ez-Zet ) . . E.3. 
IQ. Barracks ( CaJrutry ) T.3. 

11. » (In/iuury) F.2.3. A C.D.5, 

12 . Shankuv ( Saladin's Hospice I . . . D.3. 

13. Qenaculunv B.6. 

Consulates : 

VI. American) 

German > see M(q) of Environs 

British, I 

French A.B.2. 

Greek A.3. 

n.Rioadan* B.2. 

Austrian-} see ^P of Environs 

Spanish A-B.*. 

S3- David's Tomb B.C. 6 

23. Germ an Church D.*. 

School JL1. 

Z^.EnffHshChurch D.5. 

Bishop'sResidenoe, see Map of Eur. 

27. » JSbspital C.5.&D.5. 

28. " Parsonage D.T>. 

29. » School ... B.6. 
30. Borne of % theRock/(Mtobetes-Saklira ) . tr.4. 
31. Chapel of "the Scourging . . . . F.2. 
^Z.Gistle,afffoUath/(B2isrJdUid). . . B.3. 

33.Churchof 'the Sepulchre D.3. 

3*. Eamnubn eZ-Batrd%(Tatriui>cie<rPond}bA . 
35. ^ » esh-Shrf&fPoolofBethesdw) . FA 

Hal-sun. G-a.tes : 

Z&.BAb el-Astdt G.2 

37. •' BI&l G,2 

38. - el-Xtem G.2. 3 

39. " eL-GiiawunimeJi ( es - Serai ) . F.3. 

4-1. " en-JTdsir F.3 

42. " el-Badid F.3 

4-3. - el-Battantn F.4 

I*. " el-Matara, YA 

45. " es-SOseleh F.4. 

46. - el-Magharibeh . . . F.5 

47 Hospital, Greek c* 

48- " .Bathsclald's F. 5.6 

" , German,, see Atop of En virons 

.English, see, A? 27 

, " of ST John; see Mojo flnv: 
" ,Jlarienhi2fbf Children's) » •> ., 

49. £* James, Church of '(Old-) D.5 

50. Dome, of the- Chain G;4 

Sl-Waffing Place of 'the '.Terrs F.4 

Monasteries '. 
^2.Aayrzinian . . . . D.3 

53 -Armenian (Gr wit ) D.5.6 

54. " Nunnery Der ex- Zctuni 

(Bouse of Aiauts ) J).l\ 

55. " Monastery of MiZion 

(BTmse of Caiaphas ) . . B.C..') 

Monasteries *. 

56. Armenian Catholic E.3. 

57. Greek (Great) D.3* 

58. » (Jew) D.2. 

59. " of Abraham/ D.3.*. 

60. - " Si Basil C.3. 

61. - Caralomhos B.3. 

62. - - Demetrius C*. 

63. » ■• StGeorge (I) . . . . C.3. 

64. •• - >• (B) . . . D.6. 

65. » Gethsemane . . . . DA. 

66. •• S? John Buthymhts . . D.3. 

67. " •• S* John the Baptist . D.4. 

68. " St Catharine- D.3. 

69. •• • StWchael C.3. 

70. " - StMcholas C.3. 

71. •• Panagiw D.3. 

72. " Panagia' Jfelaena D.4. 

73. » - StTheodore C.3. 

74. » Catholic < Melchztes ) . C.4-. 

75. Sisters of Si Joseph C.3. 

W.Coptic (St George J C.4-. 

77. Latin St Sabrator C.3. 

78. - St lewis D.4\ 

79. Muslim Derrishes F.3. 

80. •• Mauloariyehlierrishes Z. 1.2. 

81. Syrian D.5. 

82. Sisters of Zion F.2. 

M.El-ltci'mnn&rcli.Ruui (formerly Hilary 

Magdalen) . ¥.1. 

84r.Hehkemeh (Bouse of Judgment) . P.*. 

Kosques : 

85. Jdml 1 eh-'Omari D.4-. 

S6.Masfidel-Sia-dmi E.4;. 

87. " d-Hajdhidm 6.2. 

88. • A-Magharibth, 7.5. 

89. Patriarchate, Armenian D.6. 

90. " » , Greek. D.3. 

91. " " Latin B.C.*. 

Post Office, Turkish D.4. 

93. " " , Austrian, D.5. 

9±.Serai,Present( Pasha's Residence) . . E.3. 

W> . SeraL, Old ( State, Prison, ) Y.s. 

Hotels and. Hospices : 

Motel d& UJSicrope B.3. 

ZloydJTotel D.4. 

BotelEeil 3.4. 

Grand 2Te*rjBbtel>, in- theKeirBaaaar < seeJSJb.) 

Jerusalem/ Bbtel/. see Map of Environs 

C .Casalforw oftheFrancuscans . . . C.3. 

H. auspice of St John E.3. 

e. " , Austrian E.2. 

f. r , Jewish ( Xontefiore '■ > .... A. 6. 
%. " , German Jewish . . E.6. 
i.. " , Spanish Jewish/ . 1.'6. 

i. " . Jrmeniah' B.5. 

k. Coptic-Stan D.4-. 

B .inkers '. 

Credit Lyonnazs B.C.*. 

n. Valero D.* 

S. Synagogues < in, Jews' Quarter > D.K.5.6 

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JERUSALEM. 4. Route, 19 

A frequented road from Jerusalem to the coast led via these villages in 
antiquity. In l?hr. 40 min. we reach the top of the pass and see El-Jtb 
and En-Nebi Samwil. 23 min., El-Jib (p. 115). Hence to Jerusalem, see 
p. 115. 

From Ramleii to Jerusalem via Bet Nuba, 8V2 hrs. The road diverges 
from the carriage-road close by the 7th watch-tower (p. 15). After 10 min. 
we follow the Roman road coming from Lydda, leaving BU 'Enndbeh 
(p. 15) on the left. 35 min., Kafr Tdb (p. 15). 26 min., on a hill to the 
right, Silbit and Der Nakhleh (». e. Michael). 55 min., the large village of 
Bet Nuba. This can scarcely be the ancient Nob (1 Sam. xxi. 1). Ruins 
of a Crusaders' 1 church ; a holy-water stoup of the 12th century. To the 
right, on a hill, is Ydl6 (Ajalon, Jos. x. 12). 18 min. , a hill with ruins 
(Suwdn). 35 min., the ruin of El-Burej (*. e. small castle); 25 min., an- 
other ruin, El- Musket fan old khan). 50 min., El-Kubibeh (see p. 115). 
Hence to Jerusalem (2v2 hrs.), see p. 115. 

4. Jerusalem. 

Arrival. The station is to the S. of the town, V* hr. from the Jaffa 
Gate, to the E. of the German Temple colony. Carriage to the town, 2-5 fr. 
according to the season. 

Hotels, *Gkand New Hotel (landlord Morcos; Cook's and S tangent 
hotel), in the new Bazaar (PI. 4, C4); Hotel de l'Europe, in the Jaffa 
road (PI. B, 3; landlord Herr Kapput); Lloyd Hotel , in the Jaffa road 
(PL B, 3; landlord Herr A. Fast)-, Metropole, on the Jaffa road (PL B,4; 
landlord Herr Feil). — Jerusalem Hotel (see map of environs; landlord 
Kaminitz), in the Jaffa suburb. Pension, excl. wine, in the season 10-15 fr. 
(less for a prolonged stay), at other times 6-8 fr. (on arrangement). Jeru- 
salem wine, 1-2 fr. per bottle, good French red wine from 3 fr. — Pension 
Olivet-House, in the Jaffa suburb (see map of environs). — Hospices. Prus- 
sian Hospice of St. John (PL d, E 3 ; superintendent Bayer), recommended 
for a prolonged stay (secure rooms in advance during the season) ; cuisine 
plain but good, pension, incl. wine, 5 fr. — German Catholic Hospice (see 
map of the environs), in the Jaffa suburb. — Austrian Hospice (PI. e; E, 2), 
in the Via Dolorosa. — Casa Nuova of the Franciscans (PL c; C, 3). — All 
these hospices are plainly but well fitted up ; clean beds and good food. 
Travellers of means are charged 5 fr. a day or at any rate are expected 
to pay that sum. 

Beer-houses and Cafes. European Casino (landlord A. Fast), opposite 
the citadel; Ganibrinus (landlord Haug), next door to the Credit Lyonnais, 
in the Jaffa road; Bshara Fata, in the New Bazaar (PL 4); A. Lendhold, 
in the Temple colony (has a brewery of his own). Bavarian beer 7-9 pi. 
a bottle. — Confectioner. Bacher, in the Jaffa road. — Wine. Bayer, in 
the hospice of St. John (see above) ; Bshara Fata, see above ; Jmberger, 
Berner, in the colony. Jerusalem wine, 1-2 fr. a bottle. 

Arabian Coffee-houses are numerous , but are not frequented by 
foreigners; one of the best is close by the Jaffa Gate; another is the 
Cafe" Beledi in the Jaffa road; a third is mentioned on p. 79. 

Consulates. Permission to visit the mosques can be obtained only 
through the consulate. — American (see map of environs), Wallace; Austrian 
(see map of environs), H. Jehlitschka; British (see map of environs), J. 
Dickson; French (PL A, B, 2), Ch. Ledoulx, consul-general ; German (see map 
of environs), Dr. von Tischendorf; Greek (PL A, 3), J. Mertrud; Italian (see 
map of environs), Cazzani; Russian (PL 17 : B 2), Arsenief; Spanish (PL A, B, 
4), F. J. de Solas. 

Post Office. Turkish (PL B, C, 2), outside the Jaffa Gate; Austrian 
(PL 93; D, 5). Letters may be addressed 'poste restante', but it is safer to 
- have them addressed to the hotel or consulate. — International Telegraph, 
in the Turkish post office. 

Money. See p. xxix and the table before the title-page. 

Bankers. Cridit Lyonnais, (PL B, C, 4), in the Jaffa road; Deutsche 
Palaestina-Bank, opposite the Citadel (PL E, 4)'; Valero (PL n, D, 4), Davia 


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20 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Practical Remarks. 

Street. David Weller and A. Singer also transact banking-business. — The 
traveller should always be well supplied with small change, which may he 
obtained at the bazaar, but he should be on his guard against imposition. 

Physicians. Dr. Arbella, phys. in the Rothschild hospital ; Dr. Cant, 
phys. of the English eye-hospital ; Dr. Einsler, phys. of the Leproserie; 
Dr. Elliewich, phys. of the English mission ; Dr. Euclides, municipal phys. ; 
Dr. Feuchtwanger, Jewish phys. ; Fra Pietro, M. D., phys. of the Franciscan 
monastery ; Dr. de Fries, phys. in the French hospital of St. Louis ; Dr. Hin- 
dees, Jewish phys. ; Dr. Hoffmann, phys. in the German hospital ; Dr. Maza- 
rati, phys. in the Spanish .Jews' hospital ; Dr. Paeter, phys. of the Maltese 
Order at Tantur ; Dr. Sandrecsky, phys. in the German hospital 'Marien- 
stift' ; Dr. Savignoni, phys. of the Greek hospital ; Dr. Severin, phys. of the 
Russian hospital ; Dr. Wallach, Jewish phys. ; Dr. Wheeler, phys. of the Eng- 
lish mission. — Dbntist, Dr. Reglaff. 

Chemists. Paulus, German chemist, in the German colony; Qaxtano- 
pulos, beside the Jaffa Gate; Damiani, in the Bazaar (PI. 4); also Dr. San- 
dreczky, and at the Hospital*. 

Divine Service. Church of England: (a) in Christ Church (PI. 25; D, 5), 
10a.m. in English; 8.30 p.m. in German; 7.30 p.m. in English. — (b) in 
St. Paul's (p. b2), 9.30 a.m. and 7 p.m. in Arabic. — German Protestant, 9 a.m., 
in the temporary chapel in the Muristan. — Service at the Syrian Or- 
phanage, 9.30 a.m. in Arabic. — Meetings of the Temple community, in the 
newly erected hall in the colony. — The masses of the Roman Catholic 
church are variable. The beautiful masses in the Russian church are 
at 4 p.m. 

Photographs. Nicodemus, Vester, in the new Bazaar (PI. 4); 8-10 fr. 
per doz. ; Hentschel. 

Other favourite Souvenirs are rosaries of olive - stones, crosses and 
other ornaments in mother-of-pearl (chiefly manufactured at Bethlehem), 
vases and other objects in black 'stinkstone* 1 from the Dead Sea, 
and roses of Jericho. A large choice of these articles is to be found 
in the space in front of the church of the Sepulchre; or some of the 
dealers may be requested to bring their wares to the traveller's apart- 
ments. As a rule, one-half or a third only of the price demanded should 
be offered. Higher-class work is best bought in the shops in the new 
bazaar and at Vester's. A staple product of Jerusalem is carved work 
in olive-wood and oak (rulers, paper-weights, crucifixes, etc.; usually 
with the name 'Jerusalem' in Hebrew letters, or with the Jerusalem cross), 
of which the best specimens may be purchased at Vester's (in the new 
Bazaar), at the House of Industry (opp. the tower of David), and at Faig^s, 
— Pretty cards with dried field-flowers are made by the German deaconesses 
and the Sisters of Zion, and are sold in aid of the respective institutions. 

Provisions for trips into the country. Bekmasian, in the Jaffa road. — 
Travelling Requisites. Schnerring, saddler, in the Jaffa road. — Tailor. 
Eppinger, Jaffa road. — Shoemakers. Messerle and Hahn, both beside the 
Jaffa Gate and in the German colony. — Dress Goods. Imberger, Max 
Ungar, both near the Jaffa Gate. — Forwarding Agents. David Weller, 
A. Singer, Baggari & Ellenberger. 

Dragomans. Guides for the town itself are unnecessary, but those who 
are inexperienced in oriental towns will do well to secure one from their 
hotel. — Dragomans for journeys (see p. xxii): Francis Karam (Fr., Ital., 
Engl.); David Jarnal & Demetrius D ami an (English and German); Riske and 
Williams {Jakob Riske, a Russian, speaks German, English, and French; 
Karl Williams, a German, speaks Fr. and Engl.); Dimitri Banath (Engl, 
and Germ.); Jos. Ibrahim (Ger.); Hanna Auwad and son (Engl., Fr., Ital.); 
Isa Kuprusli (Engl., Fr., Ital); Uaroum Freres (Engl., Fr., & Ital.); Rafael 
Lorenzo (Fr., Ital.); Frantis Morkos (Fr., Ital.); Isa and Gabriel Habesh 
(Engl, and French). 

Carriages and Horses. Carriages are always to be found at the Jaffa 
Gate, but for longer excursions they should be specially engaged from <?. 
Kappus, F. Riske, or at a hotel. Per drive i/4mej.; i/ 2 day 10, whole 
day 20 fr. Prices should be settled beforehand. — Saddle Horse \)% day 3, 

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History. JERUSALEM. d. Route. 21 

whole day 5-6 fir. ; for longer tours according to bargain. A European 
saddle should be stipulated for (p. xxi). — Donkey , V* day 2, whole day 3 fr. 

Jerusalem, to most travellers, is a place of overwhelming interest, 
but, at first sight, many will be sadly disappointed in the dirty 
modern town, with its crooked and badly paved lanes. It would seem, 
at first, as though little were left of the ancient city of Zion and 
Moriah , the far-famed capital of the Jewish empire. It is only by 
patiently penetrating beneath the modern crust of rubbish and decay, 
which shrouds the sacred places from view, that the traveller will at 
length realise to himself a picture of the Jerusalem of antiquity, and 
this will be the more vivid in proportion to the amount of previously 
acquired historical and topographical information at his command. The 
longer and the oftener he sojourns in Jerusalem, the greater will be 
the interest with which its ruins will inspire him , though lie will 
be obliged to confess that the degraded aspect of the modern city, 
and its material and moral decline , form but a melancholy termi- 
nation to the stupendous scenes once enacted here. The com- 
bination of wild superstition with the merest formalism which 
everywhere forces itself on our notice, and the fanaticism and 
jealous exclusiveness of the numerous religious communities of 
Jerusalem form the chief modern characteristics of the city — the 
Holy City, once the fountain-head from which the knowledge of the 
true God was wont to be vouchsafed to mankind, and which has 
exercised the supremest influence on religious thought throughout 
the world. Jerusalem is, therefore, not at all a txn\n for amusement, 
for everything in it has a religious tinge, and from a religious point 
of view, the impressions the traveller receives in Jerusalem are 
anything but pleasant. The native Christians of all sects are by no 
means equal to their task, the bitter war which rages among them is 
carried on with very foul weapons, and the contempt with which the 
orthodox Jews and Mohammedans look down on the Christians is 
only too well deserved. 

For the Disposition of Time, especially if one's stay is short, see p. zii. 

History of Jerusalem. 

From the letters found at Tell el- f Amama (p. lviii), several of 
which were written from Urusalim by Prince Abdi-Khiba, we learn 
that about 1400 B.C. Jerusalem held a prominent place among the 
cities of S. Palestine. It was then subject to Egypt, and its princes 
were appointed by the Egyptian Pharaoh. — The town was named 
Jebus, and was distinguished as the chief stronghold of the Jebu- 
sites, when the Israelites captured it, which they did in the reign 
of David (2 Sam. t. 6-10). That king selected it for his residence 
and enlarged the fortress upon Mount Zion into the City of David. 

"What then was the precise situation of this holy Mt. Zion? In 
order to answer this question, we must first examine the Topo- 
graphical Character of the City (comp. the Plan, p. 22). The 

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22 Route 4. JERUSALEM. History. 

city was surrounded by deep valleys. Towards the E. lay the valley 
•of the Kidron (afterwards called the valley of Jehoshaphat) , and 
on the W. and S. sides, the valley of Hinnom. These two principal 
valleys enclosed a plateau, the N. side of which bore the name of 
Bezetha, or 'place of olives. On the S. half of this plateau lay the 
city of Jerusalem , which was divided into different quarters by 
natural depressions of the soil. The chief of these natural boundaries 
was a small valley coming from the N., running at first S.S.E., and 
then due S., and separating two hills, Of which that to the W. now 
rises 105 ft. above the precipitous E. hill. This valley, which is 
not mentioned in the Old Testament, was called by Josephus the 
Tyropoeon (cheese-makers' valley, or better, valley of dung). 

On the S. terrace of the E. hill, where, to the S.E. of the 
present Haram, lay the Ophel quarter, as well as on the other hill 
to the W. of the TyropcBon, extended the ancient Jerusalem as far 
as the brink of the valley. The city-wall crossed the Tyropceon at 
its mouth far below. On the S. side of the W. hill (where there 
are now no houses) there was as early as David's time that part of 
the town which Josephus calls the Upper City. 

Tradition places Zion and the City of David upon the W. hill, 
but the references in the Bible clearly show this to be an error. The 
Temple must certainly have stood upon the E. hill. But 'going up 1 
to the Temple from the City of David is usually spoken of (2 Sam. 
xxiv. 18), so that the city cannot have stood upon the W. hill, which 
is higher than the hill of the Temple. Its site must therefore be 
looked for on the E. hill, below, i.e. to the S. of, the site of the 
Temple. Zion was the popular name for the hill of the Temple ; 
Jehovah dwelt on Zion (Joel iii. 21 ; Micah iv. 2; Is. viii. 18). Thus 
'Zion' is frequently used as synonymous with the 'city of David' 
(2 Sam. v. 7; 1 Kings viii. 1+), and is even poetically applied 
to Jerusalem itself ('daughter of Zion'). In passages of an earlier 
date the two are expressly distinguished from each other ('upon 
Mount Zion and on Jerusalem', Is. x. 12). — The name of Moriah 
occurs exceptionally in Gen. xxii. 2 and in 2 Chron. iii. 1 as a 
specifically religious appellation for the hill of the temple. 

Solomon began to beautify the city in a magnificent style, and 
above all, he erected on mount Zion a magnificent palace and sanc- 
tuary. In order, however, to procure a level surface for the founda- 
tion of such an edifice, it was necessary to lay massive substructions. 
The Temple of Solomon occupied the* N. part, the site of the upper 
terrace of the present day, on which the Dome of the Rock now 
stands (p. 39). (For farther details as to the history and site of 
the ancient Temple, see p. 36.) The royal palace rose immediately 
(Ezek. xliii. 7, 8) to the S. of the Temple, nearly on the site of 

t 'Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel, unto king Solomon 
in Jerusalem, that they might bring up the ark of the covenant of the 
Lord out of the city of David, which is Zion."' 

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History. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 23 

the present mosque of Afcsa, and extended thence to the E., where 
the rock forms a broad plateau. It consequently lay rather lower 
than the Temple, but higher than the City of David (see p. 22). 
With this agrees the fact that Pharaoh's daughter 'came up 1 to it 
from the city of David (1 Kings ix. 24). This new palace was erected 
from Assyrian and Egyptian models, and sumptuously decorated. — 
Solomon also built Millo (1 Kings ix. 24 ; xi. 27), a kind of bas- 
tion or fort that perhaps completed the fortification of the city of 
David. Its position is quite uncertain. During his reign Jerusalem 
first became the headquarters of the Israelites, and it was probably 
then that this new city in the N. sprang up which he surrounded 
with fortifications. 

The glory of Jerusalem as the central point of the united 
empire was, however, of brief duration j after the division of the 
kingdom it became the capital of Judah only. So early as Reho- 
boam's reign, the city was compelled to surrender to the Egyptian 
king Shishak, on which occasion the Temple and palace were 
despoiled of part of their golden ornaments. About one hundred 
years later, under king Jehoram , the Temple was again plundered, 
the victors on this occasion being Arabian and Philistine tribes 
(2 Chron. xxi. 17). Sixty years later, Jehoash, the king of Israel, 
having defeated Amaziah of Judah, effected a wide breach in the 
wall of Jerusalem and entered the city in triumph (2 Kings xiv. 13, 
14). Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, re-established the prosperity of 
Jerusalem. During this period, however, Jerusalem was visited by 
a great earthquake. 

On the approach of Sennacherib the fortifications were repaired 
by Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxii. 5), to whom also was due the great 
merit of providing Jerusalem with water. The solid chalky lime- 
stone on which the city stands contains little water. The only 
spring at Jerusalem was the fountain of Oihon on the E. slope of 
the Temple hill, outside the city-wall. By means of a subterranean 
channel Hezekiah conducted the water of the spring to the pool 
of Siloam, which lay within the walls. This spring being quite inad- 
equate for the supply of the whole city, cisterns and reservoirs for 
the storage of rain-water were also constructed. The ponds on the 
W. side of the city were probably formed before the period of the 
captivity, as was also the large reservoir which still excites our 
admiration to the N. of the Temple plateau, and in the formation 
of which advantage was taken of a small valley, whose depth was at 
the same time destined to protect the site of the Temple on the N. 
side. A besieging army outside the city-walls generally suffered 
severely from want of water, as the issues of the conduits towards 
the country could be closed, while the city always possessed water 
in abundance. The valleys of Kidron and Hinnom must have ceased 
to be watered by streams at a very early period. 

Hezekiah on the whole reigned prosperously, but the policy of 

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24 Route 4. JERUSALEM. History. 

his successors soon involved the city in rain. In the reign of Jehoi- 
achin, it was compelled to surrender at discretion to King Nebu- 
chadnezzar. Again the Temple and the royal palace were pillaged, 
and a great number of the citizens, including King Jehoiachin, the 
nobles , 7000 'men of might', 1000 craftsmen and their families 
were carried away captive to the East (2 Kings xxiv. 16 f.). Those 
who were left having made a hopeless attempt under Zedekiah to 
revolt against their conquerors, Jerusalem now had to sustain a 
long and terrible siege (1 year, 5 months, and 7 days). Pestilence 
and famine meanwhile ravaged the city. The besiegers approached 
with their roofed battering-rams, but the defence was a desperate 
one, and every inch of the ground was keenly contested, even after 
Zedekiah had fled down the Tyropceon to the valley of the Jordan. 
The Babylonians now carried off all the treasures that still remained, 
the Temple of Solomon was burned to the ground, and Jerusalem 
reduced to the abject state of humiliation so beautifully described 
by the author of the Lamentations, particularly in chap. ii. 

When the Jews returned from captivity, they once more settled 
in Jerusalem, the actual rebuilding of which was the work of Nehe- 
miah (p. lxi). He re-fortifled the city, retaining the foundations 
of the former walls, although these now enclosed a far larger space 
than was necessary for the reduced population. 

The convulsions of the following centuries affected Jerusalem 
but slightly. The city opened its gates to Alexander, and after his 
death passed into the hands of the Ptolemies in the year 320. It 
was not till the time of Antiochus Epiphanes that it again became 
a theatre of bloodshed. On his return from Egypt, Antiochus 
plundered the Temple. Two years afterwards, he sent thither a 
chief collector of tribute, who destroyed Jerusalem, slew many of 
the inhabitants, and established himself in a stronghold in the 
centre of the city. This was the Akra, the site of which is disputed. 
As it is expressly stated to have stood on the site of the city of 
David (1 Mace. i. 33; ii. 31 ; vii. 31; xiv. 36), it must probably be 
located to the S. of the Temple. Some authorities place it, however, 
to the N.W. of the Temple. 

Judas Maccabaeus (p. lxi) recaptured the city, but not the Akra, 
and he fortified the hill of the Temple. But after the battle of 
Bethzachariah, Antiochus V. Eupator caused the walls of 'Zion' to 
be taken down (1 Mace. vi. 52) , in violation, it is said, of his sworn 
treaty. Jonathan, the Maccabaean, however, caused a stronger wall 
than ever to be erected (1 Mace. x. 11). He constructed another wall 
between the Akra, which was still occupied by a Syrian garrison, 
and the other parts of the city, whereby, at a later period, under 
Simon (B.C. 141), the citizens were enabled to reduce the garrison 
by famine. Under John HyTcanus, the son of Simon, Jerusalem 
was again besieged by the Syrians (under Antiochus VII. Sidetes) 
in 134, and compelled to surrender by famine. The walls were 

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History. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 25 

demolished, but after the fali of Antiochus VII. Hyrcanus restored 
them, at the same time fortifying the Boris (see below) in the N.W. 
angle of the temple precincts, pulling town the Akra, and filling up 
the depression between its site and the Temple. Internal dissensions 
at length led to the intervention of the Romans. Pompey besieged 
the city, and again the attacks were concentrated against the Temple 
precincts, which, however, were defended on the N. side by large 
towers and a deep moat. Traces of this moat have been discovered. 
The only level approach by which the Temple platform could be 
reached was a bridge towards the W., for on this side at thatperiodlay 
the Tyropoeon, a valley of considerable depth. This bridge , which 
was afterwards destroyed, was probably situated near Wilson's 
Arch (p. 56). The quarter to the N. of the Temple, as well 
as the Gate of St. Stephen, do not appear to have existed at that 
period, and this is confirmed by Capt. Warren's excavations. The 
moat on the N. side was filled up by the Romans on a Sabbath ; they 
then entered the city by the embankment they had thrown up, and, 
exasperated by the obstinate resistance they had encountered, com- 
mitted fearful ravages within the Temple precincts. In this struggle, 
no fewer than 12,000 Jews are said to have perished. To the great 
sorrow of the Jews, Pompey penetrated into their inmost sanctuary, 
but he left their treasures untouched. These were carried off by 
Crassus a few years lateT. Internal discord at Jerusalem next gave 
rise to the intervention of the Parthians, B. 0. 40. 

In 37 Herod with the aid of the Romans captured the city after 
a gallant defence. The Jews had obstinately defended every point 
to the uttermost, and so infuriated were the victors that they gave 
orders for a general massacre. The part which had held out longest 
was the Baris. Herod, who now obtained the supreme power, embel- 
lished and fortified the city, and above all, he rebuilt the Temple , 
an event to which we shall hereafter revert (p. 37). He then refort- 
ified the Baris also, as it commanded the Temple, and named it 
Antonia, in honour of his Roman patron. This castle was flanked 
with turrets externally, and was internally very spacious. He also 
built himself a sumptuous palace on the N.W. side of the upper 
city. This building is said to have contained a number of halls, 
peristyles, inner courts with lavish enrichments, and richly decorated 
columns. On the N. side of the royal palace stood three large towers 
of defence, named the Hippicus, Phasael, and Mariamne respectively 
(comp. p. 80). According to Roman custom, Herod also built a theatre 
at Jerusalem, and at the same time a town-hall (nearly on the site of the 
Mehkemeh, p. 55), and theXystus, a space for gymnastic games sur- 
rounded by colonnades. At this period Jerusalem with its numerous 
palaces and handsome edifices, the sumptuous Temple with its colon- 
nades, and the lofty city-walls with their bastions, must have pre- 
sented a very striking appearance. The wall of the old town had sixty 
towers, and that of the small suburb to the N. of it fourteen ; but the 

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26 Route 4. JERUSALEM. History. 

populous city must have extended much farther to the N., and we 
must picture to ourselves in this direction numerous villas standing 
in gardens, some of which were probably very handsome buildings. 
Such was the character of the city in the time of Our Lord, but in 
the interior the streets, though paved, were somewhat narrow and 
crooked. The population must have been very crowded, especially 
on the occasion of festivals. The Roman governor is said on one 
occasion to have caused the paschal lambs to be counted, and to 
have found that they amounted to the vast number of 270,000, 
whence we may infer that the number of partakers was not less 
than 2,700,000. Although these figures, like many of the other 
statements of Josephus, are probably much exaggerated, they, at least, 
tend to show that the great national festival was attended by vast 

After the death of Christ Agrippa I., at length, erected a wall 
which enclosed the whole of the N. suburb within the precincts of 
the city. This wall, which must have been of great extent and very 
strongly built to protect this most exposed quarter of Jerusalem, 
was composed of huge blocks of stone,, and is said to have been 
defended by ninety towers. The strongest of these was the 
Psephinu8 tower at the N.W. angle, which was upwards of 100 ft. 
in height, and stood on the highest ground in the city (2572 ft. above 
the sea-level ; comp. p. 80). From fear of incurring the displeasure 
of the Emperor Claudius, the wall was left unfinished, and it was 
afterwards completed in a less substantial style. As one of the chief 
points of controversy among the learned explorers of Jerusalem is the 
direction taken by the three walls, we may here give a short account 
of the subject. 

The First WlaW, that of David and Solomon, enclosed the old 
part of the town. Nehemiah's wall (p. 24) followed its course on 
the W., S., and E. sides. Beginning on the W. at the Furnace 
Tower (wich perhaps stood on the site later occupied by the tower 
of Hippicus), it followed the upper verge of the W. hill on the W. 
and S. sides, thus enclosing the modern suburb of Zion (comp. 
p. 22). On the S. side were probably two gates, leading to the 
S. from the upper city, vi». the Valley Gate, near the S.W. angle, 
and the Dung Gate, farther to the E. The wall was then carried in 
a double line across the Tyropceon, at the mouth of which was the 
'Well Gate', probably identical with the 'Gate between two Walls'. 
From the Pool of Siloam the wall ascended the hill northwards to 
the wall of the Temple. In the district of Ophel (p. 22) was the 
Water Gate, and farther to the N. was the -Horse Gate' (a gate of 
the Temple). From the Hippicus the N. wall ran E. in an almost 
straight line to the Temple. Immediately to the S. of this N. wall 
stood the palace of Herod, the Xystus, and the bridge which crossed 
the Tyropceon to the Temple. In order to defend the upper part of 
the city, another wall ran down on the W. margin of the Tyropceon. 

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History, JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 27 

The Second Wall on the N., enclosing the N. suburb, also dates 
from the period of the early kings ; it was rebuilt by Nehemiah. At 
the point (on the W.) where it diverged from the first wall, Jose- 
phus placed the Qennat Gate {i.e. Garden Gate, perhapB the Corner 
Gate of the Bible), which has been discovered between the towers 
Hippicus and Phasael. Thence the wall made a curve to the N., 
interrupted (from to E.) by the Gate ofEphraim, the Old Gate, and 
the Fisty Gate. At its N.E. angle it impinged upon the Temple 
precincts, where rose the Biro, a strong bastion called Boris by Jo- 
sephus and afterwards named Antonia. This part of the N. wall was 
farther strengthened by the towers of Hananeel and Mea, the exact 
positions of which are still undetermined. On the direction assigned 
to this second wall depends the question of the genuineness of the 
'Holy Sepulchre'. A number of authorities believe that the wall 
took much the same direction as the present town-wall, in which 
case it would have included what is now called the 'Holy Sepulchre', 
which, therefore, could not be genuine. Others, relying on the 
Russian excavations opposite the Muristan, hold that the wall and 
moat ran round the E. and S. sides of Golgotha. 

With regard to the situation'of the Third Wall, topographers like- 
wise disagree. Those who hold that the 2nd wall corresponded to 
the present town-wall (see above) , must look for the 3rd wall far 
to the N. of it. The opinion now generally accepted is that this wall 
occupied nearly the same site as the present N. town- wall of Jeru- 
salem ; there are still clear traces of an old moat round the present 
N. wall, and this view appears to be confirmed by the statement of 
the distances given by Josephus (4 stadia to the royal tombs , 7 
stadia to the Scopus), who, however, is not always accurate. But 
the question as to the situation of the second and third walls is by 
no means settled. 

Ever since the land had become a Roman province a storm had 
begun to brood in the political atmosphere. At this time there 
were two antagonistic parties at Jerusalem : the fanatical Zealots 
under Eleazar, who advocated a desperate revolt against the Romans, 
and a more moderate party under the high priest Ananus. Florus, 
the Roman governor, in his undiscriminating rage, having caused 
many unoffending Jews to be put to death, a fearful insurrection 
broke out in the city. Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Berenice 
endeavoured to pacify the insurgents and to act as mediators, but 
were obliged to seek refuge in flight. The Zealots had already 
gained possession of the Temple precincts, and the castle of Antonia 
was now also occupied by them. After a terrible struggle the stronger 
faction of the Zealots succeeded in wresting the upper part of the 
city from their opponents, and even in capturing the castle of Herod 
which was garrisoned by 3000 men. The victors treated the captive 
Romans and their own countrymen with equal barbarity. Cestius 
Gall us, an incompetent Roman general, now besieged the city, 

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28 Routed. JERUSALEM. History. 

but when he had almost achieved success he gave up the siege, 
and withdrew towards the N. to Gibeon. His camp was there 
attacked by the Jews and his army dispersed. This victory so 
elated the Jews that they imagined they could now entirely shake 
off the Roman yoke. The newly constituted council at Jerusalem, 
composed of Zealots, accordingly proceeded to organise an insurrec- 
tion throughout the whole of Palestine. The Romans despatched 
their able general Vespasian with 60,000 men to Palestine. This 
army first quelled the insurrection in Galilee (A. D. 67). Within 
Jerusalem itself bands of robbers took possession of the Temple, 
and, when besieged by the high-priest Ananus, summoned to their 
aid the Idumseans (Edomites), the ancient hereditary enemies of the 
Jews. To these auxiliaries the gates were thrown open, and with 
their aid the moderate party with Ananus, its leader, annihilated. 
The adherents of the party were proscribed, and no fewer than 12,000 
persons of noble family are said to have perished on this occasion. 
It was not till Vespasian had conquered a gTeat part of Palestine 
that he advanced with his army against Jerusalem ; but events at 
Rome compelled him to entrust the continuation of the campaign 
to his son Titus. When the latter approached Jerusalem there were 
no fewer than four parties within its walls. The Zealots under John 
of Giscala occupied the castle of Antonia and the court of the Gen- 
tiles, while the robber party under Simon of Gerasa held the upper 
part of the city, Eleazar's party w. s in possession of the inner 
Temple and the court of the Jews ; and, lastly, the moderate party 
was also established in the upper part of the city. At the begin- 
ning of April, A. D. 70, Titus had assembled six legions (each of 
about 6000 men) in the environs of Jerusalem. He posted the main 
body of his forces to the N. and N.W. of the city, while one legion 
occupied the Mt. of Olives. The Jews in vain attempted a sally 
against the latter. Within the city John of Giscala succeeded in 
driving Eleazar from the inner precincts of the Temple. On 23rd April 
the besieging engines were brought up to the W. wall of the new 
town (near the present Jaffa Gate) ; on 7th May the Romans effected 
their entrance into the new town. Five days afterwards Titus endeav- 
oured to storm the second wall, but was repulsed ; but three days 
later he succeeded in taking it, and he then caused the whole N. side 
of the wall to be demolished. He now sent Josephus, who was present 
in his camp, to summon the Jews to surrender, but in vain. A famine 
soon set in, and those of the besieged who endeavoured to escape from 
it, and from the savage barbarities of Simon, were crucified by the 
Romans. The besiegers now began to erect walls of attack, but the 
Jews succeeded in partially destroying them. Titus thereupon caused 
the city-wall, 33 stadia in length, to be surrounded by a wall of 39 
stadia in length. Now that the city was completely surrounded, the 
severity of the famine was greatly aggravated, and the bodies of the 
dead were thrown over the walls by the besieged. Again the battering- 

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History. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 29 

rams were brought into requisition, and, at length, on the night of 
5th July, the castle was stormed. A fierce contest took place around 
the gates of the Temple, but the Jews still retained possession of 
them. By degrees the colonnades of the Temple were burned down; 
yet every foot of the ground was desperately contested. At last, on 
10th August, a Roman soldier is said to have flung a firebrand into 
the Temple, contrary to the express commands of Titus. The 
whole building was burned to the ground , and the soldiers slew 
all who came within their reach. A body of Zealots, however, 
contrived to force their passage to the upper part of the city. 
Negooiations again took place, while the lower part of the town was 
in flames ; but still the upper part obstinately resisted, and it was 
not till 7th September that it was burned down. Jerusalem was 
now a heap of ruins; those of the surviving citizens who had fought 
against the Romans were executed, and the rest sold as slaves. 

At length, in 130, the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), who was 
noted for his love of building , erected a town on the site of the 
Holy City, which he named Aelia Capitolina, or simply Aelia. Had- 
rian also rebuilt the walls , which followed the course of the old 
walls in the main, but were narrower towards the S. , so as to ex- 
clude the greater part of the W. hill and of Ophel. Once more the 
fury of the Jews blazed forth under Bar Cochba, but after that pe- 
riod the history of the city was for centuries buried in profound ob- 
scurity , and the Jews were prohibited under severe penalties from 
setting foot within its walls. 

With the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the state 
a new era begins in the history of the city. Constantine permitted 
the Jews to return to Jerusalem, and once more they made an 
attempt to take up arms against the Romans (339). The Emperor 
Julian the Apostate favoured them in preference to the Christians, 
and even permitted them to rebuild their Temple, but they made 
a feeble attempt only to avail themselves of this permission. At a 
later period they were again excluded from the city. 

As an episcopal see, Jerusalem was subordinate to Caesarea, and 
it was only after numerous disputes that an independent patriarchate 
for Palestine was established at Jerusalem by the Council of Chal- 
oedon in 451. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem soon became very frequent, 
and the Emperor Justinian is said to have erected a hospice for 
strangers, as well as several churches and monasteries in and around 
Jerusalem. In 570 there were in Jerusalem hospices with 3000 beds. 
Pope Gregory the Great and several of the western states likewise 
erected buildings for the accommodation of pilgrims, and, at the 
same time, a thriving trade in relics of every description began to 
be carried on at Jerusalem. 

In 614 Jerusalem was taken by the Persians and the churches 
destroyed, but it was soon afterwards restored, chiefly with the aid 
p£ the Egyptians. In 628 the Byzantine emperor Heraclius again 

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30 Route 4. JERUSALEM. History. 

conquered Syria. A few years later an Arabian army under Abu 
'Ubeida marched against Jerusalem, which was garrisoned by 12,000 
Greeks. The besieged defended themselves gallantly, but the Khalif 
'Omar himself came to the aid of his general and captured the city in 
637. The inhabitants, who are said to have numbered 50,000, were 
treated with clemency, and permitted to remain in the city on 
payment of a poll-tax. The Khaltf Harun er^Rashid is even said to 
have sent the keys of the Holy Sepulchre to Charlemagne. The 
Roman-German emperors sent regular contributions for the support 
of the pilgrims bound for Jerusalem, and it was only at a later 
period that the Christians began to be oppressed by the Muslims. 
The town was named by the Arabs BU el-Makdis ('house of the 
sanctuary'), or simply El-Kuds (Hhe sanctuary'). 

In 969 Jerusalem fell into possession of the Egyptian Fatimites ; 
in the 2nd half of the 11th cent, it was involved in the conflicts of 
the Turcomans. Under their rule the Christians were sorely oppres- 
sed. Money was extorted from the pilgrims, and savage bands of 
Ortokides, or Turkish robbers, sometimes penetrated into the 
churches of Jerusalem and maltreated the Christians during worship. 
These oppressions, with other causes, brought about the First Crusade. 
The city was in the hands of Iftikhar ed-Dauleh, a dependent of 
Egypt, when the army of the Crusaders advanced to the walls of 
Jerusalem on 7th June, 1099. The besiegers suffered much from 
hunger and thirst, and, at first, could effect nothing, as they were 
without the necessary engines of attack. Robert of Normandy and 
Robert of Flanders were posted on the N. side ; on the W. Godfrey 
and Tancred; on the W., too, but more especially on the S., was 
Raymond of Toulouse. When the engines at length were erected, 
Godfrey attacked the city, chiefly from the S. and E. ; Tancred 
assaulted it on the N., and the Damascus Gate was opened to him 
from within. On 15th July the Gate of Zion was also opened, and 
the Franks entered the city. They slew most of the Muslim and 
Jewish inhabitants , and converted the mosques into churches. We 
shall afterwards have occasion to speak of the churches erected by 
the Crusaders during the 88 years of their sway at Jerusalem. 

In 1187 (2nd Oct.) Saladin captured the city, treating the 
Christians, many of whom had fled to the surrounding village&j 
with great leniency. Three years later, when Jerusalem was again 
threatened by the Franks (Third Crusade), Saladin caused the 
city to be strongly fortified. In 1219 , however, Sultan Melik el- 
Mu r azzam of Damascus caused most of these works to be demol- 
ished , as he feared that the Franks might again capture the city 
and establish themselves there permanently. In 1229 Jerusalem 
was surrendered to the Emperor Frederick II., on condition that the 
walls should not be rebuilt, but this stipulation was disregarded by 
the Franks. In 1239 the city was taken by the Emir David of Kerak, 
but four years later was again given up to the Christians by treaty. 

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Topography. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 3 1 

In 1244 the Kharezmians took the place by storm, and it soon fell 
under the supremacy of the Eyyubides. Since that period Jerusalem 
has been a Muslim city. In 1517 it fell into the hands of the Osmans. 
In 1800 Napoleon planned the capture of Jerusalem, but gave up 
his intention. In 1825 the inhabitants revolted against the pasha 
on account of the severity of the taxation , and the city was in con- 
sequence bombarded by the Turks for a time ; but a compromise of 
the disputes was effected. In 1831 Jerusalem submitted to Moham- 
med f Ali, Pasha of Egypt, without much resistance; in 1834 a re- 
volt of the Beduins was quelled ; and in 1840 Jerusalem again came 
into possession of the Sultan f Abdul-Mejid. 

Topography, Population, etc. 

Jerusalem is situated on a badly watered and somewhat sterile 
plateau of limestone, which is connected towards the N. with the 
main range of the mountains of Palestine ; and it also lies on the road 
leading from N. to S. through the lofty central region of the country, 
and nearly following the watershed. The city lies in 31° 47' N. 
latitude, and 35° 15' E. longitude of Greenwich, 32 English miles 
from the sea-coast, and 14 miles from the Dead Sea. The Temple 
hill is 2441 ft., the hill to the N. of it 2527 ft., the old upper city 
2550 ft. , and the N. W. angle of the present city wall 2589 ft. above 
the level of the Mediterranean. The town is enclosed by a wall 
38^2 ^ in height, with thirty-four towers , forming an irregular 
quadrangle of about 2 1 /2 D[ ril e8 in circumference. Seen from the Mt. 
of Olives and from the Scopus, Jerusalem presents a handsome ap- 
pearance. The town possesses few open spaces ; the streets are ill- 
paved and crooked, many of them being blind alleys, and are ex- 
cessively dirty after rain. Some of the bazaar streets are vaulted 
over. The chief streets also form the boundaries of the principal 
quarters of the town. The Damascus and Bazaar streets, coming from 
the N., first separate the Muslim quarter on the E. from the Christian 
quarter on the W. , while the S. prolongation of the street separates 
the Jewish quarter on the E. from the Armenian on the W. The 
main street running from the Jaffa Gate to the Haram, towards the 
E., at first separates the Christian quarter (N.) from the Armenian 
(S.), and farther on the Muslim (N.) from the Jewish (S.). 

In the wall there are eight Gates, but one has been walled up. 
— (1). The Jaffa Gate (p. 81), the only one on the W. side of the 
town, called Bdb el- Khalil, or Gate of Hebron, by the Arabs, from 
the road to the left leading to Hebron. On the N. side: (2). The New 
Gate (Bdb 'Abdu'l HamU; p. 80), opened in the N.W. angle of the 
wall in 1889; (3). The Damascus Gate (Bab el-'AmUd, or Gate of 
the Columns, p. 103); (4). Herod's Gate (Bdb es-Sdhireh, p. 93), 
On the E side: (5). St. Stephen's Gate, so called from the place 
where St. Stephen was stoned (p. 75), in Arabic Bdb Sitti Maryam, 
or Gate of Our Lady Mary, from the road leading hence to the Vir- 

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32 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Climate. 

gin's Tomb ; (6). The Golden Gate (p. 52), which has long since 
been walled up. On the S. side : (7). The Moghrebins' Gate (Bab 
el-Maghdribeh, or Dung Gate, p. 58); (8). The Gate ofZion, call- 
ed Bdb en-Nebi Dd&d, from its proximity to David's Tomb (p. 85) 
at the S.W. angle of the town. 

As Jerusalem possesses no springs except c Am Sitti Maryam, 
or the Spring of Mary (p. 97), the inhabitants obtain their supply 
of water from cisterns, the roofs of the houses and every available 
open space being made to contribute the rain that falls upon 
them. Owing to the scarcity of wood the houses are built entire- 
ly of stone. The court with its cistern forms the central point 
of each group of rooms. A genuine Jerusalem dwelling-house con- 
sists of a number of separate apartments, each with an entrance 
and a dome-shaped roof of its own. These vaulted chambers are 
pleasantly cool in summer. The rooms are of different heights and 
very irregularly grouped. Between them run staircases and passages 
in the open air, a very uncomfortable arrangement in rainy weather, 
in consequence of which it has become the custom with the women 
to provide themselves with pattens. Some houses have flat roofs, 
but under these is always concealed a cupola. The cupolas do not 
spring from the tops of the walls, but a little within them, so that 
it is possible to walk round the outsides of the cupolas. The roofs 
are frequently provided with parapets of earthen pipes, constructed 
in a triangular form. Pots and troughs for flowers are built into 
the roofs and courts by the architects. In the walls of the rooms are 
niches serving as cupboards. In some of the houses there are no 
glass windows; nor are chimneys by any means universal, the 
charcoal smoke being in their absence allowed to escape by the doors 
and windows. The rooms are usually warmed with charcoal braziers 
(mankal); only houses built on the European plan and the hotels 
are provided with stoves. The floors are composed of very hard 

Government. Jerusalem is the residence of a Mutesarrif of the 
first class immediately subject to the Porte (see p. lvii). The organs 
of government are the Me j lis iddra (executive council; president, 
the governor) and the Mejlis btlediyeh (town-council: president, the 
mayor). In both these councils the fully - qualified confessions 
(Greeks, Latins, Protestants, Armenians, and Jews) have representa- 
tives. — The garrison consists of a battalion of infantry. 

The Climate (comp. p. xlvi), on the whole, is healthy. The fresh 
sea breeze tempers the heat even during the hot months ; at night 
there is frequently a considerable fall of temperature. The cistern 
water, too, is good and not in the least unhealthy when the cisterns 
are kept clean. The water in the cisterns certainly gets very low 
towards autumn and the poorer classes then have recourse to water 
from the pools. This, combined with the miasma from the heaps of 
rubbish, frequently causes fever, dysentery, etc. 

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Population. JERUSALEM. d. Routt. 33 

The mean temperature of Jerusalem in degrees of Fahrenheit 
is as follows: — 

January 48. 8°; April 58. 1°; July 74. 5°; October 69. 4°; 

February 47. 3°; May 69. 8°; August 76. 1°; November 57. 7°; 
March 55°; June 73. 4°; September 73. 4°; December 51. 3°. 

Mean annual temperature 63°. 

Snow and frost are not uncommon at Jerusalem. The average 
rainfall is 23 in. on 52 days, divided as follows: Oct. IV2 ; Nov. 6^/2 i 
Dec. 9; Jan. 10; Feb. IOV2; March 8V2; April 51/.; May iy 2 days. 
The wind was: N., 36; N.E., 33; E., 40; S.E., 29; 8., 12; S.W., 
46; W., 55; and N.W., 114 days. 

According to a recent estimate the Population numbers about 
60,000, of whom about 7000 are Muslims, 41,000 Jews and 12,800 
Christians. The Christians include 4000 Latins, 200 United Greeks, 
50 United Armenians, 6000 Orthodox Greeks, 800 Armenians, 100 
Copts, 100 Ethiopians, 100 Syrians, 1400 Protestants. Among the 
Muslim Arabs is also included a colony of Africans (Moghrebins). 
The different nationalities are distinguished by their costume 
(comp. p. lxxxiii). 

The number of Jews has greatly risen of late years. In spite of 
the fact that they are forbidden to immigrate or to possess landed 
property, the number steadily increases, both of those who desire 
to be buried in the Holy City and of those who intend to subsist on 
the charity of their European brethren , from whom they receive 
their regular khaltika, or allowance , and for whom they pray at the 
holy places. Sir M. Monteflore, Baron Rothschild, and others, to- 
gether with the Alliance Israelite, have done much to ameliorate the 
condition of their poor brethren at Jerusalem by their munificent 
benefactions. — The Jews have over 70 synagogues ; in addition to 
the numerous places of shelter for pilgrims and the poor, the Se- 
phardim (p. lxxxiii) have a hospital and a school, the Ashkenazim a 
large school with a school for handicraft maintained by the Alliance 
Israelite, schools for girls and boys, and the new Rothschild hospital; 
a hospital, a good school, an orphanage for boys and one for girls, 
supported by Germans. Many Ashkenazim are under Austrian pro- 

The orthodox Greek Church, whose patriarch Damianos resides 
at Jerusalem , is now the most powerful in the city. The Greeks 
possess the following monasteries and foundations : — Monastery of 
St. Helena and Constantine, Monastery of Abraham, Monastery of 
Gethsemane , Convents of St. Basil, St. Theodore, St. George, St. 
Michael, St. Catharine, Euthymius, Seetnagia, Spiridon, Caralom- 
bos, John the Baptist, Nativity of Mary, St. George (a second of 
that name), Demetrius, Nicholas (containing a printing office), Spi- 
rito (near the Damascus Gate). — They also possess a girls' school, 
a boys' school, a hospital, etc. — The Greek priests wear round 
black caps. 

Palestine and Syria. 3rdEdit. 3 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

34 Routed. JERUSALEM. Population. 

Tolerably independent of the Patriarchate is the Russian Mission, 
which has political, that is to say, national Russian, as well as reli- 
gious aims. It is ruled by the Archimandrite. To it belong the 
great Russian buildings (p. 82 ; church, house for pilgrims, hospital), 
and the Russian buildings on the Mount of Olives (tower, church, 
houses for pilgrims). The Russian Palestine Society has also erected 
a large house for pilgrims close to the Russian buildings and a 
second new hospital opposite the Muristan (p. 72). 

The Old Armenian Church is well represented at Jerusalem, 
although it was not till the middle of the last century that Armenians 
began to settle here in any considerable number. The members of 
this community are said to be noted for equanimity of temper. 
Both Greeks and Armenians are better disposed towards the Pro- 
testants than towards their chief opponents, the Roman Catholics. 
The Armenian patriarch Haroutian resides in the monastery near the 
Gate of Zion (p. 81), which embraces a seminary, a school for boys, 
and one for girls. The Armenians also own a nunnery (Der ez-ZUiln) 
and the Monastery of Mt. Zion (p. 84). — The Armenian monks 
wear pointed black hoods. 

The other Oriental churches are scantily represented. The Cop- 
tic Monastery (p. 72) is the residence of a bishop, besides which 
the Copts also have a Monastery of St. George. The Syrians of the 
Old Church (Jacobites) have a bishop and a small church, which they 
regard as the house of John surnamed Mark (Acts xii. 12). The 
Abyssinians have a monastery (p. 72) and a new church to the N. 
of the town. 

Latins or Roman Catholics. In 1483 the Latin Christian com- 
munity consisted of but few members, and it was not until the com- 
paratively recent and zealous efforts of the Franciscans to promulgate 
their faith, that it began to assume its present importance. None of 
the members can now trace their descent from the Crusaders, al- 
though Frank settlers were numerous in the middle ages. In 1847 
Valerga was appointed Latin patriarch, the office having been in 
abeyance since 1291 ; the present patriarch (app. in 1889) is Ludo- 
vico Piavi, who is assisted by a bishop and by the abbot of the 
Franciscan monastery, who is the 'custodian of the Holy Land'. 
The institutions of the Latins are: 1. Monasteries and Churches: the 
patriarchal residence with a large church ; the Franciscan Monastery 
of St. Salvator with church, school (see below), chemist's shop, and 
printing office; St. Anne's Church (p. 75); Eoce Homo Church; the 
Chapel of the Agony ; the Monasteries of the Holy Sepulchre, of the 
Scourging, of the Dominicans (p. 105), the Brethren of the African 
Mission, the Convents of the Carmelite Sisters, the 'Dames de Sion', 
the Sisters of St. Joseph, the 'Soeurs duRosaire', and the Clarisses. 
— 2. Schools: the Seminary of the Patriarchate, orphanage for boys 
and girls in the monastery of St. Salvator, school for handicraft in 
the same building, another large handicraft school in the W, of the 

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Population. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 35 

city (founded by P. Ratisbonne) , the boys' school of the School 
Brethren, the girls' school of the Franciscans, managed by the Sisters 
of St. Joseph, the school of the 'Dames de Sion' and a private girls' 
school. — 3. Hospitals: St. Louis' Hospital (French institution; 
physician, Dr. de Fries; nurses, the Sisters of St. Joseph); the in- 
stitution of the 'Sceurs de Charite*'. — 4. Houses for Pilgrims: Casa 
Nuova ; German Catholic Hospice ; Austrian Hospice ; large French 
house for pilgrims. 

The Oriental churches affiliated to the Latins are those of the 
United Greeks, or Greek Catholics (church in the house of the patriar- 
chate, chapel of St. Veronica, and the large seminary St. Anna des 
Peres Blancs), and the United Armenians with the church of Notre 
Dame du Spasme (p. 77), a chapel, a hospice, and a school. 

English Protestant Community. The joint Protestant bishopric, 
supported by England and Prussia, under an arrangement due to 
Frederick William IV. of Prussia, was dissolved in 1887. Since 
then the British and German communities have been independent 
in religious matters. The English Protestant community is under the 
headship of Bishop Blyth, consecrated in March, 1887, and now 
financially supported by the Jerusalem and the East Mission Fund. 
It is mainly a missionary community. The Church Missionary Society 
(about 140 souls) has a church (St.PauVs, Pl.B, 1), the boys' board- 
ing school and seminary (p. 83) founded by Bishop Gobat, a day 
school for boys and girls, and a small printing office. The Mission 
to the Jews has a handsome church (Christ Church , PI. 25) on the 
traditional Mount Zion ; near it a hospital, a school for boys and 
girls, and a large industrial school; on the hill W. of the town a 
new large school for girls ; and a second large hospital in the W. of 
the town. Both missions work with a considerable expenditure of 
energy and money, but without a corresponding result (comp. p. 21). 
The foundation-stone of an Anglican College has been laid near the 
present episcopal residence adjoining the Tombs of the Kings 
(p. 105). — The English Knights of St. John have an eye hospital on 
the Bethlehem road (p. 117). — The Jerusalem Association Room 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund is opposite the tower of David 
(hours, 8-12 and 2-6) ; visitors are welcome. 

The German Evangelical Community numbers about 200 souls. 
The large Church of the Redeemer, in the Muristan (p. 74), the 
foundation-stone of which was laid in Oct., 1893, was completed in 
1898. The German community possesses a pastor, an assistant 
preacher, and a good school, and also the following important bene- 
volent and missionary institutions : the Hospice of St. John; the Hos- 
pital of the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth (physician Dr. Hoffmann); 
the Marienstift, a hospital for children erected by the indefatigable 
Dr. Sandreczky; the Lepers' Hospital (p. 102), maintained by the 
Brethren of Herrnhut (physician, Dr. Einsler); the girls' orphanage 


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36 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Bardm 

Talitha Cumi (p. 82), conducted by the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth ; 
Schneller's Syrian Orphanage for boys (p. 82). — The German Society 
holds a meeting every other Friday in the Lloyd Hotel ; visitors are 
welcome and can be introduced by a member. — A branch of the 
German Palestine Society meets in the Lloyd Hotel; visitors are 

The Templars (p. 9) have a considerable colony in the S. of 
Jerusalem near the road to Bethlehem; the colony numbers 400 souls, 
chiefly tradesmen and workmen. The Free German Society of the 
Templars (introduction through a member) holds its meetings every 
alternate Sat. at Lendhold's (p. 19). The colony possesses a. large 
hall for meetings and a lyceum (p. 101). 

The sect of the Overcomers, numbering about 160 members (chiefly 
Americans and Swedes), believe that the Second Coming is at hand. The 
members are very charitable and hospitable and devote themselves to 
the care of the sick. 

Literature. The best works on Jerusalem are Barclay's 'City of the 
Great King*, Besant A Palmer's r City of Herod and Saladin', Warren's 
'Underground Jerusalem', Tobler's 'Denkblatter* and works on the topogra- 
phy of Jerusalem and its environs, Zimmerman's maps, and Dr. Schick's 
maps of Jerusalem and its environs. For closer investigation the Jeru- 
salem vol. of the English Palestine Survey with plans is indispensable. 

The Haramt esh-Sherlf. 

History. We now stand on one of the most profoundly interest- 
ing spots in the world. It was near this spet that David erected an 
altar (2 Sam. xxiv. 25). This was also the site selected by Solomon 
for the erection of his palace and the Temple. The formation of the 
ground seems to indicate more particularly the site of the present 
'Dome of the Rock' as the position of the Temple; and indeed, when 
we consider the tenacity with which religious traditions have clung 
to special spots in the East, defying all the vicissitudes of creeds 
down to the present day, it seems highly probable that the present 
ideal central point, the sacred rock, must have been of especial 
sanctity from the earliest period. This rock was perhaps the site of 
the altar of burnt offerings, while the Temple itself stood to the W. 
of it. Solomon' 8 Temple consisted of the actual inner Temple with 
the 'sanctuary' and the 'holy of holies' within it, the latter to the 
W. of the former, and in the form of a cube. The sanctuary was 
approached by a porch, in front of which, in the court, stood the 
altar of burnt offerings, the 'molten sea' (a large basin), the 'bases', 
and the lavers. For many years after Solomon's death the work was 
continued by his successors. 

The Second Temple, which the Jews erected under very adverse 
circumstances after their return from exile, was far inferior in mag- 
nificence to its predecessor, and no trace of it now remains. All the 
more magnificent was the Third Temple, that of Herod , of which 

f Thus written by Arabian authors, is now generally pronounced hdram. 

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esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 4, Route. 37 

much has been preserved. The erection of this edifice was begun in 
B.C. 20, but it was never completely carried out in the style orig- 
inally projected. We possess an account of this Temple by Josephus 
(Ant. xv. 11; Bell. Jud. i. 21, 1 ; v. 5), but as his work was written 
at Rome, and at a later period, his description is often deficient in 
olearness and precision. 

To this period belong in the first place the imposing substructions 
on the S. side, in which direction the Temple platform was at that 
time much extended, while the Asmoneans had enlarged it towards 
the N. The still visible enclosing walls, with their huge stones, 
which had perhaps partly belonged to the earlier edifice, were 
doubtless also the work of Herod (further details, see p. 56). Around 
the margin of the grand platform ran colonnades , consisting of a 
double series of monoliths, and enclosing the whole area. Solo- 
mon's Porch (St. John x. 23) is placed by some authorities on the 
S. side, but by others with greater probability on the E. side. On 
the S. side the colonnade was quadruple, and consisted of 162 col- 
umns. On the W. side there were four, on the S. side two gates, 
and the vestibules were approached by stairs leading through corri- 
dors. It is uncertain whether there was a gate on the E. side. The 
colonnades enclosed the great court of the Gentiles , which always 
presented a busy scene. A balustrade enclosed a second court, lying 
higher, where notices were placed prohibiting all but Israelites from 
entering this inner entrance-court. (A notice of this kind in Greek, 
closely corresponding with the description given by Josephus, was 
found.) A section of the fore-court of the Israelites was specially set 
apart for the women, beyond which lay the court of the priests with 
the great sacrificial altar of unhewn stones. A deep, richly decorated 
corridor now ascended by twelve steps to the 'sanctuary', or 'holy 
place' strictly so called, which occupied the highest ground on the 
Temple area. The sanctuary was surrounded on three sides (S., 
W., N.) by a building 20 ells in height, containing 3 stories, the 
upper story rising to 10 ells beneath the top of the 'holy place', so 
that space remained for windows to light the interior of the sanc- 
tuary. Beyond the gate was the curtain or 'veil', within which stood 
tke altar of incense, the table with the shew-bread, and the golden 
candlestick. In the background of the 'holy place' a door led into 
the small and dark 'holy of holies', a cube of 20 ells. — The Temple 
was built of magnificent materials, and many parts of it were lavishly 
decorated with plates of gold. The chief facade of the edifice looked 
towards the E. , while on the N. side two passages led from the co- 
lonnades of the Temple to the castle by which the sacred edifice 
was protected. It was thence that Titus witnessed the burning of 
the beautiful building in the year A. D. 70. The colonnades had 
already been burned down, by the Jews themselves , but the huge 
substructions of massive stone which supported the Temple could 
not be destroyed. 

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38 Boute4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

On the site of the ancient Temple Hadrian erected a large temple 
of Jupiter, containing a statue of that god and one also of himself 
(or of Castor and Pollux?). It was adorned with twelve columns. 
The earliest pilgrims found the temple and the equestrian statue of 
the emperor still standing, near a 'rock pierced with holes'. There 
is a great controversy as to what buildings were afterwards erected 
on this site. We are informed by Arabian authors that 'Omar 
requested the Christian patriarch to conduct him to this spot, where 
the ancient Temple of Solomon had once stood, and that he found 
it covered with heaps of rubbish which the Christians had thrown 
there in derision of the Jews. 

The present dome is a structure of the Arabian period. In the 
interior of the building there is an inscription in the oldest Arabic 
character (Cuflc), recording that 'Abdallah el-Imam el-Mamun, 
prince of the faithful . erected this dome in the year 72\ But as 
Mamun was not born till the year 170 after the Hegira, it mtlst be 
assumed that the words ' el -Mamun', as moreover the different 
colour of this part of the inscription tends to show, were erroneously 
substituted at a later period for 'el-Meli^, a splendour-loving 
Omayyade khalif to whom Arabian historians attribute the erection 
of the building. 

r Abd el-Melik was moved by political considerations to erect a 
sanctuary on this spot. The Omayyades, who sprang from the ancient 
aristocracy of Mecca, were the first princes who thoroughly appreci- 
ated the political advantages of the new religion. Accordingly, when 
revolts broke out against the khalifs , they chose Jerusalem as the 
site of a new sanctuary which should rival that of the Ka f ba. The 
inscription on the doors (p. 40) may justify us in regarding the 
Khalif Mamun as the restorer of the building. A further restoration 
was carried out in the year 301 of the Hegira (A.D. 913). — The plan 
of the building is certainly Byzantine, for which reason Prof. Sepp 
supposed it to be an old church of Justinian, a second Hagia Sophia. 

That the style resembles the Byzantine need however not surprise us, 
for the Arabs of that period did not yet understand the art of building. 
On the contrary it would have been surprising if they had not found it 
necessary to borrow their architecture from the Greeks. 

The polygonal or round construction is found in the S. Stefano Bo- 
tondo at Borne as early as the end of the 5th century. But the Dome of the 
Bock differs essentially in not requiring any apse, as the building had to 
be adapted to the Holy Bock in its centre, just as the Church of the Se- 
pulchre to the Holy Sepulchre; the only difference between the Dome of 
the Bock and the Church of the Sepulchre is that the former is polygonal, 
the latter round. The Church of the Sepulchre may therefore be consid- 
ered as the model for the mosque. 

Mohammed himself had evinced veneration for the ancient Tem- 
ple. Before he had finally broken off his relations with the Jews, he 
even commanded the faithful to turn towards Jerusalem when pray- 
ing. The Koran also mentions the Mesjid el-Aksa (i. e. the mosque 
most distant from Mecca) in a famous passage in Sureh xvii. 1 : 
'Praise be to him (God), who , in order to permit his servant to 

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esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 39 

see some of our miracles, conveyed him on a journey by night from 
the temple el-Haram (the Ka f ba at Mecca) to the most distant temple, 
whose precincts we have blessed'. Mohammed thus professes to 
have been here in person ; to this day the Haram of Jerusalem is 
regarded by the Muslims as the holiest of all places after Mecca ; 
and it is on this account that they so long refused the Christians 
access to it. The Jews, on the other hand, have never sought this 
privilege, as they dread the possibility of committing the sin of 
treading on the 'holy of holies'. 

Literature: VogU4, Le Temple de Jerusalem, Pans 1864. Schick, Beit 
el-Makdas, Jerusalem 1887; Die Stiftshutte, der Tempel in Jerusalem, and 
der Tempelplatz der Jetztzeit, Berlin 1895. CMpiez et Parrot, Le Temple 
de Jerusalem, Paris 1889. 

No one should omit to visit the Haram. A small party had better be 
formed for the purpose. The consulate, on being applied to, procures the 
necessary permission from the Turkish authorities, who provide one or 
more soldiers as attendants, and the kawass of the consulate also accom- 
panies the party. Each person pays 12 piastres to the kawass, that being 
the fee due to the she'kh, who accompanies the party. A boy should also 
be taken from the hotel to carry slippers, and afterwards the boots of 
the visitors, when these are removed (fee 1-2 piastres from each person). 
After the visit is over, the party pays a fee to the soldier who accom- 
panies them, and to the kawass of the consulate, at least 15 piastres 
each ? or more according to the size of the party. A bright day should if 
possible be selected for the visit (but not Friday), as the interior of the 
building is somewhat dark. On certain days the Muslim women walk in 
the court of the mosque, and are apt to inconvenience visitors. 

We shall first direct our attention to the interior of the *Haram 
esh-Sherlf. The Temple platform occupies the S.E. quarter of the 
modern town. The Haram is entered from the town on theW. side by 
seven gates, viz. (beginning from the S.) the Bdb el-Maghdribeh 
(gate of the Moghrebins), Bdb es-Silseleh (chain -gate), Bdb el- 
Mutawaddd , or Matara (gate of ablution), Bdb tl-Kaitdn\n (gate 
of the cotton-merchants), Bdb el-Hadid (iron gate), Bdb en-Ndzir 
(custodian's gate), also called Bdb el-Habs (prison gate), and 
lastly , towards the N. , Bdb es-Serdi (gate of the seraglio) , also 
called the Bdb el-Ohawdnimeh (named after the family ofBeniGha- 
nim). — The large area scattered with buildings forms a somewhat 
irregular quadrangle. The "W. side is 536 yds., the E. 518 yds., 
the N. 351 yds., and the S. 309 yds. in length. The surface is 
not entirely level, the N.W. corner being about 10 ft. higher than 
the N.E. and the two S. corners. TheW. and N. sides of the quad- 
rangle are partly flanked with houses, with open arcades below 
them, and the E. side is bounded by a wall. Scattered over the en- 
tire area are a number of Mastabas (raised places) with a Mihrdb 
(prayer-recess; p. xl) and used as places of prayer; there are also 
numerous Sebtl (fountains) for the religious ablutions. — Visitors 
are usually conducted first through the cotton-merchants' gate past 
the Sebil Kdit Bel (p. 46) to the Mehkemet Ldud (p. 45). 

The '"Dome of the Bock, or Kubbet es-Sakhra, stands on an ir- 
regular platform 10 ft. in height, approached by three flights of steps 

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40 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

from theW., two from the S., one from theE., and two from the N. 
side. The steps terminate in elegant arcades, called in Arabic 
Mawdzin, or scales, because the scales at the Day of Judgment are 
to be suspended here. These arcades, which materially enhance the 
beauty of the exterior, are imitated from those of the fore-court of the 
Jewish Temple, as they form to a certain extent the entrance to the 
sanctuary. This upper platform, therefore, which is paved with fine 
slabs of stone, may only be trodden upon by shoeless feet. From 
this point we survey the whole arrangements of the Haram. Besides 
the larger buildings , a number of smaller structures are scattered 
over the extensive area. The ground is irregularly planted with 
trees, chiefly cypresses, and is of a reddish brown colour, except in 
spring when it is green after rain. 

The Kubbet es-Sakhra is a large and handsome Octagon. Each 
of the eight sides is 66 ft. 7 in. in length and is covered externally 
as far as the window sill with porcelain tiles, and lower down with 
marble. The whole building was formerly covered with marble, the 
porcelain incrustation having been added by Soliman the Magni- 
ficent in 1561. The effect of these porcelain tiles, which are manu- 
factured in the Persian style (Kdshdni), is remarkably fine , the 
subdued blue contrasting beautifully with the white, and with the 
green and white squares on the edges. Passages from the Kor&n, 
beautifully inscribed in interwoven characters, run round the 
building like a frieze. Each tile has been written upon and burned 
separately. In each of those sides of the octagon which are without 
doors are seven, and on each of the other sides are six windows with 
low pointed arches , the outer pair of windows being walled up in 
each case. The incrustation on the W. side, having become much 
dilapidated, has been partly taken down and restored. During the 
course of this work some ancient round arches were discovered, and 
it turned out that the present form of the windows is not older than 
the 16th century, and that formerly seven lofty round-arched win- 
dows with a sill and smaller round-arched openings were visible 
externally on each side. A porch is supposed to have existed here 
formerly. Mosaics have also been discovered between the arcades. 
The stones, as the visitor may observe on the "W. side, are small, 
irregular, and jointed with no great accuracy. 

The Gates, which face the four cardinal points of the compass, 
are square in form, each being surmounted with a vaulted arch. In 
front of each entrance there was originally an open, vaulted porch, 
borne by four columns. Subsequently the spaces between them were 
built up. The S. Portal, however, forms an exception, as there is 
here an open porch with eight columns. The "W. entrance is a mod- 
ern structure of the beginning of the present century. The N. 
Portal is called Bdb el-Jenneh, or gate of paradise; the W., Bdb el- 
Qharb, or W. gate; the S., Bdb el-Kibleh, or S. gate, and theE., 
Bdb Ddtid or Bdb es-Silselehj gate of David, or chain gate. On the 

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4. Route. 41 

lintels of the doors are inscriptions of the reign of Mamuu, dating 
from the year 831, or 216 of theHegira. The twofold doors (which 
are usually open) , dating from the time of Soliman , are of wood, 
covered with plates of bronze attached by means of elegantly 
wrought nails, and have artistically executed locks. 

a. Es-Sakhra (the Sacred Rock). 

b. Bdb el-Jenneh (Gate of Pa- 

c. Bdb el-Qharb (W. Gate). 

d. Bdb el-KibUh 
(S. Gate). 

e. Bdb es-Silseleh (David's, oi 
Chain Gate). 

f. Mehlemet Ddtid or Kubbet es- 
Silseleh (David's place of 
judgment, or Chain Dome). 

The Interior of the edifice is 58 yds. in diameter, and is divided 
into three concentric parts by two series of supports. The First Series, 
by which the outer octagonal aisle is formed , consists of eight 
piers and sixteen columns, two columns being placed between each 
pair of the six-sided corner piers. The shafts of the columns are of 
marble, and differ in form, height, and colour. They have all been 
taken from older edifices, some of them probably from the temple 
of Jupiter mentioned above. The capitals are likewise of very various 
forms , dating either from the late Romanesque or the early Byzan- 
tine period, and one of them is even said to have borne a cross. To 
secure a uniform height of 20 ft., large Byzantine blocks which 
support small arches are placed above the capitals. These blocks 
are connected by so-called 'anchors', or broad beams consisting of 
iron bars with wooden beams beside and beneath them. These are 
covered beneath with copper-plates in repousse*. On the beams lie 
marble slabs which project like a cornice on the side next the ex- 
ternal wall, but are concealed by carving on that next the rotunda. 
Under the ends of the beams are placed foliated enrichments in 
bronze. While the pilasters are covered with slabs of marble, dat- 
ing from the period of Soliman, the upper part of the wall is inter- 
sected by arches and adorned with mosaics. The rich and variegated 
designs of these mosaics are not easily described. They consist of 
fantastic lines intertwined with striking boldness, and frequently of 

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42 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The JJardm 

garlands of flowers, and are all beautifully and elaborately executed. 
Above them is a broad blue band , bearing very ancient Cuflo in- 
scriptions in gold letters. These are verses of the Koran bearing 
reference to Christ, and seem to indicate that the founder was 
desirous of emphasising the new position of the Muslims with regard 
to the Christians of that period : — 

Sureh xvii. Ill : Say — Praise be to God who has had no son or com- 
panion in his government, and who requires no helper to save him from 
dishonour ; praise him. Sureh lvii. 2 : He governs heaven and earth, he 
makes alive and causes to die, for he is almighty. Sureh iv. 169: O ye 
who have received written revelations , do not be puffed up with 
your religion, but speak the truth only of God. The Messiah Jesus is 
only the son of Mary, the ambassador of God, and his Word which he 
deposited in Mary. Believe then in God and his ambassador, and do not 
maintain there are three. If you refrain from this it will be better for 
you. God is One, and far be it from him that he should have had a son. 
To him belongs all that is in heaven and earth, and he is all-sufficient 
within himself. Sureh xix. 34 et seq. : Jesus says — 'Blessings be on me 
on the day of my birth and of my death, and of my resurrection to life.' 
He is Jesus, the son of Mary, the word of truth, concerning whom some 
are in doubt. God is not so constituted that he could have a son; be that 
far from him. When he has resolved upon anything he says 'Let it be" 1 , 
and it is. God is my Lord and your Lord 5 pray then to him; that is 
the right way. 

Here, too, is an inscription of great historical importance, which 
we have already mentioned at p. 38. 

A second aisle is formed by a Second Series of supports arranged, 
in a circle, on which also rests the dome. These supports consist 
of four massive piers (whose inner and outer sides follow the circum- 
ference of the circle) and twelve monolithic columns (those in the 
middle being the thinnest). These columns also are antique; their 
bases were covered with marble in the 16th cent., but beneath the 
marble they are quite different from each other. The arches above 
them rest immediately on the capitals. — The dome rests first on 
a drum, which is richly adorned with mosaics. These are divided 
by a wreath into two sections, in the upper of which are placed 16 
windows. The mosaics are of different periods. Most of them re- 
present vases of flowers, among which are grapes and ears of corn 
on a gold ground. The Byzantine artists who executed them were 
prohibited by the laws of El-Islam from representing figures, but 
perhaps used these devices as emblems of the Last Supper. All the 
mosaics are composed of small fragments of coloured glass, and date 
from the 10th and 11th centuries, when this art had probably entered 
upon a new phase in the East. 

The Dome which rises on these supports is made of wood : its 
height (from the ground) is 98 ft., to which the orescent adds 16 ft. 
more j the vault of the dome is 37^2 ft. high inside and only 66 ft. 
in diameter, it is consequently a surmounted hemisphere. Extern- 
ally, its form is more elliptical. Its framework is double, the space 
between the inner and outer boarding, the ribs of which are con- 
nected by braces, varying from 2 ft, to 6 ft, in width. Steps lead 

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esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 43 

up to the apex of the dome, whence a trapdoor gives access to the 
crescent. The upper part of the external frame is boarded and 
covered with lead. Within, it is covered with tablets of wood nailed 
to the roof-tree, coloured blue, and richly adorned with painted 
and gilded stucco. According to the inscriptions, the dome was con- 
structed in 1022 (Hakim, p. lxvi), the old dome having fallen in six 
years previously. The decorations of the interior are of the period 
of Saladin , who ordered them to be restored immediately after he 
had taken the holy city from the Franks (1189). They were re- 
stored, or rather the colours were revived, in 1318 and 1830. — The 
Window Openings are closed with thick slabs or plates of plaster 
perforated with holes and slits of various shapes, wider inside than 
outside. These perforations have been glazed on the outside with 
small coloured glass plates, forming a variety of designs, and affixed 
to the plaster by cramps. The effect of the colours is one of mar- 
vellous richness, but the windows shed a dim light only on the in- 
terior, and the darkness is increased, firstly by regular glass windows 
framed in cement, secondly by a wire lattice, and lastly by a porce- 
lain grating placed over them outside to protect them from rain. 
The lower windows bear the name of Soliman and the date 935 (i. 
e. 1528). The walls between the windows were originally covered 
with mosaics, like those in the drum, but the Crusaders substituted 
paintings, of which we still possess a description. Saladin caused the 
walls to be covered with marble, and they were restored by Soliman. 
— The Pavement consists of marble mosaic and marble flagging 
which is covered in places with straw-mats. 

The Crusaders converted the dome of the rook into a 'Templum 
Domini', adorned it with figures of saints, and placed a large gilded 
cross on its summit. On the sacred rook stood the altar. The surface 
of the rock was paved with marble, and a number of steps hewn in 
the rock led up to the altar. Distinct traces of these are still visible. 
The choir was enclosed by two walls , part of one of which is still 
preserved on the S.W. side. A relic of the period of the Crusaders 
(end of the 12th cent.) is the large wrought iron screen with four 
gates (of French workmanship), placed on a stone foundation be- 
tween the columns of the inner ring (el-kafas) and thus enclosing 
the sacred rock. Candles were once placed upon its spikes. The rock 
is now further enclosed by a coloured wooden screen , but space is 
left to walk round between it and the iron screen. The best view 
of the rock is obtained from the high bench by the gate of the screen 
to the N.W. The gilded chain which hangs from the summit of the 
dome is modern. It used to hold a chandelier, now broken to pieces. 
We now proceed to inspect the Holy Rock itself. It is 58 ft. long 
and 44 ft. wide, and rises about 6i/ 2 ft. above the surrounding 
pavement. The earliest reference to it is found in the Talmud, or 
Jewish tradition. As in other Sanctuaries of antiquity , such as 
Delphi, the stone is said to cover the mouth of an abyss with a sub- 

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44 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

terranean torrent, the waters of which were heard roaring far beneath. 
According to Jewish tradition Abraham and Melohizedek sacrificed 
here, Abraham was on the point of slaying Isaac here, and the rock 
is said to have been anointed by Jacob. As it was regarded as the 
central point of the world, the Ark of the Covenant is said once to 
have stood here, to have been afterwards concealed here by Jeremiah 
(bnt according to 2 Mace. ii. 5 in a cave in Monnt Nebo), and still 
to lie buried beneath the sacred rock. On this rock also was written 
the 'shem', the great and unspeakable name of God. Jesus, says 
tradition, succeeded in reading it, and he was thus enabled to work 
his miracles. — The rook now before us cannot be identified with 
the i eben8hatyd\ or stone of foundation, of Jewish tradition, if only 
on account of its size ; it is much too large ever to have stood in the 
'holy of holies'. The probability is that the great sacrificial altar 
stood here, and traces of a channel for carrying off the blood have 
been discovered on the rook. Excavations, if permitted, would prob- 
ably show that the natural hollow under the stone goes deeper into 
the earth and is really a cistern. 

The Muslims adopted and improved^ upon this tradition about 
the rook, as they did with so many other already existing Jewish 
traditions. According to them the stone hovers over the abyss with- 
out support. When we descend by eleven steps on the south side 
(PI. m) by the pulpit (k) to the cavern beneath the rock we see a 
support, and all round the rock resting on a whitewashed wall. The 
hollow sound heard by knocking the wall is not due to any cavity 
behind it, but to the mortar peeling off from the rock. In this ca- 
vern the cicerone points out the places where David and Solomon 
(small altars) , Abraham (left) and Elijah (N.) were in the habit 
of praying. Mohammed has also left the impression of his head on 
the rooky ceiling. The guide knocks on a round stone plate almost 
in the middle of the floor; there is evidently a hollow underneath. 
The Muslims maintain that beneath this rock is the Bit el-Arwdh, 
or well of souls, where the souls of the deceased assemble to pray 
twice weekly. Some say that the rook came from paradise, and 
that it rests upon a palm watered by a river of paradise ; beneath 
this palm are Asia, wife of Pharaoh, and Mary. Others main- 
tain that these are the gates of hell. At the last day the Ka'ba of 
Mecca will come to the Sakhra, for here will resound the blast 
of the trumpet which will announce the judgment. God's throne 
will then be planted upon the rock. Mohammed declared that one 
prayer here was better than a thousand elsewhere. He himself prayed 
here, to the right of the holy rook, and from hence he was trans- 
lated to heaven on the back of El-Burak, his miraculous steed. It 
was in the course of his direct transit to heaven that his body pierced 
the round hole in the ceiling of the rook which we still observe. 
On this occasion, moreover, the rock opened its mouth, as it did when 
it greeted r Omar, and it therefore has a 'tongue', over the entrance 

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esh-Shertf, JERUSALEM. 4. Boute. 45 

to the cavern. As the Tock was desirous of accompanying Mohammed 
to heaven, the angel Gabriel was obliged to hold it down, and the 
marks of his hand are still shown on theW. side of the rock (Pl.h). 

A number of other marvels are shown. In front of the N. en- 
trance there is let into the ground a slab of jasper (Baldtat el-Jen- 
nefe, PI. g), into which Mohammed drove nineteen golden nails; a 
nail falls out at the end of every epoch , and when all are gone the 
end of the world will arrive. One day the devil succeeded in 
destroying all but three and a half , but was fortunately detected 
and stopped by the angel Gabriel. The slab is also said to cover 
Solomon's tomb. — In the S.W. comer (Pl.i), under a small gilded 
tower, is shown the footprint of the prophet, which in the middle 
ages was said to be that of Christ. Hairs from Mohammed's beard 
are also preserved here, and on the S. side are shown the banners 
of Mohammed and f Omar. — By the prayer-niche (PI. 1) adjoining 
the S. door are placed several Korans of great age, but the custodian 
is much displeased if they are touched by visitors. 

Outside the E. dooT of the mosque, the Bdb es-Silseleh, or Door 
of the Chain (which must not be confounded with the entrance-gate 
of the same name, p. 39) rises the Kubbet es-Silseleh, 'dome of the 
chain', also called Mehkemet DdUd, David's place of judgment. Ac- 
cording to Muslim tradition, a chain was once stretched across this 
entrance by Solomon, or by God himself. A truthful witness could 
grasp it without producing any effect , whereas a link fell off if a 
perjurer attempted to do so. The Muslims declare that this dome 
of the chain afforded a model for the dome of the rock , but that 
is very improbable. This elegant little structure consists of two 
concentric rows of columns, the outer forming a hexagon, the inner 
an endecagon. This remarkable construction enables all the pil- 
lars to be seen at one time. The shafts, bases, and columns, which 
differ greatly from each other, are chiefly in the Byzantine style, 
and they have all been taken from older buildings. The pavement 
consists of beautiful mosaic, and on the S. side (facing Mecca) 
there is a handsome recess for prayer. Above the flat roof rises a 
hexagonal drum surmounted by the dome, which is slightly curved 
outwards. The top is adorned with a crescents The mosaics are of 
the same date as those of the Sakhra and the -plan of the entire 
building seems to be of that period. 

About 20 yds. to the N. "W*. of the Sakhra rises the Kubbet el- 
Mi'rdj, or dome of the ascension, erected to commemorate Moham- 
med's miraculous nocturnal journey to heaven. According to the 
inscription, the structure was rebuilt in the year 597 of the Hegira 
(i. e. 1200), 13 years after Jerusalem had been recaptured by the 
Muslims. It is interesting to observe the marked Gothic character 
of the windows, with their recessed and pointed arches borne by 
columns. Close by is an ancient font, now used as a water trough. 
Farther towards the N.W. is the Kubbet en-Nebi (dome of the pro- 

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46 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Har&m 

phet), a modern looking building over a subterranean mosque built 
in the rock. This mosque is not shown to visitors. There is also a very 
small building called the Kubbet el-Arwfih (dome of the spirits), 
which is interesting from the fact that the bare rock is visible below 
it. Beside the flight of steps on the N.W. leading down from the 
terrace, is the Kubbet el-Khidr (St George's dome). Here Solomon 
is said to have tormented the demons. In front of the mosque are 
two red granite pillars. 

More to the S. we observe below, between us and the houses 
encircling the Haram, an elegant fountain-structure, called the Sebil Bei, which, according to the inscription, was erected in the 
year 849 of the Hegira (1445) by the Mameluke sultan Melik el- 
AshTaf Abn'n-Naser Kait-Bei. Above a small cube, the corners of 
which are adorned with pillars, rises a cornice and above this an oc- 
tagonal drum with sixteen facets ; over this again a dome of stone, 
the outside of which is entirely covered with arabesques in relief. 
At the S.E. angle of the terrace there is finally an elegant Pulpit 
in marble , called the 'summer pulpit' or Pulpit of Kddi Borhdn- 
eddtn from its builder (d. 1456). A sermon is preached here every 
Friday during the fast of the month Ramadan. The horseshoe arches 
supporting the pulpit, and the pulpit itself with its slender columns, 
above which rise arches of trefoil form , present a fine example of 
genuine Arabian art. 

The other buildings on the terrace are unimportant , consisting 
of Koran schools and dwellings. Objects of greater interest are the 
cisterns with which the rock is deeply honeycombed. Towards the 
S.W. of the mosque in particular there are many such cisterns of 
great antiquity, some of them connected with each other in groups, 
one below the other. These cisterns are not visible from the surface, 
but the attention is attracted by the numerous holes through which 
the water is drawn. 

We bestow another glance upon the Sakhra. This magnificent 
building produced a powerful impression on the Franks of the middle 
ages, and it was popularly believed to be the veritable Temple of 
Solomon. The society of knights founded here was accordingly called 
the order of the Temple , and they adopted the dome of the sacred 
rock as part of their armorial bearings. The Templars, moreover, 
carried the plan of the building to Europe; London, Laon, Metz, and 
several other towns still possess churches in this style. The polygonal 
outline of this mosque is even to be seen in the background of Ra- 
phael's famous Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan. 

Passing the pulpit, and descending a flight of twenty-one steps 
towards the S., we soon reach a large round basin (el-Kdt), once 
fed by a conduit from the pools of Solomon (p. 55). — To the 
E. of this, in front of the Aksa, there is a cistern hewn in the 
rocks known as the Sea, or the King's Cistern, which was also 
supplied from Solomon's pools. This reservoir is mentioned both 

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esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 47 

"by Tacitus and the earliest pilgrims. It was probably constructed 
before Herod's time. It is upwards of 40ft. in depth, and 246 yds. 
in circumference. In summer it contains but little water, and there 
are now very few openings communicating with it from the surface. 
A staircase -hewn in the rock descends to these remarkably spacious 
vaults, which are supported by pillars of rock. Immediately before 
the portal of the Aksa mosque is another cistern under the mosque 
itself, called the Bir el-Waraka, or leaf fountain. A man of the 
tribe of Temtm (in N.E. Arabia), a companion of f Omar, having 
once let his pitcher fall into this cistern , descended to recover it, 
and discovered a gate which led to orchards. He there plucked a 
leaf, placed it behind his ear, and showed it to his friends after he 
had quitted the cistern. The leaf came from paradise and never 
faded. Other persons, however, who descended for the purpose of 
visiting the Elysian orchards, were unable to find them. 

The mosque *E1-Aksa. During that part of Mohammed's career 
when he derived most of his 'revelations' from Jewish sources, he 
declared the Aksa, the 'most distant' shrine, to be an ancient holy 
place of Proto-Islam, tradition making him say that it was founded 
only forty years after the foundation of the Ka f ba by Abraham. 

The mosque is at the present day a basilica with nave and triple 
aisles (with subsidiary buildings), the principal axis of which forms 
a right angle with the S. wall of the Temple precincts. Not reckon- 
ing the annexes it is 88 yds. long and 60 yds. wide. 

The edifice was originally founded by the Emperor Justinian, who 
erected a basilica here in honour of the Virgin. Procopius, who has 
described the buildings of Justinian, states that artificial substructions were 
necessary in this case. The nave, in particular, rests on subterranean vaults. 
The building was of so great width that it was difficult to find beams 
long enough for the roof. The ceiling was borne by two rows of columns, 
one above the other. In front of the church there were two porches and two 
hospices. Arabian authors state that the Khalif r Omar on descending from 
the site of Solomon's Temple, offered prayers in the neighbouring 'Church 
of Mary\ r Omar converted the church into a mosque and in accordance with 
the passage from the Koran already mentioned (p. 38) named it Mesjid el- Aksa. 
At the end of the 7th century, f Abd el-Melik, the founder of the Sakhra, 
caused the doors of the Aksa to be overlaid with gold and silver 'plates. 
During the caliphate of Abu Ja c far el-Mansur (758-775) the E. and W. 
sides were damaged by an earthquake, and in order to obtain money to 
repair the mosque the precious metals with which it w»8 adorned were 
converted into coin. El-Mehdi (775-795), Mansur's successor, finding the 
mosque again in ruins in consequence of an earthquake, caused it to be 
rebuilt in an altered form, its length being now reduced, but its width 
increased. In 1060 the roof fell in, but was speedily repaired. Such is 
the account given by Arabic authors, whence we may infer that little of 
the original building is now left (probably only a few capitals under the 
dome and one in the left aisle). The columns of the nave date from 
Justinian's basilica, but they have been so shortened as now to appear 
clumsy. All the aisles were formerly vaulted, now only the two outer 
ones on each side are so. 

The Porch (PI. 1), in its present form, consists of seven arcades 
leading into the seven aisles of the building. It was erected by 
Melik el-Mu f azzam f Isa, a nephew of Saladin, in 1236, and was 

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48 Route d. 


The Bar&m 

restored at a later period ; the roof is not older than the 15th century. 
The central arcades show an attempt to imitate the Gothic style of 
the Franks, bnt the columns, capitals, and bases do not harmonise, 
as they are taken from ancient buildings of different styles. 

The original arrangements of the Intbbjor, which should be 
visited first, still present a striking appearance. The nave and two 
adjacent aisles, in which the plan of the old basilica is recognisable, 
are the only parts which are strictly ancient. The W. aisle was 
probably once walled up , and on the E. side lay the court of the 
mosque, as atFostat in Egypt, and at Damascus. The great transept 
with the dome, which perhaps belongs to the restoration of El- 
Mehdi, gave the edifice a cruciform shape. It was probably the 
same prince, who, in order to obliterate the form of the cross, added 
two lower Aisles on the E. and W. sides of the mosque respectively, 
and for this purpose the lateral walls of the building had to be 
broken through. In their present form, however, these four outer 
aisles belong to a later restoration. The piers are of a simple square 
form, and the vaulting is pointed. 

The Nave and its two immediately adjoining aisles are very 
superior in style to the other aisles just mentioned, and possess far 
greater individuality and uniformity. The capitals, some of which 
still show the form of the acanthus leaf, are Byzantine, and perhaps 





Footprint of Christ. 

Mosque of r Omar. 

Tomb of the Sons of Aaron. 

Pointed Arcade. 

Pair of Columns. 


Entrance to the old Aksa. 

10. Mosque of the 40 witnesses. 

11. Place of Zacharias. 







date from the 7th century. The seven arches which rise above the 
columns are wide and pointed, and therefore doubtless of later date; 
and here again we find the wooden 'anchor', or connecting beam be- 
tween the arches, which is peculiar to the Arabs. Above the arches 
is a double row of windows , the higher of which look into the 
open air, the lower into the aisles. The nave and central aisles, 
and the transept also, are still roofed with beams, as was the case 
in basilicas. The nave and central aisles are farther remarkable for 

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esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route, 49 

the shape of their roofs, which terminate externally in gahles hoth 
at the ends and sides. 

Tlie Transept , like the rest of the edifice , is constructed of old 
materials. The antique columns are hy no means uniform like those 
of the nave, hut vary in material, in form, and even in height. Ac- 
cording to an inscription, this part of the "building was restored hy 
Saladin in 583 (1187). To the same period helong the fine mosaics 
on a gold ground in the drum of the dome, which, according to 
Arabian accounts, Saladin ohtained from Constantinople, and also 
the prayer-niche on the S. side, flanked with its small and graceful 
maThle columns. The coloured hand which runs round the wall of this 
part of the mosque, ahout 6 ft. from the ground, consists of foliage, 
In Arahian style. The Ouflc inscriptions are texts from the Koran. 

The Dome is constructed of wood, and covered with lead on the 
outside; within, it is decorated in the same style as the dome of the 
Sakhra. An inscription records the name of the Mameluke sultan 
Mohammed ihn Kilaun as the restorer (or perhaps founder) of these 
decorations in 728 (1327). Some of the windows of the mosque 
are filled with stained glass of the same period (16th cent.) as that 
in the Sakhra, hut inferior to it. The wretched paintings on the 
large arch of the transept were executed hy an Italian during the 
present century. — Adjoining the prayer -niche we ohserve a 
Pulpit (PI. 2) heautifully carved in wood. The details of the dec- 
oration are admirahle. The ascent to the pulpit , as well as the 
pointed structure itself, is inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl. 
It was executed in 564 (1168) hy an artist of Aleppo hy order 
of Nureddin , and was placed here hy Saladin on the restoration 
of the A^sa. On the stone hehind this pulpit is shown the Footprint 
of Christ (PL 3), which appears to have heen seen hy Antonio of 
Piacenza, one of the earliest pilgrims, at or near this very spot. 
On each side of the pulpit, we ohserve a pair of columns close 
together (PL 7 and 7a). The cicerone declares that persons who are 
not horn in lawful wedlock cannot pass hetween the columns, while 
others say that no one can enter heaven if he cannot pass hetween 
them. (There is a similar pair of columns in the mosque of f Amru 
at Old Cairo.) An iron screen has now heen fixed hetween them. 

Subsidiary Buildings. A prolongation of the transept towards the 
W. is formed hy a double colonnade with a vaulting of pointed 
arches (PL 6), hut the pilasters are of rather rough workmanship. 
All this part of the building was erected hy the Knights Templars, 
who used it as an armoury or something of that sort. The Aksa was 
specially allotted to the Templars; they called it porticus, palatium, 
or templum Salomonis; the knights lived here and in the lower 
chambers of this corner of the Haram, the windows looking out to 
the S. on the mountain slope. This part of the building is now the 
women's mosque, the l White Mosque\ — The modern addition to the 
mosque on the S.E. side is a bare uninteresting building with a 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 4 

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50 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

piayer-niche (PI. 4), where the proper Mosque of r Omar is said 
once to have stood, the dome of the rock having been erroneously 
called so by the Franks. A similar addition is situated to the N. ; 
the greater part of it (to theS.) is the apse of an old Christian church, 
now converted into the Mosque of the 40 Witnesses (PI. 10), and 
to the N. of it (PI. 11) is the place where Zacharias is said to have 
been slain. There is a handsome rose-window here dating from the 
times of the crusaders. A fine stone slab in the pavement of the 
nave, not far from the entrance, used to be shown as the tomb of 
the Sons of Aaron (PI. 5), but it is now covered with mats. 

On emerging from the central portal we find a staircase on the 
right, which descends by eighteen steps to the Vaults below the 
Afcsa. These are formed by a double series of arches resting on piers. 
The central series lies exactly under the arcades which form the E. 
side of the nave of the basilica , which is perhaps a proof that the 
original basilica only extended thus far. The substructions in their 
present form are not ancient, the brickwork of the E. wall, for in- 
stance, being of late date, but they occupy the site of the original 
Byzantine foundations. Towards the S. end eight more steps descend 
to a vault, with four flat arches resting in the centre against a short 
and thick monolithic column covered with whitewash, the capital of 
which, with its stiff acanthus, or rather palm leaves, appears to be 
Byzantine. Near the end of the partition wall a three-quarter column 
is visible. The old Double Gate to the S. is still in complete pre- 
servation ; the three columns are composed of very large stones of the 
Jewish period. The lintels of the gates are still in position j but the 
eastern one is broken, and both are supported by columns added at 
a later time; on the inside they are whitewashed, but on the 
outside they are still partly visible and are ornamented with well 
squared , tablet-like stones. The entire space was once a porch 
belonging to the Double Gate, now walled up, but was closed in 
and vaulted in the Byzantine manner, probably at the period of the 
erection of the church of St. Mary. This double gate is supposed 
to be the l Huldah PortaV of the Talmud, and we may therefore as- 
sume that Christ frequently entered the Temple from this point, 
particularly on the occasion of festivals. It is now a Muslim place of 
prayer, and is therefore covered with straw matting. 

Whether there are vaults under the 3. W. Corner of the Hardm is a 
question that is still unanswered, but probably there are. "Through a 
children's school entrance may be gained to an interesting subterranean 
building and to the huge square block by Barclay's gate (p. 56). 

The whole of the 8.E. Corner of the Hardm is supported by artifi- 
cial substructions, the sole object of which was to afford a level sur- 
face. The entrance to them is near a small arcade in the S.E. corner 
of the Temple precincts. Descending thirty-two steps, we enter 
a small Muslim oratory, where a horizontal niche, surmounted by a 
a dome borne by 4 small columns, is pointed out as the 'Cradle of 

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esh-Shertf. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 51 

Christ', under which name it was also known in mediaeval times. 
In pre -Islamic times the 'Basilika Theotokos' (of the Mother of 
God) or 'Maria Nova' was here. This tradition seems to have been 
founded on an old custom of Hebrew women to resort hither to 
await their confinement. According to the legend, this was the 
dwelling of the aged Simeon, and the Virgin spent a few days 
here after the Presentation in the Temple. 

From this point we descend into the spacious substructions, 
known as 'Solomons Stables'. The Arabs attribute them to the 
agency of demons , but in their present form they are an imitation 
(probably Arabian) of similar older substructions which once oc- 
cupied the same spot. The piers are chiefly composed of ancient 
drafted stones. Many Jews sought refuge in these vaults during 
their struggle against the Romans, and there is other evidence that 
substructions of the kind existed at an early period in this corner. 
In the middle ages the stables of the Frank kings and of the Templars 
were here, and the holes in the pillars by which they tethered their 
horses may still be seen. The vaults extend 91 yds. from E. to W., 
and 66 yds. from S. to N. There are altogether 13 vaults of unequal 
length and breadth. The arches, in the shape of a rather elongated 
semicircle (about 30ft. high), are borne by 88 columns in 12 parallel 
rows. Opposite the sixth row (from the stairs) there is a small closed 
door in the S. wall called the 'Single Gate 1 (near which is the so- 
called 'Cradle of David'). To the extreme W., separated by a wall 
from the other vaults, there is another triple series of substructions, 
which terminate towards the S. in a Triple Gate. Of this ancient 
Temple gate, which was built in the same style as the double gate 
already described, the foundations only are preserved. The gates 
themselves are blocked up. The arches are of somewhat elliptical form. 
The whole porch was about 53 ft. in width and 25 ft. in height. For 
the exterior oomp. p. 58. Fragments of columns aTe also observed 
built into the walls here, and an ancient column is seen in the wall 
about 20yds. to theN. of the gate. Farther on, about 132 yds. from 
the S. wall, the style in which the gallery is built begins to alter, 
and the upper part becomes more modern. The substructions extend 
to theN., over a large rocky cistern, beyond the Aksa mosque. (We 
observe here the huge roots of the trees which grow on the platform 
of the Haram above us.) It has unfortunately not yet been possible 
to investigate the space between the double and triple gates, but it is 
highly probable that there are substructions here also. 

We now again ascend to the plateau of the Haram, and proceed 
towards the N. — The Wall which bounds the precincts of the 
Haram on the right (E. side) is modern above the surface of the 
ground , though the substructions are of great antiquity. A little 
farther on we find a stair ascending to the top of the wall, which 
affords an admirable view of the valley of Jehoshaphat with its 
tombs immediately below , and of the Mt. of Olives. We find here 


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52 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

the stump of a column built in horizontally and protruding beyond 
the wall on both sides. A small building (a place of prayer) has been 
erected over the inner end. The Muslims say that all men will as- 
semble in the valley of Jehoshaphat when the trumpet-blast proclaims 
the last judgment. From this prostrate column a thin wire-rope will 
then be stretched to the opposite Mt. of Olives. Christ will sit on the 
wall, and Mohammed on the mount, as judges. All men must pass 
over the intervening space on the rope. The righteous, preserved 
by their angels from falling, will cross with lightning speed, while 
the wicked will be precipitated into the abyss of hell. The idea of 
a bridge of this kind occurs in the ancient Persian religion. 

The Golden Gate is situated farther to the N. 

A passage in Ezekiel (xliv. 1, 2) indicates that it was kept closed from 
a very early period. In the Book of the Acts (iii. 2) mention is also made 
of a &vQa (boala, or Beautiful Gate, which must certainly have been in 
the wall of the inner forecourt of the Temple, but modern tradition has 
localised it here, probably because this was the only gate still visible on 
the E. side of the Temple. Owing to a misunderstanding, the Greek <bgala 
('beautiful) was afterwards translated into the Latin aurea, whence the 
name 'golden gate\ Antonius Martyr, however, still distinguishes between 
the 'portes precieuses' and the Golden Gate. The gate in its present form 
dates from the 5th, or probably rather from the 7th century after Christ. 
(According to Muslim legend the pillars of the gate were a present from 
the Queen of Sheba to Solomon). In the outer wall on the 8. there is a 
very small door which probably afforded an entrance to foot-passengers. 
The golden gate bears a strong resemblance to the double gate on the S. 
side (p. 51), and probably stands nearly on the site of the gate 'Shushan* 
of Herod's Temple, mentioned in the Talmud. It is on record that as late 
as the year 629 Heraclius entered the Temple by this gate, and down to 
810 a path ascended in steps from the valley of Kidron to the temple pre- 
cincts. The Arabs afterwards built it up, and there still exists a tradition 
that on a Friday some Christian conqueror will enter by this gate and 
take Jerusalem from the Muslims. At the time of the Crusades the gate 
used to be opened for a few hours on Palm 8unday and on the festival of 
the Raising of the Cross. On Palm Sunday the great procession with palm- 
branches entered by this gate from the Mt. of Olives. The patriarch rode 
on an ass, while the people spread their garments in the way, as had been 
done on the entry of Christ. 

The Arabs now call the whole gateway Bdb ed-Ddhetiyeh, the N. 
arch the Bdb et- Tdbeh, or gate of repentance, and the S. arch the Bdb 
er-Rahmeh, or gate of mercy. The large monolithic doorposts to the 
E. have been converted into pillars, which now rise 6 ft. above 
the top of the wall, and between the two has been placed a large 
pillar, the sides of which are adorned with small projecting columns. 
Above these the arched vaulting was then placed. The gate hav- 
ing been walled up, the central pillar is no longer visible from 
without. The structure was restored in 1892, and two new buttresses 
were built in front of the damaged corners. A staircase ascends 
to the roof, which affords an excellent survey of the whole of the 
Temple plateau. Admission to the interior is now forbidden. 

In the interior of the portal there is an arcade with six vaults, the 
depressed arches of which rest on one side on a frieze above the pilasters 
of the lateral walls, and on the other side on two columns in the middle. 
The inside of the w. entrance is a simple repetition pf these arrange- 

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esh-Skerif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 53 

ments of the E. gateway. The architectural details of the structure, which 
is highly ornate, seem to point to a Byzantine origin. The depressed vault- 
ing, the lowness of the cornices, the hollowed form of the foliage, and 
the flat folding of the acanthus leaves on the capitals are all characteristic 
of a late period of art; and the same may be said of the capitals of the 
central columns with their volutes in imitation of the Ionic style, as 
capitals of this description do not occur before the 6th century. The hol- 
lows below the mouldings of the bases of the capitals also point to a late 
period. — The interior is lighted by openings in the drums of the E. domes. 

Proceeding farther towards the N. , we observe a modern mosque 
on the right, probably built over old vaults (no admission). It is 
called the Throne of Solomon, from the legend that Solomon was 
found dead here. In order to conceal his death from the demons, he 
supported himself on his seat with his staff, and it was not till the 
worms had gnawed the staff through and caused the body to fall that 
the demons became aware that they were released from the king's au- 
thority. Here, as at other pilgrimage shrines, we observe shreds of 
rags suspended from the window gratings , having been torn from 
the garments of the pilgrims and placed there by them in fulfilment 
of vows to the saint. 

In this part of the Haram, at the N. E. corner of the upper plat- 
form, subterranean arcades, probably of the Herodian period, have 
been discovered (no admission). This is a proof that at this point 
also a level area was artificially obtained by substructures, although 
at various other points round the platform the natural rock is ex- 
posed to view. 

At the N. E. angle of the Haram are preserved the ruins of a 
massive ancient tower. The N. wall contains a whole series of gates. 
The first at the E. end is the Bdb el-Asb&t, or gate of the tribes. 
(The word oxbdt, 'tribes', has, however, sometimes been regarded as 
the name of some individual prophet.) The visitor should not omit 
to look out of one of the windows under the arcades of the N. wall, 
for here, far below us, lies the Birket Urcfin ('pool of Israel'), for- 
merly regarded as the Pool of Bethesda (comp. p. 76). Early pil- 
grims call it the 'Sheep Pool' (Piscina Probatica), as it was errone- 
ously supposed that the 'Sheep Gate' (St. John v. 2) stood on the 
site of the present gate of St. Stephen. A small valley diverged 
anciently from the upper part of the Tyropceon from N.W. to S.E., 
and was made available for the construction of this reservoir. The 
pool, which rarely now contains water, is 121yds. long and 42 yds. 
wide. It lies 68 ft. below the level of the Temple plateau, and 
its bottom is now covered with rubbish to a depth of 20 ft. It was 
fed from the W. , and could be regulated and emptied by a channel 
in a tower at the S. E. corner. Near the S.W. end of the pool Capt. 
Warren succeeded in descending into a cistern, where he found 
a double set of vaulted substructions, one over the other, and to 
the N. of these an apartment with an opening in the N. side of the 
wall of the Haram. Through this opening the superfluous water 
flowed away. 

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54 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

Skirting theN. side of the Haram precincts, we observe places of 
prayer on our left, and we soon reach the next gate, called the Bdb 
Hitta, or Bdb Hotta, following which is the Bdb el- r Atem, or gate of 
darkness, also named Sherif el-Anbid (honour of the prophets), or 
Gate of Dewaddr, from a school of that name situated there. This 
perhaps answers to the Todi gate of the Talmud. To the left is 
a fountain fed by Solomon's pools; near it to the W. are two small 
mosques, theW. one of which is called KubbetShdAfes-Sakhra, from 
the piece of rock which, it is said, Nebuchadnezzar broke off from 
the Sakhra and the Jews brought back again. At the N.W. angle 
of the Temple area the ground consists of rook, in which has been 
formed a perpendicular cutting 23 ft. in depth, and above this rises 
the wall. The foundations of this wall appear to be ancient, and 
they may possibly have belonged to the fortress of Antonia (p. 27). 
There are now barracks here (PI. 11). At the N.W. corner rises the 
highest minaret of the Haram. 

Having examined the whole of the interior of these spacious 
precincts, we now proceed to take a walk round the Walls of the 
Haram, which will enable us better to realise the character of the 
substructions. What we have hitherto spoken of as a level plateau 
was originally a rocky hill, the sides of which were afterwards arti- 
ficially raised, and the projecting parts of which at the N. W. angle 
were removed. Through the centre of the plateau runs the natural 
rock, extending below the triple gate (p. 51). The valley to the W. 
of it, called the Tyropceon, is almost entirely filled with rubbish. 

As to the materials of which the outer wall consists, four differ- 
ent kinds of stones may be distinguished: — (1) Drafted blocks 
with rough , unhewn exterior (comp. p. oxii) ; (2) drafted blocks 
with smooth exterior ; (3) stones , smoothly hewn, but undrafted ; 
(4) ordinary masonry of irregularly shaped stones. The last is mod- 
ern; the third variety may be referred to the time of Justinian 
with tolerable certainty ; while the first two are in all probability 
Herodian. Blocks of the first kind are to be found under ground 
beginning 35-55 ft. below the present surface of the ground. They 
are jointed without mortar or cement, but so accurately that a knife 
cannot be introduced between them. The wall is not perpendicular, 
but batters from the base, each block lying a little within that below 
it. On the N.W. side of the temple area (but difficult of access) the 
exterior of the wall shows remains of buttresses (like the temple 
wall in Hebron, p. 136). 

On leaving the Haram by the second gate on the N.W. side 
(Bdb en-Ndzir) we leave the Old Serdi (at present a state-prison, 
PI. 95) to the right, and the cavalry-barracks to the left. At the 
corner to the right is a handsome fountain. (Crossing the street, 
we may notice how beautifully the stones of the 2nd house on the 
left are jointed with lead cramps.) We then turn to the left by the 
street which leads to the S., passing on the right the present 

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esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 55 

jSerdi, on the site of the former Hospital of St. Helena (PI. 94), and 
on the left a lane which leads to the Haram. We now arrive at the 
covered-in StiJc el-Kattdnin, or cotton-merchants* bazaaT, now de- 
serted, and terminating towards the E. in the Bdb el-Kattdnin, which 
is worthy of inspection. About half-way through the bazaar we turn 
to the right by a by-road to the Hammdm esh-Shifd, or healing bath 
(PL 35). This too has been supposed to be the Pool of Bethesda. 
A stair ascends 34 ft. to the mouth of the cistern, over which stands 
a small tower. The shaft is here about 100 ft. in depth (t. e. about 
66 ft. below the surface of the earth). The basin is almost entirely 
enclosed by masonry; at the S. end of its W. wall runs a channel 
built of masonry, 100 ft. long, 3^2 ft- high, and 3 ft. in width, 
first to the S., then to the S.W. The water is bad, being rain-water 
which has percolated through impure earth, but it is still extolled 
for its sanatory properties. 

Returning to the narrow lane we pursue our way to the S. ; here 
w« find a fountain similar to the one already mentioned. We then 
ascend into the so-called David Street (Tartk Bab es-Silseleh), which 
runs from W. to E. on a kind of embankment formed of subterranean 
arches. In Jewish times a street led over the deep valley here (the 
Tyropoeon, p. $2) to the upper city; one of the large arches on which 
it rests is named * Wilsons Arch 1 after the director of the English 
survey. This well-preserved arch is 21 ft. in height and has a span 
of 42 ft., but is now buried out of sight. Below it is the El-Burdk 
Pool, named after the winged steed of Mohammed, which has given 
its name to the whole of this W. side of the Haram, as the prophet 
is said to have tied it up here. Whilst making excavations under the 
S. end of Wilson's Arch, Capt. Warren discovered fragments of vault- 
ing at a depth of 24 ft. and a water-course at a depth of 42 ft. (a proof 
that water still trickles through what was formerly a valley) ; and at 
length, at a depth of more than 51 ft., he found the wall of the 
Temple built into the rock. A subterranean passage ran in the same 
direction as the viaduct over the arches mentioned above, and led 
from the Temple precincts to the citadel. Capt. Warren penetrated 
into it for a distance of about 83 yds. , without reaching the end. 

We now follow the Tank Bdb es-Silseleh in the direction of the 
Haram until we come to another handsome fountain on the left ; here 
we turn to the right into the so-called 'MehkerneK' or House of Judg- 
ment (PI. 84), a cruciform arcade with pointed vaulting, which was 
built in 1483. At the S. end is a prayer-recess. In the centre is a 
fountain which was formerly fed by the water-conduit of Bethlehem. 
One window looks towards the Moghrebin quarter to the S. , and 
another towards the plateau of the Haram. The house of the Kadi 
(judge) adjoins the arcade. The gate which here leads into the Haram 
is called Bdb es-Silseleh, or Gate of the Chain ; near it is a basin which 
resembles a font. The great conduit from Solomon's pools (p. 129) 
to the area of the temple runs under the gate. 

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56 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

We must now return (from E. to W.) to the first narrow lane lead- 
ing to the left (S.) between two handsome old houses. That on the 
right with the stalactite portal was a boys' school at the period of the 
Crusades ; that to the left, called El-'Ajemiyeh, was a girls' school, but 
has been used as a boys' school since the time of Saladin. Descending 
this lane for 4 min. and keeping to the left, we reach the *Wailing 
Place of the Jews (Kauthal ma'tvrbl), situated beyond the miserable 
dwellings of the Moghrebins (Muslims from the N.W. of Africa). 
The celebrated wall which bears this name is 52 yds. in length and 
56 ft. in height. The nine lowest courses of stone consist of huge 
blocks, only some of which, however, are drafted. Above these are 
fifteen courses of smaller stones. Some of the blocks, many of which 
have suffered much from exposure, are of vast size, one in the N. part 
being 16 ft., and one in the S. part 13 ft. in length. It is probable 
that the Jews as early as the middle ages were in the habit of 
repairing hither to bewail the downfall of Jerusalem. This spot 
should be visited repeatedly, especially on a Friday after 4 p.m., or 
on Jewish festivals, when a touching scene is presented by the fig- 
ures leaning against the weather-beaten wall, kissing the stones, 
and weeping. The men often sit here for hours, reading their well- 
thumbed Hebrew prayer-books. Many of them are barefooted. The 
Spanish Jews, whose appearance and bearing are often refined and 
independent, present a pleasing contrast to their squalid brethren 
of Poland. 

On Friday, towards evening, the following litany is chanted : — 

Leader: For the palace that lies desolate: — Response: We sit in soli- 
tude and mourn. 

L. For the palace that is destroyed: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For the walls that are overthrown: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For our majesty that is departed: — R. We sit, etc 

L. For our great men who lie dead: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For the precious stones that are burned: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For the priests who have stumbled: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For our kings who have despised Him: — R. We sit, etc. 

Another antiphon is as follows: — 

Leader: We pray Thee, have mercy on Zionl — Response: Gather the 
children of Jerusalem. 

L. Haste, haste, Redeemer of Zionl — R. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem. 

L. May beauty and majesty surround Zionl — R. Ah! turn Thyself merci- 
fully to Jerusalem. 

L. May the kingdom soon return to Zionl — R. Comfort those who mourn 
over Jerusalem. 

L. May peace and joy abide with Zionl — R. And the branch (of Jesse) 
spring up at Jerusalem. 

To the S. of the Place of Wailing is an ancient gate, called the 
Gate of the Prophet , or after the discoverer Barclay's Gate. The 
fanaticism of the Moghrebins prevents travellers from seeing this 
unless accompanied by a guide who knows the people. (For the 
approach from the interior of the Haram, see p. 50.) The upper part of 
it consists of a huge carefully hewn block , 7 J / 2 ft. thick and over 
18 ft. long, now situated 10 ft. above the present level of the ground. 
The most interesting features of the gate, however, are not visible. 

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4. Route. 57 

The threshold lies 48 ft. "below the present 
surface of the ground, and a path cnt in 
steps has been discovered in the couise of 

Retracing our steps from the Place of 
Wailing, and now turning not to the right 
but to the left through the main street of 
the dirty Moghrebin quarter till the houses 
cease, we reach a large open space, partly 
planted with cactus hedges. To the right is a 
precipitous slope, consisting of rubbish on 
the S. side and rock on the N.; to the left 
rises the Temple wall to a height of about 
58 ft. , which we now again approach not far 
from the S.W. angle. The colossal blocks 
here, one of which is 26 ft. long and 2*/2 ft- 
high, and that at the corner 27^2 ft. long, 
are very remarkable, although it is some- 
times difficult to distinguish the joints 
from clefts caused by disintegration. The 
whole S.W. corneT was built during the 
Herodian period. About 13 yds. from the 
S.W. corner we come upon the arch of a 
bridge, called Robinson's Arch after its dis- 
coverer. The arch is 50 ft. in width; it con- 
tains stones of 19 and 26 ft. in length, and 
about three different courses are distin- 
guishable. At a distance of 13^2 yds. to the * 
W. Capt. Warren found the corresponding 
pier of the arch ; and about 42 ft. below the 
present surface there was a pavement upon 
which lie the vault-stones of Robinson's arch. 
This pavement farther rests upon a layer of 
rubbish 22 ft. in depth. Beneath the pave- 
ment the explorers discovered the vaulting- 
stones of a still earlier arch than Robinson's, 
and near the Temple-wall a conduit running 
N. and S. The general opinion is that Ro- 
binson's Arch is the beginning of a viaduct 
which led from the Temple over the Tyro- 
poeon to the Xystus, but excavations on the 
W. side have not yet brought to light a cor- 
responding part of the bridge there but only ; 
a series of pillars of a different kind. Schick 
has therefore suggested that the bridge was 
of wood (Beit el-Makdas, pp. 123 f .), while 
others (ZDPV. xv. 234 f.) suggest that the 


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58 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Hardm eah-Shertf. 

bridge spanned the valley near Wilson's Arch (p. 65) and that Ro- 
binson's Arch is the 'staircase gate' mentioned by Josephus (Ant xv, 
11, 5) as the entrance to the 'royal portico'. 

Turning round the S.W. corner of the Haram, we can at first see 
only the piece to the E. as far as the 'Double Gate* (see p. 50) ; 
the continuation of the S. wall we cannot pursue until we issue from 
the Dung Gate (or M oghrebins' Gate), and turn to the E., keeping as 
close as possible to the wall. The rock here rapidly falls from the 
S.W. corner of the area towards the E. from a depth of 58 ft. to 
88 ft., and then rises again towards the E. In other words — the 
Tyropceon valley runs under the S.W. angle of the Temple plateau, 
so that this part of the mosque (corresponding to part of the ancient 
Temple) stands not on the Temple hill itself, but on the opposite 

At the bottom of this depression, which is now no longer vis- 
ible, Capt. Warren discovered a subterranean channel. At a depth of 
23 ft. is a stone pavement, probably of a late Roman period, and at 
a depth of 43 ft. another, of eariier date. A wall still more deeply 
imbedded in the earth consists of large stones with rough surfaces. 
The rock ascends to the Triple Gate, where it lies but few feet below 
the present surface. Thence to the S.E. corner the wall sinks again 
for a depth of 100 ft., while the present surface of the ground de- 
scends only 23 ft. Under the 'Triple Gate 1 several passages and 
water-conduits hewn in the rock, and under the 'Single Gate' 
(p. 51), which is of late date, an old passage, have been discovered. 
At the bottom Capt. WaTren discovered a pitcher, besides masons' 
marks on the stones. The gigantic blocks above the surface of the 
ground in this S.E. angle attract our attention. Some of these are 
16-22 ft. in length and 3 ft. in thickness. The wall at the S.E. corner 
is altogether 74 ft. in height. — In the course of his excavations 
towards the S., Capt. Warren discovered a second wall at a great 
depth, running from the S.E. corner towards the S.W., and surround- 
ing OpheL 

On the E. side of the wall of the Haram lies much rubbish, and 
the rock once dipped much moTe rapidly to the Kidron valley than 
the present surface of the ground does. The Golden Gate (p. 52) 
stands with its outside upon the wall, but with its inside apparently 
upon rock. The wall here extends to a depth of 28-38 ft. below the 
surface. Outside of the Haram wall Capt. Warren discovered a 
second wall, possibly an ancient city-wall, buried in the debris. The 
whole of the N.E. corner of the Temple plateau, both within and 
without the enclosing wall, is filled with immense deposits of 
debris, some of which was probably the earth removed in level- 
ling the N.W. corner. The small valley used for the construction 
of the Birket Isra'in (p. 53) runs (like the Tyropceon at the S.W. 
angle) under the N.E. corner of the wall, which extends here to a 
depth of 116 ft. below the present surface. The gradient of the rock 

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Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 59 

from the N.W. corner of the Haram to this point is therefore very 
rapid, and vast quantities of material were required to fill it up. — 
Cap-t. Warren also discovered the outlet of the Birket Isra'in under 
ground, and in the N.E. corner the ruins of a large tower, obviously 

The "beautiful arches of the Golden Gate should he once more 
viewed from without. The parts belonging to different periods may 
easily be distinguished. Along the whole wall are placed Muslim 
tombstones. The best way to return to the town is now by the Gate 
of St. Stephen (p. 75). 

The Church of the Sepulchre. 

We are informed by the Bible that Golgotha lay outside the city 
(Matth. xxviii. lit* Hebr. xiii. 12). This was an eminence, or perhaps 
only a small rocky protuberance, called on account of its peculiar shape 
'gulgolta* (skull) in Aramaic, of -which Golgotha is the N. T. form. It is 
still unknown whether the eminence was a natural or artificial one. To 
the N. and S. of the place pointed out by tradition the ground dips 
gradually. The first point of controversy among scholars is whether the 
genuine Golgotha lay in this neighbourhood or not ft. Several English ex- 
plorers look for Golgotha to the N. Gf the town, near the grotto of Jere- 
miah (p. 104), but until farther excavations are made nothing certain can 
be known. Bishop Eusebius of Csesarea (264-340 A.D.), the earliest historian 
who gives us information on the subject, records that during the excava- 
tions in the reign of Constantino the sacred tomb of the Saviour was, 
'contrary to all expectation 1 , discovered. Later historians add that Helena, 
Constantine's mother, prompted by a divine vision undertook a pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem, and that she and Bishop Macarius, by the aid of 
a miracle, there discovered not only the Holy Sepulchre, but also 
the Cross of Christ. The cross was hewn in pieces, one portion only 
remaining at Jerusalem, where it continued to be shown to pilgrims. A 
further certain historical fact is, that on the spot thus said to have been 
discovered, and on which we now stand, a sumptuously decorated church 
was erected (consecrated in 336), consisting of a building over the [sup- 
posed Holy Sepulchre, and of the basilica dedicated to the sign of the 
Cross. The Church of the Sepulchre, also called the Anastasis, because 
Christ here rose from the dead, consisted of a rotunda, in the middle of 
which was the sepulchre surrounded by statues of the twelve [apostles. 
The external form at least of this rotunda, which served as a model for 
the Sakhra mosque (p. 40), has been preserved. It was adjoined on theE. 
by an open space with colonnades (the extent of which cannot be de- 
termined), while farther to theE. stood the basilica, with courts on each 
side, three portals in front towards the E., and a forecourt and propyleea 
with flights of steps. A few fragments of the columns of the propylsea 
are still preserved. The appearance of the whole, from the E., as from 
the lit of Olives for example, must have been very striking. The place of 
the finding of the cross was early distinguished from Golgotha, and there 
are conflicting statements as to the distance of each from the town. 

In June, 614, the buildings were destroyed by the Persians. In 616-626 
the church was rebuilt byModestus, abbot of the monastery of Theodosius, 

t 'Now when they were going, behold some of the watch came into 
the city, and showed unto the chief priests all the things that were done* 1 , 
tf It would be quite beyond the scope of this Handbook to enquire 
minutely whether all the traditions mentioned in it have any foundation in 
fact or not. Those attaching to the Church of the Sepulchre, with its many 
chapels and nooks, are especially numerous. See the works of Tobler, 
Robinson, De Vogitt, and the other authorities mentioned at pp. cxvi and 36. 

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60 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

with the aid of the Christians of Syria and Alexandria. It then consisted 
of three parts : the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis), the Church of 
the Cross (Martyrion), and the Church of Calvary } but in splendour it was 
inferior to its predecessor. From a description of the Church of the Sep- 
ulchre by Arculf in 670 it appears that an addition had been made to the 
holy places by the erection of a church of St. Mary on the S. side. In 
the time of Khalif Mamun (813-833) the patriarch Thomas of Jerusalem 
repaired and enlarged the dome over the Anastasis. In 936 and in 969 
the church was partly destroyed by fire, and in 1010 the holy places were 
further damaged and desecrated by the Muslims. In 1056 a church again 
arose and in 1099 the Crusaders entered this church, or in particular the 
dome of the sepulchre, barefooted and with songs of praise. The exist- 
ing buildings, however, appeared to the Crusaders much too insignificant, 
and they therefore erected a large church which embraced all the holy 
places and chapels. This was not done till the beginning of the 12th cent., 
as the Romanesque style of their buildings testifies. The church built 
by the Crusaders has been preserved down to the present time, but is not 
easily recognised as a building of that period in consequence of the 
numerous additions which it has received. To the E. of the rotunda of the 
sepulchre the Crusaders erected a church consisting of a nave and aisles, 
with three apses towards the E., beyond which, still farther to the E., al- 
ready stood the chapel of St. Helena. 

In 1187 the Arabs damaged these buildings. In 1192 the warriors of 
the Third Crusade were permitted to visit Jerusalem in sections, and the 
Bishop of Salisbury obtained from Saladin the concession that two Latin 
priests should be permitted specially to conduct the services in the Church 
of the Sepulchre. In 1244 the sepulchre was destroyed by the Kharezmians, 
but in 1310 a handsome church with numerous and superb altars had 
again arisen, to which in 1400 were added two domes. During the follow- 
ing centuries complaints were frequently made of the insecure condition 
of the dome of the sepulchre. At length, in 1719, it was restored, and a 
great part of the church rebuilt, notwithstanding much opposition on the 
part of the Muslims. In 1808 the church met with a great disaster. It 
was almost entirely burned down, the dome fell in and crushed the chapel 
of the sepulchre, the columns cracked, and the lead from the roof flowed 
into the interior. Little was saved except the E. part of the building. 
The Greeks now contrived to secure to themselves the principal right to 
the buildings, and they, together with the Armenians, contributed most 
largely to the erection of the new church of 1810, which was designed 
by a certain Komnenos Kalfa of Mitylene (p. 66). Many traces of the orig- 
inal church are, however, still distinguishable. 

The *Clmrcli of the Sepulchre (Arab. Kenhet el-Kiyameh) is 
generally closed from 10.30 a.m. to 3 p.m., but by paying a bakh- 
shish of 1 fr. to the Muslim custodian the visitor will be allowed 
to remain in the building after 10.30 o'clock. An opera-glass and a 
light are indispensable. A bright day should be chosen, as many 
parts of the building are very dark. — Muslim guards, appointed 
by the Turkish government, sit in the vestibule for the purpose of 
reserving order among the Christian pilgrims and of keeping the 
keys. The office of custodian is hereditary in a Jerusalem family. — 
A large model of the Church of the Sepulchre by Dr. Schick, a Ger- 
man architect, which gives a comprehensive idea of the whole of the 
buildings connected with it, is to be seen at his house £pJ83). 

The chief facade of the church is now on the S. sideT^Fhe open 
space in front of the present portal dates from the period of the 
Crusades. It is paved with large yellowish slabs of stone, and is 
always occupied by traders and beggars. 

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the Sepulchre, 


4. Route. 61 

This Quadrangle (PI. a), or fore-court, which is not quite 
level, lies 3y 2 steps below the stTeet. To the right and left of the 
steps are columns built into the adjoining buildings, but that on 
the left (W.) only is well preserved, and even supports part of an 
arch closing the street leading to the W. Here stood a kind of Porch, 
as is rendered farther obvious by the remains of bases of columns 
still to be seen on the ground. 

The quadrangle is bounded by chapels of no great importance. 
Entering by the most southern door on the right, and passing the 
kitchen and pilgrims' chambers of the Greeks, we ascend by eighteen 
steps to the so-called Church of the Apostles with the altar of Mel- 

a. Quadrangle. 1. Chapel of Melchizedek. 
2. Armenian Chapel. 3. Coptic Chapel. 
4. Chapel of St. Mary of Egypt. 5. Greek 
Chapel of St. James. 6. Chapel of 
Mary Magdalen. 7. Chapel of the Forty 
Mavtyrs. 8. Post of the Muslim custodians. 
9. Stone of Anointment. 10. Place from 
which the women witnessed 
the Anointment. 11. Angels' 
Chapel, 12. Chapel of the 
Sepulchre. 13. Chapel of 
the Copts. 14. Chapel of 
the Syrians. 15. Chamber 
in the rock. 16. Passage 


: ?a 

xj^-iB^V^ J jfl 


to the Coptic Mon- 
astery. 17. Pass- 
age to the Cistern. 
18. Cistern. 19. An- 
techamber of next 
chapel. 20. Chapel 
of the Apparition. 
21. Latin Sacristy. 
22. vatnoiicon. 

23. ' Centre of the World\ 24. First seat of the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
25. Second seat. 26. Aisle of the Church of the Crusaders. 27 Chapel 
(Prison of Christ). 28. Chapel of St. Longinus. 29. Chapel of the Parting of 
the Raiment. 30. Chapel of the Derision. 31. Chapel of the Empress He- 
lena. 32. Altar of the Penitent Thief. 33. Altar of the Empress. 34. Seat 
of the Empress. 35. Chapel of the Finding of the Cross. 36. Chapel of the 
Raising of the Cross. 37. Hole of the Cross. 38. Chapel of the Nailing to 
the Cross. 39. Chapel of the Agony. 40. Abyssinian Chapel. 

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62 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

chizedek (PI. 1) at the end of a long passage. Further to the N., 
over the Chapel of the Nailing to the Cross (PI. 38), is the Chapel 
of the Sacrifice. A round hollow in the centre of the pavement 
indicates the spot where Abraham was on the point of sacrificing 
Isaac (comp. p. 72). The tradition in this form is comparatively 
recent, but the scene of Abraham's sacrifice was placed in this 
neighbourhood as early as the year 600. 

We now return to the quadrangle, and enter the Armenian 
Chapel of St. James (PI. 2) with a crypt underneath, and the Coptic 
Chapel of the Archangel Michael (PI. 3). From the latter a corridor 
leads E. to the Abyssinian Chapel (PI. 40). In the corner of the quad- 
rangle towards the N. a door next leads into the Greek Chapel of 
St. Mary of Egypt (PI. 4, below 39). This Mary, according to tradi- 
tion, was driven away by some invisible power from the door of the 
Church of the Sepulchre in the year 374, but was succoured by the 
mother of Jesus whose image she had invoked. 

The chapels to the W. of the quadrangle belong to the Greeks. 
The Chapel of St. James (PI. 5), sacred to the memory of the brother 
of Christ, is handsomely fitted up; behind it is the Chapel of 
St. Thecla. The Chapel of Mary Magdalen (PI. 6) marks the spot, 
where, according to Greek tradition, Christ appeared to Mary Magda- 
len for the third time. The Chapel of the Forty Martyrs (PI. 7), 
which originally stood on the site of the monastery of the Trinity, 
was formerly the burial-place of the patriarchs of Jerusalem , and 
now forms the lowest story of the Bell Tower (built between 1160 
and 1180). The interior of this tower, placed adjacent to the church 
according to the Romanesque custom, is now incorporated, on different 
levels, with the old chapel of St. John and the rotunda. In its four 
sides are large Gothic window-arches, and at the angles buttresses. 
Above the window-arches were two rows of small Gothic double 
windows, the lower only of which is preserved. The upper part of 
the tower has been destroyed; but we know from old drawings that 
it consisted of several blind arcades, each with a central window, 
above which were pinnacles and an octagonal dome. 

The S. Facade of the church can haTdly be said to produce a 
pleasing effect, but its ornamentation is interesting. There are two 
portals, each with a window above it. The arches are of a depressed 
pointed character throughout, almost approaching the horse-shoe 
form. The arch over the portals is adorned with a border of deep 
dentels which fall perpendicularly on the curve. This ornament is 
said to be of late Roman origin. The door-frames are bordered with 
a series of elaborately executed waved lines. The columns adjoining 
the doors, probably taken from some ancient temple, are of marble: 
their capitals are Byzantine, but finely executed, and the pedestals 
are quite in the antique style. The columns have a common connect- 
ing beam, adorned with oak foliage. The space over the door to the 
left, originally covered with mosaic, is adorned in the Arabian style 

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the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 63 

with a geometrical design of hexagons. Below the spaces above both 
doors are Basreliefs of great merit, which were probably executed 
in Fiance in the second half of the 12th century. 

The Batrelief over the Left Portal represents scenes from Bible his- 
tory. In the first section to the left is the Raising of Lazarus in a vault : 
Christ with the Gospel, and Mary at his feet ; Lazarus rises from the 
tomb; in the background spectators, some of them holding their noses! 
In the second section from the left, Mary beseeches Jesus to come for the 
sake of Lazarus. In the third section begins the representation of Christ's 
entry into Jerusalem. He first sends the disciples to fetch the ass; and 
two shepherds with sheep are introduced. The disciples bring the foal 
and spread out their garments; in the background appears the Mt. of 
Olives. Then follows the Entry into Jerusalem. (The missing fragment, 
showing Christ upon the ass, is now in the Louvre.) The small figures 
which spread their garments in the way are very pleasing. A man is 
cutting palm- branches. A woman carries her child on her shoulder 
as they do in Egypt at the present day. In the foreground is a lame 
man with his crutch. The last section represents the Last Supper : John 
leans on Jesus' breast; Judas, on the outer side of the table, and separated 
from the other disciples, is receiving the sop. — The Batrelief over the 
Right Portal is an intricate mass of foliage, fruit, flowers, nude figures, 
birds, and other objects. In the middle is a centaur with his bow. The 
whole has an allegorical meaning: the animals below, which represent 
evil, conspire against goodness. 

The second portal is walled up. In front of it begins a staircase 
which ascends from the outside into the Chapel of the Agony (p. 70). 
The staircase leads first to a small arcade, corresponding in character 
with the facade. The projecting structure in the N.E. corner of the 
quadrangle has also two stories , each formed by four large pointed 
arches, and has been converted into a chapel. — The tombstone of 
Philippe d' Aubigny, a Frankish knight, lies on the ground in front 
of the portals. 

We now enter the Chubch op the Sepulchre itself by the large 
portal. In order to find our way, we must remember that the whole 
building extends from E. to W. As we enter from the S. we first 
reach an aisle of the church of the Crusaders. To the left we first 
observe the bench (PL 8) of the Muslim custodians, who are gen- 
erally regaling themselves with coffee and pipes, and to whom, if the 
church happens to be open, no bakhshish need be paid. For many 
centuries , and down to the beginning of the 19th, a heavy tax was 
levied here on every pilgrim. Passing the guard, we reach the 
large 'Stone op Anointment' (PL 9), on which the body of Jesus 
is said to have lain when it was anointed by Nioodemus (St. John 
xix. 38-40"). The present stone, a reddish yellow marble slab, 8 4 /2 ft- 
long and 4 ft. broad, was placed here in 1808. Pilgrims were 
formerly in the habit of measuring the stone with a view to have 
their winding- sheets made of the same length. 

Before the period of the Crusades a separate 'Church of St. Mary* 
rose over the place of Anointment, but a little to the S. of the present 
spot ; when, however, the Franks enclosed all the holy places within one 
building, the stone of the anointment was removed to somewhere ahout 
its present site. The stone has often been changed, and has been in 
possession of numerous different religious communities in succession. In 
the 15th cent, it belonged to the Copts, in the 16th to the Georgians, from 

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64 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

whom the Latins purchased permission for 5000 piastres to burn candles 
upon it, and afterwards to the Greeks. Over this stone Armenians, Latins, 
Greeks, and Copts are entitled to burn their lamps, and adjacent to it 
are candelabra of huge dimensions. 

About 13 yards to the W. (left) of this point we reach a small, 
recently built enclosure round a stone (PI. 10) , which marks the 
spot where the women are said to have stood and witnessed the 
anointment. Beyond this, to the S., is the approach to the Arme- 
nian Chapel (PI. 2). 

We now proceed to the right (N.) for a few paces, and arrive at 
the Botunda of the Sepulchre, the principal part of the building, in 
the centre of which is the Sepulchre itself. The rotunda originally 
consisted of twelve large columns, which were probably divided into 
groups of three by piers placed between them. Above these were 
a drum and a dome, the latter being open at the top. The foundation 
pillars of the present day belonged to the old structure. Around the 
sacred chapel Tan a double colonnade. The enclosing wall had three 
apses (still visible towards the N., W., and S. respectively; PL 14, 
17, 17a with mosaic pavement) with three altars, and another 
altar stood in front of the Sepulchre. The Totunda and dome were 
embellished with mosaics. Since the re-erection of the edifice in 
1810 the dome has been supported by eighteen piers. These are 
connected overhead by arches, on which stands the drum with its 
dead windows, and on this the dome. The space between the ex- 
ternal circular wall and the piers is divided by cross-vaulting into 
two stories, which were formerly continuous galleries, but are now 
divided into sections by transverse walls. The dome, which is open 
at the top , is 65 ft. in diameter. For a long time the old dome 
threatened to fall in, but an arrangement having been made between 
France, Russia, and the Porte for its restoration, the present structure 
was erected and completed in 1868. The pillars and most of the 
arches, as well as the drum had to be rebuilt. The dome is of iron 
and double. The ribs of the two domes are connected by iron braces. 
The inner side of the lower dome is lined with lead, the exterior 
of the upper dome is covered with boards, then with felt, and 
lastly with lead. Above the opening is a gilded iron screen, covered 
with glass, and surmounted by the gilt cross. The upper third of 
the lining of the dome is also decorated with gilt rays. Round the 
dome runs a gallery, commanding a view of the Sepulchre from 
above; adm. from the Greek monastery (p. 78). 

In the centre of the rotunda, beneath the dome, is the Holy 

In the course of Constantino's search for the Holy Sepulchre a cavern 
in a rock was discovered, and a chapel was soon erected over the spot. 
In the time of the Crusaders the sanctuary of the Sepulchre was of a 
circular form and had a small round tower. At that period there were 
already two cavities, the outer of which was the angels' chapel while 
the inner contained the actual sepulchre. The building was surrounded 
with slabs of marble. A little later we hear of a polygonal building, 
artificially lighted within. After the destruction of the place in 1555 the 

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the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 65 

tomb was uncovered, and an inscription with the name of Helena (?), and 
a piece of wood supposed to be a fragment of the cross were found. The 
Sepulchre was then redecorated, and three holes were made in the top 
of it for the escape of the smoke of the lamps. The whole building was 
restored in 1719. In 1808 the small tower of the chapel was destroyed 
by fire, the rest of the edifice being but slightly injured, notwithstanding 
which the whole enclosure was rebuilt in the debased style which it ex- 
hibits at the present day. The chapel is a hexagon, being 26 ft. long and 
IT 1 /* ft* wide, and has pilasters placed along the sides. 

In front of the E. side there is a kind of antechamber provided, 
with two stone benches and large candelabra, where Oriental Christ- 
ians are in the habit of removing their shoes, though we need not 
follow their example. We next enter the vestibule called the Angels 
Chapel (PI. 11), 11 ft. long, and 10 ft. wide. Its walls are very thick, 
and incrusted with marble within and without. Steps on the right 
and left in the wall lead direct to the Toof. In the centre of the 
chapel lies a stone set in maTble, which is said to be that which 
the angel rolled away from the mouth of the sepulchre, and on 
which he afterwards sat. A fragment of this stone is said to be built 
into the altar on the place of the Crucifixion. As early as the 4th 
cent, such a stone is spoken of as having lain in front of the Se- 
pulchre, but the stone appears to have been changed more than once 
in the course of the following centuries, and different fragments are 
sometimes mentioned. In this chapel burn fifteen lamps , five of 
which belong to the Greeks, five to the Latins, four to the Armen- 
ians, and one to the Copts. 

Through a still lower door we next enter the Chapel of the 
Sepulchre (PI. 12), properly so called, which is only 6*/2 ft. long, 
6 ft. wide, and veTy low, holding not more than three or fouT persons 
at once. From the ceiling, which is somewhat lofty and provided 
with a kind of chimney, aTe suspended forty-three precious lamps, 
of which four belong to the Copts, while the rest aTe equally 
divided among the other three sects. In the centre of the N. wall is a 
relief in white marble, representing the Saviour rising from the 
tomb. This relief belongs to the Greeks, that on the right of it 
to the Armenians, and that on the left to the Latins. On the inside 
of the door is the inscription in Greek : 'Lord remember thy servant, 
the imperial builder, Kalfa Komnenos of Mitylene, 1810' (p. 60). 
The roof of the chapel is borne by marble columns which stand on 
the inneT walls of the cell. On the N. side, to the right of the en- 
trance, is the marble tombstone. The shelf covered with marble is 
about 5 ft. long, 2 ft. wide, and 3 ft. high. Mass is said here daily. 
The split marble slab is also used as an altar. We learn the char- 
acter of the tomb of Christ from St. Luke (xxiii. 53 f ). Originally 
the sepulchral grotto is said to have been here, and a cavity hewn 
in the rock is mentioned at a later period. What we have to pic- 

t 'And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a 
sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid*. 
Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 5 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

66 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

ture to ourselves is a cavity, hollowed out to receive the body, and 
arched over (see p. oxi). Here, however, the whole surface was 
overlaid with marble as far hack as the middle ages, and it would 
Tequire very careful examination to ascertain whether a rook-tomb 
ever really existed here. 

Immediately beyond the Sepulchre (to theW.) is a small chapel 
(PI. 13) which has belonged to the Copts since the 16th century. 

We shall now make the circuit of the rotunda. Of the daTk re- 
cesses around it, that immediately beyond the Copts' chapel is the 
most interesting. "We first enter the plain Chapel of the Syrians, or 
Jacobites (PL 14), at the back of which an old apse is seen. A door 
leads out of this chapel to the left, towards the S., through a short 
and narrow passage, and down one step into a rocky chamber (PL 15). 
By the walls are first observed two 'sunken tombs' (p. cxi), one of 
which is about 2 ft. and the other 3*/ 2 ft. long, and both 3 ft. deep, 
having been probably destined for bones. In the rook to the S. are 
traces of 'shaft tombs', 5 4 / 2 ft- long, iy 2 ft- wide, and 2^2 ft- high- 
Since the 16th cent, tradition has placed the tombs of Joseph of 
Arimathea and Nioodemus here, and researches have shown that we 
Teally have ancient Jewish tombs before us. 

In the recess (PL 16) to the N. of the Syrian chapel is a stair- 
case ascending to the apartments of the Armenians. The bays are 
divided among the various sects ; the gallery over the two stories is 
also divided : one-third to the Armenians, two-thirds to the Latins. 

The last recess (PL 17), to the N. of the Sepulchre, is another 
of the original apses of the rotunda. Passing through it, we come 
to a passage leading between the dwellings of officials to a deep 
cistern (PL 18), from which good fresh water may be obtained. 

Returning to the rotunda, we turn to the N. into an antechamber 
(PL 19) leading to the Latin Chapel of the Apparition. Tradition 
points this out as the spot where Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalen 
(John xx. 14, 15). The place where Christ stood is indicated by a 
marble ring in the centre, and that where Mary stood by another 
near the N. exit from the chamber. We now ascend by four round 
steps (to the left is the only organ in the church) to the Chapel of 
the Apparition (PL 20), dating from the 14th cent., the principal 
chapel of the Latins. Legend relates that Christ appeared here to his 
mother after the resurrection. Immediately to the right (E.) of the 
entrance is an altar, behind which a fragment of the Column of the 
Scourging is preserved in a latticed niche in the wall, but it is not 
easy to see it, owing to the want of light. The history of the chapel is 
more closely connected with this precious relic than with the ap- 
pearance of Christ to his mother, or with the legend that it occupies 
the site of the house of Joseph of Arimathea. The column was for- 
merly shown in the house of Caiaphas, but was brought here at the 
time of the Crusaders. Judging from the narratives of different 
pilgrims, it must have frequently changed its size and colour, and 

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the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 67 

a column of similar pretensions is shown at Rome also. There is a 
stick here which the pilgrims kiss after pushing it through a hole 
and touching the column with it. On the N. side, there is an en- 
trance to the Latin Monastery, which is worth a visit. — The cen- 
tral altar is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, that in the N. corner to relics. 

After quitting this chapel, we have on our left the entrance to 
the Latin Sacristy (Pi. 21), where we are shown the sword, spurs, 
and ctoss of Godfrey de Bouillon , antiquities of doubtful genuine- 
ness. These are used in the ceremony of receiving knights into the 
Order of the Sepulchre, which has existed since the Crusades. The 
spurs are 8 in. long, and the sword 2 ft. 8 in. long, with a simple 
cruciform handle 5 in. long. 

In again turning to the S., we have on our left the Church of 
the Crusaders, or Greek Cathedral (also called Catholicon; PL 22), 
which was originally separate from the Church of the Sepulchre. 
This church has a semicircular apse with a retro-choir towards the 
E. The pointed windows and aTcades, the clustered pillars, and the 
groined vaulting bear all the characteristics of the French transition 
style with the addition of Arabian details. The building was erected 
by an architect named Jourdain in 1140-49, but the simple and 
noble form of the choir was somewhat disfigured by the restoration 
of 1808. 

Exactly opposite the dooT to the Sepulchre rises the large Arch 
of the Emperor, under which is the chief entrance to the church. 
The church is about 39 yds. in length and of varying width, and is 
lavishly embellished with gilding and painting. According to tradi- 
tion, this building was erected above the garden of Joseph of Arima- 
thea. Between the entrance and the choir is shown a kind of cup 
containing a flat ball, covered with network, which is said to occupy the 
Centre of the World (PL 23), a fable of very early origin. On each 
side of the chapel is an episcopal throne. One seat to the N. is for 
the patriarch of Antioch, a second to the S. for the patriarch of 
Jerusalem (PL 24), and another at the very back of the choir 
(PL 25). This choir with the high altar is shut off by a wall in 
the Greek fashion, and a so-called Iconoclaustrum thus formed, in 
which the treasures of the church aTe sometimes shown to personages 
of distinction. 

Passing this partition wall, we proceed to the left and enter the 
aisle (PL 26) to the N. This aisle is formed towards the N. by two 
large pilasters, between which are still to be seen remains of the 
* Seven Arches of the Virgin' which formerly stood here. Since the 
time of the Crusaders they have been completely built into the 
pillars ; but in the old building they formed one side of an open 
court, situated between the church of the sepulchre and the basilica. 
In the N.E. corner of this wall there is a dark chapel (PL. 27). On 
the right of its entrance stands an altar, where through two round 
holes the Greeks show two impressions on the stone which are 


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68 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

said to be footprints of Christ. These two holes form the so-called 
Btocks in which the feet of Christ were put during the preparations 
for the Crucifixion (see the picture near the stone). This legend was 
unknown before the end of the 15th century. The chapel behind it, 
which also belongs to the Greeks, consists of three parts. As early 
as the beginning of the 12th cent, this was shown as the Prison of 
Christ, where he was bound while his cross was being prepared. 
The legend has since then been so variously embellished that it is 
now difficult to trace the history of its different phases. 

We return in the direction of the Catholicon, and walking round 
its choir we find in the outside wall to the left apses which belonged 
to the old choir of the Franks. Between the apses are chambers 
for clothes. The first apse is called the Chapel of St. Longinus 
(PI. 28). Longinus, whose name is mentioned in the 5th cent, 
for the first time, was the soldier who pierced Jesus' side ; he had 
been blind of one eye, but when some of the water and blood spirted 
into his blind eye it recovered its sight. He thereupon repented and 
became a Christian. The chapel of this saint appears not to have 
existed earlier than the end of the 16th century. It belongs to the 
Greeks. The processions of the Latins do not stop in passing it, 
and do not acknowledge its sanctity. — The next chapel, quite 
at the back of the choir, is that of the Parting of the Raiment 
(PI. 29), and belongs to the Armenians. It was shown as early as 
the 12th century. Between these two last-mentioned chapels is a 
door, through which the canons are said formerly to have entered the 

Farther on is a staircase to the left the 29 steps of which lead 
us down to a chapel 65 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, situated 16 ft. below 
the level of the Sepulchre. This is the Chapel of St. Helena (PI. 
31), and here once stood Constantino's basilica. In the 7th cent, 
a small sanctuary in the Byzantine style was erected here by Mod- 
estus, and the existing substructions date from this period. To the E. 
are three apses, and in the centre four cylindrical columns, which bear 
a dome. The latter has six cide- windows, which give on the quad- 
rangle of the Abyssinian monastery. The shafts of the columns are 
antique monoliths of reddish coIout; their thickness, however, as 
well as the disproportionate size of the cubic capitals, give the 
whole a heavy appearance. The pointed vaulting dates from the 
time of the Crusaders (12th cent.). The chapel belongs to the 
Armenians. From the statements of mediaeval pilgrims, we learn 
that this chapel was regarded as the place where the cross was found. 
An upper and a lower section are mentioned for the first time in 
1400. The altar in the N. apse (PI. 32) is dedicated to the memory 
of the penitent thief, and that in the middle (PL 33) to the Em- 
press Helena. To the right of the altar is shown a seat (PI. 34) in 
which the empress is said to have sat while the cross was being 
sought for; this tradition, however, is not older than the 15th 

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the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 69 

century. In the 17th cent, the Armenian patriarch, who used to 
occupy this seat, complains of the way in which it was mutilated 
hy pilgrims, and speaks of having been frequently obliged to renew 
it. Down to the time of Chateaubriand (1806) the old tradition 
was kept up that the columns of this chapel shed tears. Some 
explorers regard this chapel as part of the ancient city-moat. 

Thirteen more steps descend to what is properly the Chapel of 
the Finding of the Cross (PI. 35) ; by the last three steps the natural 
rock makes its appearance. The (modern) chapel, which is really 
a cavern in the rock, is about 24 ft. long, nearly as wide, and 16 ft. 
high, and the floor is paved with stone. On its W. and S. sides 
are stone ledges. The place to the right belongs to the Greeks, 
and here is a marble slab in which a cross is beautifully inserted. 
On the left the Latins possess an altar, which was presented by 
Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria in 1857. A bronze statue 
of the Empress Helena of life-size represents her holding the cross. 
The pedestal is of the colour of the rock and rests on a foundation 
of green serpentine. On the wall at the back is a Latin inscription 
with the name of the founder. 

"We now retrace our steps to the top of the staircase and turning 
to the left, enter the Chapel of the Derision, or of the Crowning with 
Thorns (PI. 30), belonging to the Greeks, and without windows. 
About the middle of it stands an altar shaped like a box, which 
contains the so-called Column of Derision. This relic, which is first 
mentioned in 1384, has passed through many hands and frequently 
changed its size and colour since then. It is now a thick, light-grey 
fragment of stone, about 1 ft. high. 

To the right of this chapel is a staircase, which ascends (to the 
S.) to the chapels on Golgotha, or ML Calvary. The pavement of 
these chapels lies 14*/ 2 ft. above the level of the Church of the 
Sepulchre. It is, however, not yet ascertained whether this emi- 
nence consists of natural rock; no 'hill 1 is mentioned here till the 
time of the pilgrim of Bordeaux, after which there is a long silence 
on the subject. The spot which was supposed to be Mt. Calvary 
(perhaps the same as that which now bears the name) was enclosed 
in Constantino's basilica; subsequently, in the 7th cent., a special 
chapel was eTecteJ over the holy spot, which, moreover, was 
afterwards alleged to be the scene of Abraham's trial of faith (comp. 
p. 62). At the time of the Crusaders the place, notwithstanding 
its height , was taken into the aisle of the church. After the fire 
of 1808 the chapels were enlarged, and the more eastern of the two 
entrances of the church, mentioned at p. 63, was filled up with a 
staircase from within. The first chapel on the N., the Chapel of the 
Raising of the Cross (PI. 36) , is separated from the second by two 
pillars only. It belongs to the Greeks, and is 42 ft. long and 14^2 ft« 
wide. In the E. apse (PI. 37) is shown an opening lined with silver 
where the cross is said to ha^e been inserted in the rock. The site 

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70 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of 

of the crosses of the thieves is shown in the comers of the altar- 
space, each 5 ft. distant from the cross of Christ (doubtless much 
too near). They are first mentioned in the middle ages. Still more 
recent is the tradition that the cross of the penitent thief stood to 
the right (N.). About A l /2 ft* from the cross of Christ is the famous 
Cleft in the Rock (Matt, xxvii. 51) , now covered with a brass 
slide, under which is a grating of the same metal. When the slide 
is pushed aside, a cleft of about 6 inches in depth only is seen, the 
character of the rock being not easily distinguished (it is not marble). 
A deeper chasm in rock of a different colour was formerly shown. 
The cleft is said to reach to the centre of the earth ! — The chapel 
is sumptuously embellished with paintings and valuable mosaics. 
Behind the chapel is the refectory of the Greeks. 

The adjoining chapel on the S. (PI. 38) belongs to the Latins, 
as does the altar of the 'Stabat' between the two chapels (13th 
station: the spot where Mary received the body of Christ on 
the descent from the cross). The chapel is fitted up in a much 
simpler style. Christ is said to have been nailed to the cross here. 
The spot is indicated by pieces of marble let into the pavement, 
and an altar-painting represents the scene. To the Latins also 
belongs the Chapel of St. Mary, or Chapel of the Agony (PL 39), 
situated farther S., to which another staircase ascends outside the 
portal of the church (p. 63). It is only 13 ft. long and 972 ft. wide, 
but is richly decorated. The altar-piece represents Christ on the 
knees of his mother. Visitors may look into this chapel through a 
grating from Mt. Calvary. 

We again descend the stairs. Beneath the Chapel of the Nailing 
to the Cross (PI. 38) lies the office of the Greek priests, and 
towards the N., under the Chapel of the Raising of the Cross, the 
Chapel of Adam, belonging to the Greeks. The chapel is not very 
old. A tradition, which was doubted at an early period, relates that 
Adam was buried heTe, that the blood of Christ flowed through the 
cleft in the rock on to his head, and that he was thus restored to 
life. It is also maintained that it is in consequence of this tradition 
that a skull is usually represented below the cross. The Oriental 
church places Melchizedek's tomb here. Eastwards, and a little to 
the right of the altar, behind a small brass door, a split in the rock 
is shown which corresponds with the one in the chapel above. Be- 
fore reaching the W. door of the chapel, we observe, on the right 
and left, stone ledges on which originally were the monuments of the 
Frank kings of Jerusalem. When the Greeks took possession of these 
chapels after the fire in 1808, they removed the monuments, in order 
to evade the claims of the Latins to the chapels. The tombs were 
at that period outside the chapel, which was enlarged and the 
entrance from the space in front of the church of the Sepulchre 
walled up. On the ledge to the left was the Tombstone of Godfrey 
de Bouillon; the inscription, the import of which we know, was on 

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the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 71 

a triangular prism which rested on four short columns. To the right 
(N.) -was the similar Monument of Baldwin I. The Kharezmians 
had already dispersed the bones of these kings. 

During the Festival of Easter, the Church of the Sepulchre is 
crowded with pilgrims of every nationality, and there are enacted, both 
in the church and throughout the town, many disorderly scenes which 
produce a painful impression. 

In former times, particularly during the regime of the Crusaders, the 
Latins used to represent the entry of Christ riding on an ass from Beth- 
phage, but this was afterwards done in the interior of the church only. 
Palm and olive-branches were scattered about on the occasion, and to 
this day the Latins send to Gaza for palm branches, which are con- 
secrated on Palm Sunday and distributed among the people. On Holy 
Thursday the Latins celebrate a grand mass and walk in procession round, 
the chapel of the Sepulchre, after which the 'washing of feet* takes place 
at the door of the Sepulchre. The Greeks also perform the washing of 
feet, but their festival does not always fall on the same day as that of 
the Latins. Good Friday is also celebrated by the Franciscans with a 
mystery play, the proceedings terminating with the nailing of a figure to a 
cross. One of the most disgraceful spectacles is the so-called miracle of | 
the Holy Fire> in which the Latins participated down to the 16th cent.,.' 
but which has since been managed by the Greeks alone. On this occasion' 
strangers are admitted to the galleries. The Greeks declare the miracle 
to date from the apostolic age, and it is mentioned by the monk Bern- 
hard as early as the 9th century. Khalif Hakim was told that the priest 
used to besmear the wire by which the lamp was suspended over the 
sepulchre with resinous oil, and to set it on fire from the roof. The wild 
and noisy scene begins on Good Friday. The crowd passes the night in 
the church in order to secure places. On Easter Eve, about 2 p. m., a 
procession of the superior clergy moves round the Sepulchre , all lamps 
having been carefully extinguished in view of the crowd. Some members 
of the higher orders of the priesthood enter the chapel of the Sepulchre, 
while the priests pray and the people are in the utmost suspense. At 
length, the fire which has come down from heaven is pushed through a 
window of the Sepulchre, and there now follows an indescribable tumult, 
every one endeavouring to be the first to get his taper lighted. In a few 
seconds, the whole church is illuminated. This, however, never happens 
without fighting, and accidents generally occur owing to the crush. The 
sacred fire is carried home by the pilgrims. It is supposed to have the 
peculiarity of not burning human beings, and many of the faithful allow 
the flame to play upon their naked chests or other parts of their bodies. 
The spectators do not appear to take warning from the terrible catastrophe 
of 1834. On that occasion, there were upwards of 6000 persons in the 
church, when a riot suddenly broke out. The Turkish guards, thinking 
they were attacked, used their weapons against the pilgrims, and in the 
scuffle that followed about 300 pilgrims were killed. — Late on Easter 
Eve a solemn service is performed \ the pilgrims with torches shout Halle- 
lujah, while the priests move round the Sepulchre singing hymns. 

East Side of the Church of the Sepulchre. We follow the lane 
leading from the Quadrangle of the church to the E. , passing the 
entrance of the MOristan (p. 72) on the right, and the Greek Mon- 
astery of Abraham, with an interesting old cistern of great size, 
on the left. Adjoining, at the corner of the lane leading to the bazaar, 
is the Hospice of the Russian Palestine Society, beneath which are 
some ancient walls and an interesting ancient arch. We follow the 
Bazaar street to the W. Before the arcade is reached a path ascends 
to the left (W.), on which we pass several columns, the sole 
remains of the forecourt of the Basilica of Constantine (p. 59). 

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72 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Abyssinian Monastery. 

Our path across the roofs of ancient vaults turns to the N. and 
leads through a passage. Where the route turns to the W., a court 
is seen to the right, in which the dwellings of poor Latins are situated 
(called Ddr Ishdk Beg; here water is drawn from the cistern of St. 
Helena, see below). Near the end of the cut de sac we reach a column 
(right) and three doors, whence we obtain a view of the church from 

Through the door to the left we enter the court of the Abyssinian 
Monastery, in the centre of which rises a dome. Through this we 
look down into the chapel of St. Helena (p. 68). Around the court 
are several dwellings, but most of the members of the Abyssinian 
colony live in the miserable huts in the S.E. part of the court. 
Abyssinian monks read their Ethiopian prayers here, and point out, 
over the chapel of the finding of the cross, an olive-tree, of no gTeat 
age, where Abraham found the goat entangled which he sacrificed 
instead of Isaac (that event having, as they say, taken place here). 
In the background a wall of the former refectory of the canons' 
residence becomes visible here. The Abyssinian chapel (PI. 40) is 
modern. A passage leads thence to the quadrangle of the Church 
of the Sepulchre (p. 61). The good-natured Abyssinians lead a most 
wretched life, and are more worthy of a donation than many of the 
other claimants. 

Leaving the court of the Abyssinians, we have on our left the 
second of the above mentioned doors, a large iron portal which leads 
to the much handsomer Monastery of the Copts (tier es-Sult&n). It 
has been partially restored and is fitted up in the European style as 
an episcopal residence, and contains a number of cells for the accom- 
modation of pilgrims. The church, the foundations of which are old, 
is so arranged that the small congregation is placed on each side of 
the altar, which is enclosed by a railing. The porter of the mon- 
astery keeps the key of the Cistern of St. Helena. A winding stair- 
case of 43 steps, some of which are in a bad condition, descends to 
the cistern. To the left, in descending, we observe an opening in 
the rock , by which a similar staircase , now walled up, descends 
from the N.; at the bottom is a handsome balustrade hewn in the 
rock. It is difficult to make out the full extent of the sheet of 
water ; but the whole reservoir is obviously hewn in the rock. Water 
is drawn hence for the use of the Latin poor-house, but its quality 
is not good. The cistern perhaps dates from a still earlier period 
than that of Constantine. The earliest of the pilgrims ' speaks of 
cisterns in this locality, probably meaning the one we are now visit- 
ing. (Fee for one person 3 pi., for a party more in proportion.) 

Walks within the City. 
I. The Muristan. The street running to the E. from the quadrangle 
of the Church of the Sepulchre leads after afew paces to the Milrista n 
(on the right), with the Church of the Redeemer. The whole build- 

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4. Route. 73 

ing covers an area of about 170 yds. from E. to W., and 151 yds. 
from N. to S. ; the E. half was presented by the sultan to Prussia on 
the occasion of the visit of the Crown-Prince of Prussia to Constan- 
tinople in 1869. 

History. The monastery founded by Charlemagne at Jerusalem is 
supposed to have occupied the site on which two centuries later the mer- 
chants of Amain, who enjoyed great commercial privileges in the East, 
erected a church and Benedictine monastery (1048). These were the church 
of Maria Latina and the Monatterium de Latina. Remains of the church 
still exist on the S. side of the street which we are now following. In 
course of time a convent and church for nuns were added to the mon- 
astery and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen , whence the name Maria 
Parva, or St. Mary the Leu. The accommodation here at length proving 
insufficient, the hospice and chapel of St. John Eleemon (the merciful; 
patriarch of Alexandria, 606-616) were erected to the W. of St. Mary the 
Less. At a later period John the Baptist was revered as the patron-saint. 
This hospice was dependent on the other, until a servant of the establish- 
ment with several other pious men determined to found a new branch of 

C OTeTea,..-?J- 


CJiJ Open g^cejy ■L''"a-tii OF 

llQf Clvu y<i .,or|thEr. 

i ^£m 

] biv Site of .Ghurclv 
. of 

TStfafia ia|iruk 

Crown-Jtemjce Frederick "William. Street 

the order. This was the Order of the Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John, 
who at first devoted themselves to the care of pilgrims, but afterwards to 
the task of combating the infidels, and, at length, took an active part in 
politics also. They gradually came into possession of large estates. The 
chief buildings were erected under Raymond du Puy jn 1130-40. The 
hospice was situated opposite the Church of the Sepulchre, to the S., and 
was probably in the style of a khan. It was a magnificent edifice, borne 
by 124 columg and 54 pillars. The hospice extended as far as the David 

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74 Route 4. JERUSALEM. MUristan. 

.Street, where there are still a number of pointed arcades of that period, 
once used as shops and warehouses. In 1187 the Knights of St. John left 
Jerusalem, and upwards of a century later they settled in Rhodes. Con- 
nected with the establishment of these knights at Jerusalem there was 
also a nunnery, called St. Mary the Greater ', which lay. to the E. of the 
hospice of St. John. The buildings which we now find here date from 
1130-40, and belong to the former church and monastery of Maria La- 
tina. The principal entrance faced the X., and the nunnery lay behind 
the church. When Saladin captured Jerusalem in 1187 he lodged in the 
'Hospital 1 , and the property of the Hospitallers was granted as an en- 
dowment (toakf) to the mosque of r Omar. In 1216 Shihabeddfn, nephew 
of Saladin, converted the hospital-church, which lay opposite the Church 
of the Sepulchre, into a hospital, Arab. MAristdn, a name which, therefore, 
properly applies to one part only of this pile of buildings. Adjacent to 
it the same prince built the mosque of Kubbet ed-Derffdh, the site of which 
is now occupied by the mosque of Sidnd < Omar. The hospice, which the 
Muslims allowed still to subsist, was capable of accommodating upwards 
of a thousand persons. The management of the foundation was committed 
to the El- r Alemi family, who, as was usual in such cases, were prohibited 
from alienating the ground until it should become a mere wilderness. 
The buildings were therefore suffered to fall to decay. The lofty square 
minaret of the mosque of Sidna 'Omar, opposite the clock-tower of the 
Church of the 8epulchre, was erected in 1417. The whole of these build- 
ings are rapidly falling to ruin. Adjoining them on the E. is the small 
Greek Monastery of Gethtemane (PI. 66), where the residence of the grand 
master was formerly situated. On the W. side of the area is the Bath of 
the Patriarch (p. 79), and in the S.W. corner the Greek Monastery of John 
the Baptist (p. 79), Der Mar Hanna, a name which is sometimes given to Ihe 
entire Muristan. The central remaining space is still of considerable extent. 

The porter keeps the key of the Muristan. The interesting old 
Entrance Portal is incorporated in the new church. It consists of a 
large round arch comprising two smaller arches, which are no longer 
extant. The spandril over the two arches was formerly adorned with 
a relief, the greater part of which is now gone. These arches rested 
on one side on a central pillar, and on the other on an entablature 
reaching from the small side columns of the portal. The larger 
arch above rests on a buttress adjoining the portal. Around the 
whole arch runs a broad frieze enriched with sculptures, representing 
the months. 

January, on the left, has disappeared; 'Feb', a man pruning a tree? 
'Ma*, indistinct; ( Aprilis', a sitting figure; *Majus\ a man kneeling and 
cultivating the ground; (Ju)'nius'', mutilated; (Ju)'lius , a reaper; 'Augustus', 
a thresher; (Sj'eptenXber), a grape - gatherer ; (Octob)'er", a man with a 
cask, above whom there is apparently a scorpion ; (November), a woman 
standing upright, with her hand in her apron, probably the symbol of 
repose. Above, between June and July, is the sun (with the superscrip- 
tion 4 sor), represented by a half-figure holding a disc over its head.* Ad- 
jacent is the moon (4una'), a female figure with a crescent. The cornice 
above these figures is adorned with medallions representing leaves, grif- 
fins, etc. The style of the whole reminds the spectator of the European 
art of the 12th century. 

The German Protestant Church of the Redeemer, completed in 
1898 on F. Adler's plans , follows the lines of the ancient Church 
of St. Maria Major as closely as possible. It is, however, an ab- 
solutely new structure, as the ancient foundations were quite inad- 
equate and new foundations had to be constructed on the rock, 
which is in some places 30 ft. below the ground. The bell-tower 

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Church of St. Anne. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 75 

commands a beautiful *View. — The ' Crown-Prince Frederick 
William Street', on the N. side of the building, is German property 
also. A staircase, built by Saladin and afterwards removed hither, 
leads from this street to the former refectory on the S. side of the 
partially preserved cloisters. The cloister, in two stories, is bounded 
on each side by four columnar pillars, and surrounds a square open 
court, which contains some interesting fragments of marble columns. 
Beyond and beside this court is a large space, now freed from a huge 
mass of debris, 26 ft. deep, which formerly covered it. The rubbish 
was removed to the space outside the Jaffa Gate, and that plateau 
has thus been considerably enlarged. The houses now rear themselves 
loftily above the cleared space, where pillars of indestructible hard- 
ness were discovered. Several very deep and finely vaulted cisterns 
have also been brought to light. The bottom of the cisterns is 25 ft. 
below the level" of the street. At several points the visitor can see 
into these. 

II. From the Gate of St. Stephen through the Via Dolorosa. 

The Gate of St. Stephen probably dates in its main features from 
the time of Soliman (p. 103). The passage through it, however, 
has recently been formed in a straight direction, whereas originally, 
like most of the other city-gates (comp. p. 103), the gate was built 
at an angle with the thoroughfare. This gate is called by the natives 
Bdb el-Asbdt, and by the Christians Bdb Sitti Mary am } or Gate 
of Our Lady Mary (p. 76). On the outside, over the entrance, are 
two lions hewn in stone, in half-relief. The gate-keepers show a 
footprint of Christ, preserved in the guard-house. (For the church 
of St. Stephen, see p. 105.) 

Within the gate a doorway immediately to the right leads to 
the Church of St. Anne (PI. 2). 

The site of this church was presented by the Sultan r Abdu'l-Mejid to 
Napoleon III. in 1856, after the Crimean war. As early as the 7th cent, 
a church of the highly revered St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, is men- 
tioned. A nunnery afterwards sprang up to the S. of it, and at the time 
of the Crusades gained a high reputation in consequence of numbering 
several princesses among its sisterhood. At that period, about the middle 
of the 12th cent, the church of St. Anne was remodelled. Saladin after- 
wards established a large and well-endowed school here, and it was conse- 
quently difficult for Christians to obtain access to it until 1856. The Arabs 
still call it et-Salahiyeh, in memory of Saladin. No material alterations 
have been made in the buildings since the time of the Crusaders. The 
church and site now belong to the Freres de la Mission Alge*rienne. 

The main entrance to the church on the W. side consists of three 
pointed portals, leading into a corresponding nave and aisles. The 
building is 40 yds. long and 20'/2 yds. wide, the width of the nave 
being 9 yds. The nave is separated from the aisles by two rows of pillars 
which bear four pointed arches, 42 ft. in height, and pierced with 
small windows. The three arches which form the aisles are 24 ft. in 
height. The walls of the aisles are also pierced with small pointed 
windows. Above the centre of the transept rises a tapering dome, 

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76 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Via Dolorosa. 

which was probably restored by the Arabs. The apses are externally 
polygonal, and rounded within. The principal apse has three 
windows, and each of the others one. A flight of 21 steps in the 
S.E. corner descends to a crypt, which is almost entirely hewn in 
the rock, and consists of two parts, the second of which resembles 
a cistern. This was formerly a sanctuary with altars, and is said 
by tradition to have been the dwelling of St. Anne and the birth- 
place of the Virgin. Within the last few years the graves of SS. 
Joachim and Anna have also been shown here (comp. p. 86} . Ex- 
plorers have discovered traces of ancient paintings here. Before 
quitting the church the visitor should pause for a moment before 
a low door in the S. aisle, in order to examine the curious corbels 
by which the lintel is supported. — A convent and seminary have 
also been built on the land belonging to the church, and in the course 
of their construction an ancient rock-hewn pool was discovered, with 
chambers and traces of a medieval church above it. The Pool of 
Bethesda seems to have been sought for here in the middle ages 
(comp. p. 63). 

We now return to the Tarik Bdb Sitti Maryam street, proceed 
towards the W. , and soon pass a cross-street which leads to the left 
to the Bdb Hotta of the Haram and to the right into a small bazaar- 
Here, at the point where the street is vaulted over, we observe some 
relics of ancient buildings (traditionally said to be part of the an- 
cient fortress Antonia) ; behind a small Muslim cemetery is a hall 
formerly used as a school. Here, too, the inscription mentioned on 
p. 37 was found. Soon afterwards, we observe the small Chapel of _ the 
^Sco$/trging (PI. 31) to the right. Visitors knock, and afe admitted by 
a Franciscan. In the course of the last few centuries the place of the 
scourging has been shown in different parts of the city, having 
been first pointed out in the so-called house of Pilate. In 1838 the 
present site was presented to the Franciscans by Ibrahim Pasha, 
and in 1839 the new chapel was erected with funds presented by 
Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Below the altar is a hole in which 
the column of the scourging is said to have stood (p. 66). 

A few paces farther is the entrance to the barracks, and here 
begins the Via Dolorosa, or 'street of pain', the route by which 
Christ is said to have borne his cross to Golgotha. The present 
barracks (PI. 11), occupying the site of the ancient castle of Antonia, 
are said to stand on the ground once occupied by the Praetorium, 
the residence of Pilate. 

As early as the 4th cent, the supposed site of that edifice was shown 
somewhere near the Bdb el-Kattdntn (p. 55), and in the 6th cent, it was 
occupied by the basilica of 'St. "Sophia. At the beginning of the Frank 
regime it was instinctively felt that the preetorium should be sought for 
on the W. hill, in the upper part of the town, but towards the end of 
the Crusaders' period that holy place was removed by tradition to the 
spot where it is now revered. The so-called holy stepa were on that 
occasion transferred to the church of S. Giovanni in Laterano at Rome. 
The Roman Catholics, however, strenuously maintain the authenticity of 

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Via Dolorosa. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 77 

a small chapel in the Turkish barracks as the first station. The direction 
of the Via Dolorosa, it need hardly be remarked, depends on the situation 
assigned to the prcetorium. The present Via Dolorosa is not expressly 
mentioned until the 16th century. 

The traditional Street of Pain, or Way of the Cross, first follows 
the street Tar1k Bdb Sitti Maryam (p. 76) westwards. The Four- 
teen Stations are indicated by tablets. The first is the chapel 
in the Turkish barracks already mentioned; the second, where 
the cross was laid upon Christ, is below the steps ascending to the 
barracks. We next observe, on the right, the large and handsome 
building of the Sisters of Zion (PI. 82). An arch crosses the street 
here, called the Ecce Homo Arch, or Arch of Pilate, marking the 
spot where the Roman governor is said to have uttered the words : 
'Behold the man !' (St. John xix. 5). The arch, which has been shown 
since the 15th century, is probably a Roman triumphal arch, but has 
been frequently remodelled. The N. pier has been built into the 
wall of the house of the Sisters of Zion ; a smaller arch adjoining 
it on the N. now forms the choir of the Church of the Sisters of Zion. 
This church is partly built into the rock. The interior is simple ; 
the capitals of the columns are gilded. In the vaults under the church 
we may trace the Roman pavement to the full breadth of the larger 
arch. Under the convent have been discovered several deep rocky 
passages and vaults running in the direction of the Haram. — 
Opposite the church, on the left side of the street, is situated a small 
mosque and a monastery of Indian dervishes; in the outer wall of 
the monastery is a niche, said to be connected with the Virgin Mary. 
We may now descend the street to the point where it is joined 
by that from the Damascus Gate, and here we see a trace of 
the depression of what was formerly the Tyropceon valley (p. 22). 
To the right is situated the Austrian Pilgrims* Hospice. Opposite, 
on the left, on the site of the former baths of the sultan, are the 
Hospice of the United Armenians and their church of Notre Dame 
du Spasme (ancient mosaic pavement). Close by is a broken column, 
forming the third station , near which Christ is said to have sunk 
under the weight of the cross (an event formerly located at a dif- 
ferent spot). The Via Dolorosa runs hence a little to the S. To the 
right-about halfway, before a lane diverges to the left (E.), is situ- 
ated the traditional House of the Poor Man (Lazarus), beyond 
which, opposite this lane, is the fourth station (tablet on a house), 
where Christ is said to have met his mother. At the next street com- 
ing from the right the Via Dolorosa again turns to the W., and 
now joins the Tarik el-Aldm, or route of suffering, properly so 
called. A little to the S. of the corner to the left is shown the 
picturesque medieval House of Dives (the rich man), of which there 
is no mention before the 15th cent. The house is built of stones of 
various colours and possesses a small balcony. Here is the fifth 
station, where Simon of Cyrene took the cross from Christ. A 
stone built into the next house to the left has a depression in it 

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78 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Christian Street. 

said to have been caused by the hand of Christ. We now ascend 
the street for about 100 paces, and, near an archway, we come to 
the sixth station. To the left is the Howe (and Tomb) of St. Veronica 
(chapel of the United Greeks, recently restored; below is an ancient 
crypt). Veronica is said to have wiped off the sweat from the Saviour's 
brow at this spot, whereupon his visage remained imprinted on her 

Before passing through the vaulting into the Suk es-Sem'dni we 
see to the left a house against which Christ is said to have leaned, 
or near which he fell a second time. Where the street crosses the lane 
from the Damascus Gate is the seventh station, called the Porta Ju- 
diciaria, through which Christ is said to have left the town. Close 
by is a modern chapel containing an ancient column, said to be con- 
nected with the Gate of Justice. Passing the entrance of the Hos- 
pice of St. John, we observe about thirty paces farther a hole in 
a stone of the Greek monastery of St. Caralombos (PI. 61) to the 
left. This is the eighth station, where Christ is said to have ad- 
dressed the women who accompanied him. The Via Dolorosa ends 
here. In former times it was probably continued further southwards. 
The ninth station is in front of the Coptic monastery (p. 72), 
where Christ is said to have again sunk under the weight of the 
cross (which was really borne by Simon of Cyrene). The five last 
stations are in the Church of the Sepulchre : the tenth is by a ring 
of stone in the pavement of the Golgotha chapel of the Lat- 
ins (p. 70), where Christ is said to have been undressed; the ele- 
venth, where he was nailed to the cross, is in front of the altar 
(p. 70); the twelfth, that of the raising of the cross, is in the ad- 
jacent Greek chapel of that name (p. 69); the thirteenth, where he 
was taken down from the cross, is at an altar between the 11th and 
12th stations ; and, lastly, the fourteenth is by the Holy Sepulchre 
(p. 64). — The various records of pilgrimages show that the spots 
to which these traditions attach have frequently been changed. 

III. Christian Street, Old Bazaar, Jewish Quarter. — Leaving 
the Church of the Sepulchre, and ascending the steps towards the 
W., we pass under a vaulting into the so-called Street of the Christ- 
ians (Hdret en-Nasdra), one of the principal bazaar-streets of Jeru- 
salem. The shops here are somewhat more in the European style 
than in the other streets. This is the favourite resort of the pilgrims. 
On the W. side of the street is the Greek Monastery (PI. 57), called 
Dir er-Rdm el-Kebtr, the 'great' monastery or Patriarcheion, entered 
from the Hdret Dlr er-Rum on the N. side. It is a building of consid- 
erable extent and an interesting example of Jerusalem architecture, 
and is first mentioned in 1400 as the monastery of St. Thecla. Since 
1845 it has been the residence of the Greek patriarch. It contains 
five churches, of which three are parochial. The principal church is 
that of St. Thecla, which is unfortunately overladen with decoration. 
To the E. of it are the churches of Constantino and Helena, contiguous 

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Old Bazaar. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 79 

to the Church of the Sepulchre. The monastery also accommodates 
travellers. It is famed for its valuable library and fine MSS. 

About halfway down the Christian Street there is a large Arab- 
ian cafe" on the right, whence we obtain the best survey of the so- 
called Patriarch's Pool (PI. D, 4). By the side of the cafe* is a 
tavern. The pool is an artificial reservoir, 80 yds. long (N. to S.) 
and 48 yds. wide. The bottom, which is rocky, and partly covered 
with small stones, lies 10 ft. below the level of the Christian Street. 
On the W. side part of the rock has been removed, in order that a 
level surface might be obtained. In summer the reservoir is either 
empty or contains a little muddy water only. It is supplied from 
the Mamilla pool (p. 81), and the water is chiefly used for filling 
the large 'Bath of the Patriarch' (PI. 34), at the S.E. end of the 
Christian Street, whence the name, 'pool of the patriarch's bath' 
(Birket Hammdm el-Batrak). On the N. it is bounded by the so- 
called Coptic Khan (PI. k). This reservoir formerly extended farther 
to the N. , as far as a wall which has been found under the Coptic 
Khan. Its construction is ascribed to King Hezekiah , after whom 
it is sometimes called the Pool of Hezekiah, but it is difficult now to 
ascertain whether there is any foundation for the tradition. Jose- 
phus calls it Amygdalon, or the 'tower-pool'. 

On reaching the S. end of the Christian Street we perceive at 
the corner of a street to the left the Greek Monastery of St. John 
(PI. 66), which sometimes accommodates as many as 500 pilgrims 
at Easter. We now descend the Hdret el-Bizdr, or 'David Street\ 
to the left, which forms the corn-market, as we see by the large 
heaps of grain and baskets of seed in every direction. 

Proceeding in the David Street farther towards the E. , a few paces 
bring us to the Old Bazaar (PI. E, 4) , consisting of three covered streets 
running from.S. to N. and intersected by several transverse lanes. 
The bazaar is very inferior to those of Cairo and Damascus, and 
presents no features of special interest, as Jerusalem possesses 
neither manufactories uor wholesale trade worthy of mention. There 
are accordingly but few large khans here ; the largest is situated to 
the E. of the bazaar. 

The prolongation of the E. bazaar street leads towards the S. to 
the Jewish Quarter (PI. E, 6), a dirty street with brokers 7 stalls, 
shops for the sale of tin- ware manufactured by the Jews, and several 
uninviting wine-houses. Near the end of the street we turn to the 
left and reach the Synagogues (PI. S), none of which are interesting. 

IV. Castle of Goliath, Citadel, etc. — From the point where 
the Christian Street joins the David Street (see above), we follow the 
latter westwards, towards the Jaffa Gate. To the right is the New 
Bazaar (PI. 4), a large stone building with shops fitted up on the 
European plan. A road along the E. side of the bazaar leads past the 
Greek Hospital, on the left (PI. 47), to the Casa Nuova. 

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80 Routed. JERUSALEM. Citadel 

The road to the W. from the Bazaar leads to the Latin Patriarchate 
(PI. 91). The church was huilt from the designs of the Patriarch 
Valerga (p. 34) and, with the surrounding corridors, is worthy of 
inspection. The patriarchate contains an extensive library. — On the 
territory of the patriarchate, in the N.W. corner of the city, theFreres 
de la Doctrine ChrStienne have erected a large school, the roof of 
which affords a fine view. In the interior of this building are still 
seen the remains of the so-called Castle of Goliath {Kasr Jdlud, 
PI. 32). The oldest relics of the castle consist (in the S. part) of the 
substruction of a massive square tower (perhaps the 'Psephinus' of 
Josephus) ; four courses of large smooth-hewn stones are still recog- 
nisable. The centre of the building is occupied by four large pillars 
of huge drafted blocks. — Passing along the wall of the ground of 
the school, we come to the Bdb K Abdu?l-Harrild, opened in 1889, 
and usually spoken of as the 'New Oate\ 

Opposite the Jaffa Gate rises the Citadel, or 'Castle of David' 
(Arab. el-KaVa). The citadel (not very interesting) consists of an 
irregular group of towers, surrounded by a moat, the greater part 
of which is filled with rubbish. The substructions of the towers 
consist of a thick wall rising at an angle of about 45° from the 
bottom of the moat. The chief tower is on the N.E. side. Up to 
a height of 39 ft., reckoning from the bottom of the moat, the ma- 
sonry consists of large drafted blocks, with rough surfaces. The 
form of these stones, as compared with those which have been used 
higher up, indicate that these foundations are ancient. The building 
answers the description given us of the l Phasael Tower' of Herod's 
palace (p. 25). Josephus (Bell. Jud. v. 4, 3) states that this tower 
had a massive substructure of large blocks and measured 40 ells in 
every direction. Leaving out of account the present superstructure 
and reckoning in the 3 (?) courses of stones hidden in the ground, 
the present tower is 65 ft. high, 19 yds. broad, and 23 yds. long, 
which approximately agrees with the 40 ells. The blocks are built 
up without mortar, in such a way that the upper block always 
lies crosswise on the lower. The whole of the ancient tower is of 
massive construction (except a small passage on the W. side), and 
the finest example of the ancient wall-towers of Jerusalem, whose 
substructures consisted of a solid cube of rock or wall. There is still 
a reservoir for water in the interior of the tower. — Titus left this 
tower standing when he destroyed the city. When Jerusalem was 
taken by the Franks this castle was the last place to yield. Even 
at that period it was called the 'Castle of David', from the tradition 
that this monarch once had his palace here. In its present form the 
citadel dates from the beginning of the 14th, and its restoration from 
the 16th century. 

To the S. of the castle is a barrack, and to the E. are the Palestine 
Bank (p. 19), Christ Church (PI. 25), a boys 1 school, and other build- 
ings belonging to tho English Jewish missiou. 

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Jaffa Suburb. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 81 

Farther to the S. lies the Armenian Quarter. To the right, 
skirting the city-wall, stretches the large garden of the Armenian 
Monastery, with its fine trees and pretty view into the valley. The 
extensive buildings of the monastery opposite, to the left, are said 
to have accommodation for several thousand pilgrims. The palace 
of the patriarch is one of the handsomest modern buildings in Jeru- 
salem. The Church of St. James is well worth a visit. The nave 
and aisles, of equal height, are separated by elegant pillars; the 
dome is formed by intersecting semicircular arches. The walls are 
lined with porcelain tiles to the height of 6 ft., above which they 
are covered with pictures. The W. aisle contains the chief sanctuary, 
viz. the prison in which James the Great was beheaded (Acts xv. 2). 
The monastery includes a printing-office, a seminary, a large hos- 
pice for pilgrims, schools for boys and girls, and a small museum. 
A little farther to the S. is the Armenian nunnery of Dtr ez-ZetUn, 
the interesting old church of which is regarded by the Armenians as 
the house of Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas. 

Y. The Jaffa Suburb. The space in front of the Jaffa Gate is gener- 
ally enlivened by processions of arriving and departing pilgrims. The 
muleteers and horse-owners, Arab saddlers and farriers are generally 
posted outside the Jaffa Gate, and European shops have been built 
along each side of the road. On Friday and Sunday, the scene is espe- 
cially lively, the Jaffa roadbeing the favourite promenade of the natives. 

The highroad to Bethlehem (p. 117) descends to the left just 
outside the gate into the Valley of Hinnom. A second road, which 
strikes off to the left after a few minutes, brings us in 5 min. to the — 

Mamilla Fool. — The Mamilla Pool is frequently identified with the 
'upper pool -1 of the O. T.; but the reference in Is. vii. 3 seems to locate 
the latter to the N. of the city, while 2 Kings xviii. 17 and Is. xxxvi. 2 
suggest that it was in the immediate vicinity of the town-wall. Another 
theory, equally uncertain, identifies the Mamilla Pool with the 'Serpent's 
PooV mentioned by Josephus ? up to which Titus caused the ground to 
be levelled, in order to facilitate his operations against the city. The 
name 'Mamilla'' has not been explained. 

The Mamilla Pool is situated in the middle of a Muslim burial- 
ground at the beginning of the valley of Hinnom. It is from E. to 
W. 97 yds. long, and from N. to S. 64 yds. wide, and 19 ft. in 
depth. In the S. corner are traces of steps. It is partly hewn in the 
rock, but the sides are also lined with masonry. On the S. and W. 
sides are buttresses. In winter it is filled with rain-water, but it is 
empty in summer and autumn. The outlet begins in the middle of 
the E. side and runs thence in windings towards the town, which 
it enters a little to the N. of the Jaffa Gate, discharging its water 
into the Patriarch's Pool (p. 79). 

The Jaffa road itself first skirts the town wall, which is concealed 
by houses. On the right are the Turkish Post and Telegraph Office 
(PI. B, C, 4) and the branch of the Credit Lyonnais. Opposite the 
N.W. angle of the wall is a Police Station, occupying the site of 
the former 'First Watch-tower' (p. 18). Two roads diverge here from 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 6, 7 

y Google 

82 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Russian Buildings. 

the Jaffa load. The carriage-road skirting the town-wall to the N.E. 
leads past the (6 min.) Damascus Gate into the Kidron Valley 
(p. 94). If we take this road we have on our left the French 
Hospital of St. Louis, then a large French hospice for pilgrims, with 
the Augustinian church ; on our right is the road to the New Gate ; 
between the road and the town-wall are a few small houses and the 
convent of the Soeurs Riparatrices. 

The second of the roads mentioned above leads direct to the N., 
between the H6tel d'Europe on the left and the French hospital on 
the right, and along the E. wall of the Russian Buildings (see below), 
to St. Paul's Church, to the Rothschild girls' school, and farther on 
to the Tombs of the Judges (p. 107). 

We proceed along the Jaffa road, past the H6tel d'Europe on the 
right, and arrive at the large walled quadrangle of the Russian 
Buildings (on the right), which we may enter on the S. side. Im- 
mediately opposite the entrance are the French Consulate (PI. A, 
B, 2), on the right, and the Public Garden, on the left. The first 
of the Russian buildings on the left is the hospital with the drug- 
gist's store; beyond it, the so-called Mission-house with the dwell- 
ings of the priests and rooms for wealthier pilgrims. To the right 
is the Russian Consulate (PI. 17). In the centre of the court stands 
the handsome Cathedral; to the N. of it is the hospice for male pil- 
grims, to the E. that for female pilgrims. The church is spacious and 
richly decorated in the interior. Divine service generally takes place 
about 5 p.m. (best viewed from the gallery; good music). In the 
open space in front of the church lies a gigantic column (40 ft. by 
5 ft.), cut out of the solid rock but, owing to a fracture, never com- 
pletely severed from its bed. It is surrounded by a railing. 

We leave the Russian Buildings by the gate in the N. wall. The 
large corner house on the left is the new hospice for pilgrims erected 
bv the Russian Palestine Society; opposite and to the N.E. is the Ger- 
man School. The road on the right leads to St. Paul's Church (see 
above). We regain the Jaffa Road, by the road on the left skirting 
the N. wall of the Russian Buildings. Here a road exactly opposite 
the N.W. corner of the Russian Buildings leads southwards to the 
large buildings of the German Catholic Hospice. On an eminence, 
at a little distance from the Jaffa road, we observe Ratisbonne's St. 
Peter's School for Arab boys. To the right, and nearer the Jaffa road, 
rises the Talitha Cumi (Mark v. 41: 'Damsel, I say unto thee, 
Arise I'), an orphanage for girls founded by the Rhenish- Westphal- 
ian deaconesses. In this well-organised building about a hundred 
Arab girls are educated. A similar establishment, at the back of 
the Russian buildings, towards the N., is Schneller's Syrian Orphan- 
age for boys. — Farther from the town along the Jaffa road, we 
have on the left a number of newly established Jewish colonies, on 
the right the Austrian Consulate, then the Town Hospital, opposite 
which is a military station. 

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Zion Suburb. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 83 

Returning to the town we take the road to the left by the Austrian 
Consulate. To the left are the girls' school and the new hospital of 
the English Mission to the Jews ; to the right are the Jerusalem Hotel, 
the German Consulate, and the German Hospital. Farther on, to the 
left, we observe the School of the French sisters, then (a little back 
from the road) the British Consulate, the residence of Dr. Schick, 
the architect, and the Abyssinian Church. On the right again are the 
Russian home for women, the Rothschild girls' school, the Marien- 
stift (p. 35), and the new Rothschild Hospital, behind it the German 
Jewish boys* school and orphanage. Here two roads meet : the one to 
the right leads past the German school and the Russsian hospice for 
pilgrims (p. 82) to the N. gate of the Russian buildings; or we may 
take the road to the left past the American Consulate and the Roth- 
schild girls' school, then cross the road from the Jaffa Gate to En- 
Nebi Samwil (p. 114), and, passing through Jewish colonies, reach 
the Damascus Gate. 

VI. The so-called Zion Suburb. — Immediately outside the 
Jaffa Gate we turn to the left and skirt the wall as far as its S.W. 
corner. About 220 yds. to the S. of this point is Bishop Gobat's 
English School (PI. 29), where Arab orphans and other children 
are educated. The school also contains a seminary for teachers. 
Beyond it are a garden and the English and German Protestant 
burial-ground. Near the school an escarpment of the rock has been 
laid bare, on which the S. town-wall formerly stood. The slope of 
the rock is visible to the N. of the school (E. of the Greek-Catholic 
cemetery). There is a square cistern in the comer. The S. side of 
the cemetery, towards the school, is surrounded by a wall of ancient 
material. The rock projects here; and there was no doubt once a 
tower on the cube of rock now occupied by the dining room of the 
school. Beyond are cisterns. In front of the tower the escarpment 
runs about 16 yds. towards the W. In the angle are remains of a 
square trough and mangeTs cut in the rock. The escarpment continues 
eastwards, towards the Protestant cemetery; on the right a tower 
projects. Farther on, we come to the remains of a third tower, N.E. 
of the cemetery; here there are 36 steps, each 1 ft. high, cut in the 
rock, and a reservoir for water. 

Our best route from the bishop's school to the (tenaculum is to 
ascend to the S.W. corner of the town-wall, and there turn to the 
right. The Coenaculum lies in the midst of a congeries of buildings 
called by the Muslims Nebi Dddd ('prophet David'). The gate is 
on the N. side. It formerly belonged to the Christians , but is now 
in possession of the Muslims. The Chamber of the Last Supper, 
or Coenaculum, is shown here. A Muslim custodian (fee 3-6 pi.) 
conducts the visitor to a room on the first floor , divided into two 
parts by two columns in the middle, and formerly part of a Christian 
church. Half-pillars with quaint capitals are built into the walls. 
The ceiling consists of pointed vaulting of the 14th century. Under 


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84 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Church of Zion. 

the centre window is a niche for prayer. A stone in the N. wall 
marks the Lord's seat. In the S.W. corner of the room a staircase 
descends to a lower room (no admission) in the middle of which is 
shown the place where the table (sufra) of the Lord is said to have 
6tood. In the S.E. angle 6 steps lead into a room, in which the visitor 
sees a long, covered, modern coffin, said to he a copy of the genuine 
Sarcophagus of David, which is alleged still to exist in subterranean 
vaults below this spot. 

The church on Zion is mentioned as early as the 4th cent., hefore the 
erection of the Church of the Sepulchre. In the time of Helena & l Church 
of the Apostles* stood on the supposed scene of the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, which was probably this spot. The 'column of scourging* (p. 66) 
was also probably here. It was not till the 7th cent, that tradition com- 
bined the scene of the Last Supper with that of the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost. The scene of the Virgin's death was also at a later period trans- 
ferred hither. In the time of the Franks the church was called the Church 
of Zion, or Church of St. Mary. The church of the Crusaders consisted of 
two stories. The lower had three apses, an altar on the spot where Mary 
died, and another on the spot where Jesus appeared 'in Galilee'. The 
washing of the apostles' feet was also said to have taken place here, while 
the upper story was considered the scene of the Last Supper. Connected 
with the church of Zion there was an Augustinian abbey. In 1333 the 
Franciscans established themselves here, and from them the building received 
its present form. Attached to the monastery was a large hospital, erected 
in 1354 by a Florentine lady, and committed to the care of the brethren. 
To this day the superior of the Franciscans is called the 'Guardian of 
Mount Zion'. For centuries the Muslims did their utmost to gain poss- 
ession of these buildings, and as early as 1479 they forbade pilgrims to 
visit the scene of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, as they themselves revered 
the tombs of David and Solomon on the same spot. In 1547 they at length 
succeeded in depriving the Franciscans of all their possessions, and for 
the next three centuries Christians had great difficulty in obtaining access 
to the place. The Tomb of David formed one of the holy places in the 
church of Zion so far back as the Crusaders' period, and it is possible 
that ancient tombs still exist beneath the building; what is now shown, 
however, is hardly worth visiting. As David and his descendants were 
buried in 'the city of David' (1 Kings ii. 10, etc.), the expression was 
once thought to mean Bethlehem, and their tombs were accordingly shown 
near that town from the 3rd to the 6th century. The evangelists,- however, 
who were doubtless aware of the site of David's tomb, appear to place it 
in Jerusalem (Acts ii. 29), where by this time Hyrcanus and Herod had 
robbed the tombs of all their precious contents. According to Kehemiah, 
iii. 16 and Ezekiel xliii. 7, we are justified in seeking for the tombs of 
the kings on the Temple mount, above the pool of Siloam. 

Approaching the town from the Coenaculum towards the N., we 
soon reach a bifurcation of the road. The edifice forming the corner is 
the Armenian Monastery of Mount Zion, or, according to the legend, 
the House of Caiaphas (PI. 55), called by the Arabs Habs el-Mesih, 
or prison of Christ. The tombs of the Armenian patriarchs of Jeru- 
salem in the quadrangle should be noticed. The small church 
has an altar containing the 'angel's stone', with which the holy 
sepulchre is said to have been closed, and which the pilgrims kiss. 
A door to the S. leads into a chamber styled the prison of Christ. 
The spot where Peter denied Christ, and the court where the cook 
crew, aTe also shown. 

The 'angel's stone' is not heard of till the 14th cent., since which 
period it has been differently described and probably renewed. The legend 

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GaUofZion. JERUSALEM. d. Route. 85 

as to the scene of the denial dates from the second half of the 16th cent- 
ury. The tradition regarding the house of Caiaphas also fluctuates. One 
author in 333 informs us that the house then stood between Siloam and 
Zion. The 'prison of Christ* was then for a time transferred by tradition 
to the prsetorium (p. 76), as perhaps the pratorium of the Crusaders 
stood here. At the beginning of the 14th cent, the prison of Christ in 
the church of the Redeemer was shown as the house of Caiaphas; but 
since the beginning of the 15th cent, this spot has been permanently fixed 
upon as its site. The Armenians have long possessed the place. 

A few paces to the N. we reach the Gate of Zion (Arab. Bdb 
en-Nebi DdUd, gate of the prophet David), situated in a tower of 
the town-wall. According to the inscription it was built in 947 
(1540-41). A stone built into the E. side-wall of the gateway bears 
a Latin inscription of the time of Trajan and originally belonged to 
a monument in honour of Jupiter Serapis. From the top of the battle- 
ments we may enjoy a fine view of the hills beyond Jordan. — Within 
the gate we turn either to the left, past the Armenian monastery 
(p. 81), to the Jaffa Gate, or to the right, as far as the open space and 
thence to the N. into the Jewish street and the bazaar (p. 79). 

5. Environs of Jerusalem. 
1. The Mount of Olives. 

The view of the valley of the Jordan is finest in the evening, but Jeru- 
salem (from the Mount of Olives) is best seen in the light of the rising sun. 
The hill should therefore certainly be visited twice, especially as an inter- 
esting walk to the S. as well as to the N. can be taken. 

A carriage-road leads from the Damascus Gate into the valley 
of the Kidron. We, however, start from St. Stephens Gate (p. 75), 
outside of which we perceive, to the right (S.), the wall of the 
Temple, with Muslim graves in front of it. Ascending a few paces 
to the left, we observe a small pond, 31 yds. long, 25 yds. wide, 
and 13 ft. deep , in the corners of which are remains of stairs. 
At a niche in the S.W. corner the water is drawn off into a channel 
for the supply of the Bath of Our Lady Mary (Hammdm Sitti 
Maryam), whence the reservoir is called Birket Sitti Maryam. The 
style of the construction points to a comparatively modern, or per- 
haps mediaeval origin. The pond is sometimes called Birket el-As- 
bdt, 'Dragon Poof, and 'HezekiaKs Pool\ names for which there is 
no authority. The road forms an angle to the N.E. ; the footpath to 
the right is a steep and stony short-cut. At the point where the routes 
re-unite, there is. a rock where tfo e stoni ng of St. Stephen is said to 
have taken place. In 5 min. more we reacn tli!H>ottom of tne valley, ' 
which we cross by the upper bridge. (For the valley of the Kidron 
see p. 94.) 

To the left of the road, beyond the bridge, is the chapel of the 
Tomb of the Virgin, where, according to the legend, she was inter- 
red by the apostles, and where she lay until her 'assumption'. 

The story that a church was founded here by the Empress Helena is 
quite unfounded. It is, however, ascertained that a church stood over 
the traditional tomb early in the 5th century. This was destroyed by 

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86 Route 5. 



the Persians , but 'Omar found that a 'church of Gethsemane' had again 
sprung up. We are informed that, at a later period, the church consisted 
of an upper and an underground story. The Crusaders found nothing but 
ruins here. The church was then rebuilt by Milicent (d. 1161), daughter 
of Baldwin II., and wife of Fulke of Anjou, fourth king of Jerusalem. 
At that period there was also a monastery in the vicinity. This church 
of the 12th cent, is still in tolerable preservation. It has frequently 
changed hands, but now belongs to the Greeks, the Latins having a 
slight share in the proprietorship. 

A flight of steps descends to the space in front of the church. 
The only part of the church above ground is a porch. The prin- 

1. Tomb of Mary's Parents. 2. Joseph's Tomb. 3. Sarcophagus of Mary. 

4. Altar of the Greeks. 5. Altar of the Armenians. 6. Prayer Recess of 

the Muslims. 7. Vaults. 8. Altar of the Abyssinians. 9. Cistern. 

10. Cavern of the Agony. 

cipal facade is on the S. side, which is flanked by two flying but- 
tresses , and in the middle has a portal with a beautiful pointed 
arch, into which a wall with a small door has been built. The 
arches rest on four marble columns. Visitors knock when the iron 
gate is closed. A handsome flight of JLLniajbJ&steDS, which is more 
than 19 ft. broad at the top, descends immediately within the portal 
to a depth of 35 ft. below the space in front of the church. In de- 
scending we first observe a walled-up door to the right. This formerly 
led to a cavern, supposed to have been the scene of Our Lord's 'bloody 
sweat' ('Antrum Agoniae'), or perhaps to the tomb of Milicent, as 
the old descriptions appear to indicate. Then, about halfway down, 
there are two side-chapels. That on the right (PL 1) contains two 
altars and the tombs of Joachim and Anna, the parents of the Virgin. 

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of Jerusalem. GETHSEMANE. 5. Route. 87 

The transference of these tomhs hither from the church of St. Anne 
seems to have taken place in the 15th cent., but the traditions regard- 
ing them have since been frequently varied (comp. p. 76). The chapel 
to the left (PI. 2) contains an altar over the tomb of Joseph. The 
subterranean church is 31 yds. long, from E. to W., and 6^2 yds. 
wide. The E. wing, which is much longer than the W., has a win- 
dow above. The church is lighted by numerous lamps. In the centre 
of the E. wing is the so-called Sarcophagus of Mary (PI. 3), a lofty 
sarcophagus in a small square chapel, resembling that in the Church 
of the Sepulchre. Here, too, a rock-tomb is said once to have existed. 
There are several other altars in the church. On the E. side is the altar 
of the Greeks (PI. 4), on the N. that of the Armenians (PI. 5). To the 
S. of the tomb is a prayer recess of the Muslims (PI. 6), who for a 
time had a joint right to the sanctuary. r Omar himself is said once 
to have prayed here, in 'Jezmdntyeh' (Gethsemane). Opposite the 
stairs, to the N., are vaults of little importance (PI. 7). The W. 
wing contains an altar of the Abyssinians (PI. 8), in front of which 
is a cistern (PI. 9) with fairly good water, considered by the Greeks 
and Armenians to be a specific against various diseases. 

On our return to the upper forecourt we observe to the left (E.) 
a passage (PI. c) leading to a cavern, the entrance to which is 
closed by a small door mounted with iron. A descent of six steps 
leads us into the so-called Cavcwo/t^^ony (' Antrum Agonise', 
PI. 10), about 18 yds. long, ^^^TsTTroact; and 12 ft. high, and 
lighted by a small opening above. This is a genuine grotto in the 
solid rock, although whitewashed at places. The ceiling, on which, 
particularly towards the E., there are still traces of old frescoes, is 
borne partly by natural pillars, and partly by masonry. The cavern 
contains three altars belonging to different confessions, and several 
broad stone benches. The hole in the ceiling would appear to in- \ 
dicate that the grotto was originally a cistern or an oil-press. *— ' 

A few paces from the Tomb of the Virgin, towards the S. , on 
the opposite side of the road leading to the Mt. of Olives, is situated 
the Garden of Gethsemane, a word signifying 'oil-press'. 

In this case, the tradition tallies with the Bible narrative. The fest- 
ive crowd assembled on the occasion of the Passover would be little dis- 
posed to descend the precipitous slope of the valley, and the neighbourhood 
of the garden was then, as now, but little frequented. The earliest account 
of the place which we possess dates from the 4th century. At one time 
it was of greater extent and contained several churches : and chapels. The 
scene of the arrest of Christ was pointed out in the middle ages in the 
Cavern of the Agony (see above), and the traditions regarding the various 
sacred places here fluctuate. The garden now belongs to the Franciscans. 

The entrance is from the E. side , i.e. the side next the Mt. 
of Olives. A rock immediately to the E. of this door marks the 
spot where Peter, James, and John slept (Mark xiv. 32 f.). Some 
ten or twelve paces to the S. of this spot, and still outside the 
garden-wall, the fragment of a column indicates the traditional place 
where Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss, an event which was 

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88 Route 5. MOUNT OF OLIVES. Environs 

formerly said to have happened in the grotto. — The present Garden 
of Gethsemane is in the shape of an irregular quadrangle, the diameter 
of which is ahout 70 paces. On the inside of the walls are pictures 
of the ^4 stations . The garden contains eight venerable olive-trees, 
which are said to date from the time oiunristj their trunks have 
split with age and are shored up with stones. The monk who acts 
as guide presents the visitor with a bouquet of roses, pinks, and 
other flowers, as a memento of the place, and expects 3-6 pi. for the 
maintenance of the garden. The olive-oil yielded by the trees of the 
garden is sold at a high price, and rosaries are made from the olive- 

Farther up the Mt. of Olives is the Greek garden of Gethsemane, 
with the Church of St. Mary Magdalen, built in the Russian style, 
with 7 tapering domes, erected in 1888 by the Russian Emperor. 

Three roads lead from the garden of Gethsemane to the Mt. of 
Olives, one of which starts from the S. E. and another from the N.E. 
corner, the latter soon again dividing. At this point, about thirty 
paces from the garden, there is situated, on the right, a light grey rock, 
which has been pointed out since the 14th cent, as the place where 
the Virgin on her assumption dropped her girdle into the hands of 
St. Thomas. Close by is a small Russian hospice. Several Christian 
graves were discovered here, one of which yielded a silver coin of 
King Baldwin. — The central path, which soon diverges to the right, 
is the steepest. About halfway up, a ruin on the left has been shown 
since the 14th cent, as the spot where 'when he was come near, 
he beheld the city, and wept over it' (Luke xix. 41). The spot 
commands a beautiful view of the city. Even the Muslims once re- 
garded the scene of the Weeping of Christ as holy, and a mosque 
stood here in the 17th century ; at present the Franciscans have 
built a chapel here. — The top of the Mt. of Olives is reached from 
Gethsemane in i/ 4 hr. 

The Mt. of Olives (Mons Oliveti, Arab. Jebel et-T&r), or Mt. of 
Light, as it is sometimes called, runs parallel with the Temple 
hill, but is somewhat higher. It consists of several different 
strata of chalky limestone, over which there are newer formations 
at places. The Mt. of Olives, in its broadest sense, includes the Mt. 
of Offence (p. 96), to the S., and to the N. an eminence sometimes 
erroneously designated as Scopus. The Mt. of Olives proper is 
divided into fou^ eminences, by low depressions. The highest point, 
to the N. ( l Viri Galilaii', p. 93), is 2723 ft. above the sea-level. 
The slopes are cultivated, but the vegetation is not luxuriant. The 
principal trees are the olive, fig, and carob, and here and there are a 
few apricot, terebinth, and hawthorn trees. The paths are stony, and 
the afternoon sun very hot. — On the W. side of the two central 
summits lies Ks£rj^zS^ which is mentioned for the first time in 
the 15th cent, and now consists of poor stone cottages, whose inhabit- 
ants are sometimes importunate. 

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of Jerusalem. MOUNT OF OLIVES. 

5. Route. 89 

a. The Chapel of the Ascension. — History. The tradition which 
makes the Mt. of Olives the scene of the Ascension is contradicted by the 
passage in St. Luke — ( he led them out as far as to Bethany" (xxiv. 50); 
moreover, the summit of the mount was at that period covered with build- 
ings. As early as 315, however, the top of this hill was pointed out as 
the scene of that event, Constantine erected a basilica here, but without 
a roof, and the footprints of Christ were pointed out on the ground. 
About the year 600 many monasteries stood on the mount. In the 7th 
cent, there was a small round church here, which had been built by 
Modestus, but was destroyed in the 11th century. The Crusaders are said 
to have erected 'only a small tower with columns, in the centre of a 
court paved with marble ; and the principal altar stood on the rock within'. 
In 1130 a large church rose on this spot, having in the centre a broad 
depression marking the scene of the Ascension, below which was a chapel. 
After the time of Saladin we find the chapel enclosed by an octagonal wall. 
In the 16th cent, the church was completely destroyed. In 1617 the interior 
of the chapel was restored by the Muslims in the original style, and in 
1834-35 the building was re-erected on the former ground-plan. 

The Chapel of the Ascension stands by the side of a monastery 
for dervishes, a former abbey of the Augustinian monks. A hand- 

Paved Path. 

Chapel of the Ascension. 
Prayer Recess of the Ar- 
Recess of the Copts. 
Recess of the Syrians. 
Recess of the Greeks. 
Remains of Columns. 

some portal admits tis to a court, in the centre of which rises the 
chapel of irregular octagonal shape, 21 feet in diameter, over which 
rises a cylindrical drum with a dome. Over the corner pilasters 
once rose open pointed arches, but these are now built up. The 
capitals and bases of the columns are of white marble and have prob- 
ably been brought from older buildings. In an oblong marble en- 
closure is shown the impression of the right foot of Christ, turned 
southwards. Since the time of the Frankish domination this foot- 
print has been so variously described, that it must have been fre- 
quently renewed since then. The chapel belongs to the Muslims, 
who also regard it as sacred, but Christians are permitted to cele- 
brate mass in it on certain days. 

In the S.W. corner of the monastery of the dervishes is a door 
leading to the Vault of St. Pelagia (Arab. Rdhibet Bint Hasan). The 
door opens into an anteroom, whence twelve steps descend to a 
tomb-chamber, now a Muslim place of prayer, and uninteresting. 

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90 Route 5. MOUNT OF OLIVES. Environ* 

The Jews place here the tomb of the prophetess Euldah (2 Kings xzii. 
14), and the Christians the dwelling of St. Pelagia of Antioch, who did 
penance here for her sins in the 5th cent., and wrought miracles even 
after her death. The tradition as to Pelagia dates from the Crusaders' period. 

b. The Bussian Buildings, to the E. of the village, are reached 
by going northwards from the Chapel of the Ascension and round 
the N. side of the village. In the garden, which is surrounded by 
a high wall, we first see a handsome church, erected after the design 
of the old church, the remains of which were found here. To the 
left (N.W.) of it is a hospice for pilgrims; to the N. of the church 
is the l arj:e 7 six-stoj aejLifefoecfer,gjrower, from the platform of which 
(214 steps) we have a magnificent *Vibw (comp. the Panorama). 
Beyond the valley of the Kidron extends the spacious plateau of 
the Haram esh-Sherif , where the dome of the rock and the Afcsa 
mosque present a particularly imposing sight. The spectator 
should observe the direction taken by the Temple hill, the higher 
site of the ancient Bezetha to the N. of the Temple, and the hollow 
of the Tyropceon, which is plainly distinguishable, though now 
filled with rubbish, between the Temple hill and the upper part 
of the town. The dome-covered roofs of the houses form a very 
peculiar characteristic of the town. Towards the N., beyond the 
olive-gTove outside the Damascus Gate, is seen the upper course 
of the valley of the Kidron, decked with rich verdure in spring, 
beyond which rises the Scopus. — The view towards the E. is strik- 
ing. Here, for the first time, we perceive that extraordinary and 
unique depression of the earth's surface which few travellers thor- 
oughly realise. The blue waters of the JDead Sea , lying at the foot 
of the mountains which bound the E. horizon, and apparently not 
many hundred feet below us, are really no less than 3900ft. below 
our present standpoint. The clearness of the atmospfieW, too, is so 
deceptive, that the mysterious lake seems quite near, though it can 
only be reached after a^eyen hours' ride over barren, uninhabited 
ranges of hills. The blue mouiftairis which rise beyond the deep 
chasm, reaching the same height as the Mt. of Olives, once belonged 
to the tribe of Reuben, and it is among these that Mt. Nebo must be 
sought for. To the extreme S. of that range, a small eminence crowned 
by the village of El Kerak (p. 178) is visible in clear weather. 
On the E. margin of the Dead Sea are seen two wide openings ; that 
to the S. is the valley of the river Arnon (M6jib) , and that to the 
N. the valley of the Zerka Ma r in. Farther N. rises the Jebel Jil r ad 
(Gilead), once the possession of the tribe of Gad. Nearer to us lies 
the valley of Jordan (el-Gh6r) , the course of the river being indi- 
cated by a green line on a whitish ground. — Towards the S.E. we 
see the course of the valley of the Kidron, or 'valley of fire', to the 
left some of the houses of Bethany, the greater part of the village 
being, however, concealed by the hills ; high up, beyond Bethany the 
village of Abu Dis. Quite near us rises the 'mountain of offence', 
beyond the Kidron that of 'evil counsel', and farther distant, to the 

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of Jerusalem. MOUNT OF OLIVES. 5. Route. 91 

S., is the summit of the 'Frank Mountain', or Jebel el-Fureidis, 
■with the heights of Bethlehem and Tekoah. To theS.W., on the 
fringe of hills which bounds the plain of Rephaim on the S. , lies 
the monastery of Mar Elyas, past which winds theroad to Bethlehem. 
This town itself is concealed from view, but the large village of 
Bet Jala and several villages to the S. of Jerusalem, such as Bet 
Safafa and Esh-Sherafat, are distinctly visible. 

Eastwards, behind the church, is the house of the archimandrite. 
In building this house, some interesting mosaics were found, which 
are now preserved in one of the rooms ; beneath this room is a se- 
pulchral chamber. There are similar mosaics in the vaulted chambers 
and tomb discovered to the S. of the house. The mosaics contain 
Armenian inscriptions of the 9th and 10th centuries: all of them 
are relics of an Armenian monastery. 

c. The Latin Buildings are S. of the village. (Before we come 
to them from the village a road to Bethany branches off on the left, 
see p. 93 ; the central of the three roads on the right leads into the 
valley of Kidron.) To the right behind the entrance (on the W. side) 
is the place where the apostles are said to have drawn up the Creed. 
The tradition regarding the creed, which was once said to have 
been framed in the town, was attached to this new spot in the 
14th cent., and in the 15th cent, a 'Church of St. Mark' rose here. 
T he low-lying Church of the Creed i s situated from N. to S ; it is 
now vaulted over , but so tnat tnelroof forms a terrace only slightly 
raised above the surface of the ground. At the sides are niches 
which once bore twelve arches, and at the N. end two pointed arches 
are still preserved. To the S. is the house of the superintendent, 
to whom application should be made for admission to the church •, 
the chaplain's house adjoins the north wall. — Behind the Church 
of the Creed, to the E., is the b eautifu^ Church of the Lor^JPzayer, 
on the spot where, according to~a~tradition of tbeft/rusaders' periocT7~" 
Christ taughthis disciples the Lord's Prayer. Peter of Amiens preached 

a sermon here, and a church was then erected. In 1868 the Prin- 
ces s Latour (L jnvergne, relative of Napoleon III., caused a church 
io be" erected here. Around the handsome quadrangle run covered 
passages containing 32 slabs , on which the LotnTs Prayer is inscribed 
in ag.,:rayiY dJ^fe^BtJanguages. On the S. side the princess has a 
monument with a life-size effigy erected to her memory. Adjoining 
the Hall of the Lord's Prayer on the E. is the church, the ante- 
chamber of which contains antiquities discovered when the founda- 
tions of the church were laid , including a leaden coffin and nu- 
merous fragments of mosaics. — To the N. of the church is a convent 
of Qajrmel ite n u ns . _ 

d. tfo'tTie'S/tfK of the Latin buildings lie the Tombs of the Pro- 
phets, or the Small Labyrinth, now Russian property. We take the 
road to the S. past the Latin buildings; at the point where the road 
takes a turn to the N.W. is the entrance. Application for admission 

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should be made to the custodian (PI. 1 \ candle necessary). We de- 
scend a few steps (PI. 2) and enter, through a low arch hewn out 
in the rock, a Rotunda* (PI. 4) lighted from above. Some passages 
radiate from the rotunda into the rock, and are intersected by two 
semicircular passages in such a manner, that large natural rocky pil- 
lars are formed, some of which are 33 yds. in circumference. The 


passages are uneven and partly filled up. The wall of the outermost 
of these passages contains numerous shaft-tombs (p. cxi). To the 
N. and S.W. are two small chambers (PI. 3); a third (PI. 6) is 
unfinished. This is a very fine example of an ancient rock-tomb. The 
rough way in which the chambers are hewn points to a very early 
origin , but there is no historical authority for connecting them in 
any way with the prophets. That they belong to the Jewish period 
is proved by the form of the receptacles for the dea d (hdkiml The 
Jews have a great veneration for these tombs. GreeK Inscriptions, 
however, are to be found in them, which show that the tombs were 
at least made use of afresh in Christian times, 

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Arbre de Jud^PJft 6 ' A f ou J 8 ' 

lM:du Maivais-Con 

Valleede Hinno 

Chemin de la. vallee du . 
& la. porte de Ston 

Deaerine d'apris des photograjihiea.par Toller. 

C 6 t e d 

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„ HApitaJ ill. pour |« infants rfuffdITafe. 

ipie protest, arahe ■ Queli Ri r 

Colline de lagrotte de Jeremie j Tomq 



Grave par Bertrauad. 

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of Jerusalem. BETHPHAGE. 5. Route. 93 

Close to the E. girdle- wall is a narrow aperture in the rock, 
through which we may visit a small tomb- chamber with a number 
of niches , discovered in 1847 , at which time the bodies, covered 
with lime, were still lying there untouched. To the W. is another 
chamber, of a roundish form, roughly hewn in the rock, containing 
nine sunken tombs, all close together. To the E., adjacent to these, 
is another fine tomb-chamber. 

e. The fourth (N.) summit of the Mt. of Olives, at a distance of 
1/4 hr. from the village Et-TUr, is called Viri Galilsei (Arab. Karem 
es-Sayydd, 'the vineyard of the hunter'). The first name it owes to 
the tradition that the 'men of Galilee* were addressed here on the 
spot marked by two broken columns by the two men in white ap- 
parel after the Ascension (Actsi. 11). This tradition was current in 
the 13th cent. , but was not firmly established till the 16th. The 
passage Matth. xxvi. 32 was also interpreted to mean that Christ 
had appeared here. Extensive ruins once lay here, and some pilgrims 
even mention a village. The greater part of the area now belongs to 
the Greeks, who have erected a chapel, a small episcopal resi- 
dence, and other buildings. Towards the S. traces of a Christian 
burial-ground (remains of the wall, fragments of columns, mosaic 
pavement with 15 graves beneath it) were discovered. Under the 
present E. wall of the area an extensive burial-place, consisting of 
Jewish and Christian rock-tombs (possibly the Peristereon of Jo- 
sephus), was found. The antiquities are preserved in the bishop's 

From this point we may either return direct to the Garden of 
Gethsemane or, turning to the N. and following the top of the hill, 
perform the circuit of the valley of the Kidron. The valley gradu- 
ally expands. At the point where the hill turns towards the N.W. 
it is called r Akabet es-Suwdn. Passing Mr. Gray Hill's villa, we reach 
the road leading from Jerusalem to r Andt& (p. 116). The view of 
the town from the brink of the plateau is interesting , as its posi- 
tion on the top of a rocky eminence is distinctly seen, and its in- 
dented N. wall, resembling that of a mediaeval fortress, its towers, 
and its numerous mosques and minarets appear to great advantage. 
— In J /2 hr. we reach the N.E. corner of the town-wall. The ancient 
tower here is called Burj Lalclak ('Stork Tower'). Ancient tombs may 
be seen by the large pine of Karem esh-Shtkh. We reach the Jericho 
road at the recently restored Gate of Herod, named by the Arabs Bab 
es-Sdhireh (p. 31). 

From the 'Anata road we may cross the hills to the Nabulus road 
on the W. To the E. of this road, near the spot called by the Arabs 
Meshdrif ('hills'), was situated the Scopus, where Titus and his legions 
once encamped. 

f. Bethphage. From the village Et-Tur the road to the S.E. 
mentioned on p. 91 brings us in 1/2 hr. to Bethany (p. 148). On 
this road Bethphage (Mark xi. 1) was situated, on the ridge of a smaU 

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94 Route 5. TOMB OF ABSALOM. Environs 

hill, about 10 min. E. of the Latin buildings. At any rate the ruins 
found here in 1880 and a stone with frescoes (Christ's Entry into Je- 
rusalem, Raising of Lazarus) and inscriptions show that the Crusaders 
believed this to be the site of Bethphage. The Franciscans have 
built a chapel over the stone on the ruins of a small ancient church. 

2. The Valley of the Kidron. 

The Valley of the Kidron, now called Wddi Sitti Maryam, or 
valley of St. Mary, bounds Jerusalem on the E. side. The floor of 
the valley deepens somewhat rapidly. The upper part is broad and 
planted with olive and almond trees, while the lower part is narrower. 
As early as the time of Christ the Kidron was called the 'winter 
brook\ and at the present day the valley is always dry above the springs 
which we are about to mention. By way of contrast to the mount of the 
Temple, this valley was regarded as unclean. The name of *■ Valley of J e- 
hoshaphaf is of early origin, having been already applied to this valley 
by the venerable pilgrim of Bordeaux. The tradition that this gorge will 
be the scene of the last judgment (p. 52), founded on a misinterpretation 
of a passage in the book of Joel (iii. 2), is probably of pre-Christian origin, 
and has been borrowed from the Jews by Christians and Muslims alike. 
The Muslims accordingly bury their dead on the E. side of the Haram, 
while the Jews have their cemetery on the W. side of the Mt. of Olives. 
At the resurrection the sides of the valley are expected to move farther 
apart, in order to afford sufficient room for the great assembly. — Captain 
Warren's excavations have ascertained that the E. slope of the Temple hill 
is very deeply covered with debris, and was formerly much steeper than 
now. The ancient bed of the brook lies about 10 yds. to the W. of the 
present floor of the valley, and, opposite the S.E. corner of the Temple 
plateau, is about 38 ft. deeper than the present channel. Contrary to ex- 
pectation, no water was found, but the soil in the ancient bed of the val- 
ley was moist and slightly muddy. 

To the W. of Gethsemane a road 
branches off from the highroad to Je- 
richo and leads to the right (S.W.) to 
the lower bridge. This bridge may also 
be reached by following the wall of 
the Haram from the Gate of St. Ste- 
phen as far as the Golden Gate, and 
then descending into the valley to the 
left. The first tomb we come to, on the 
left of the road, is the Tomb of Absa- 
lom (Arab. Tantfir Fir'aun, 'cap of 
Pharaoh') , so called from 2 Sam. xviii 18. 

There is no mention of the monolith before the year A.D. 333. The 
names assigned to this and the other monuments vary down to the 16th 
century. The enrichments, and particularly the Ionic capitals, indicate 
that the tomb dates from the Graeco-Roman period: but the chamber may 
be older, and the decorations may have been added long after the first 
erection of the monument, a supposition favoured by the grotesque mix- 
ture of Greek and Egyptian styles. In memory of Absalom's disobedience, 
it is customary with the Jews to pelt this monument with stones. 

The substructure of this strange-looking monument is a large 
cube, 191/2 ft. square, and 21 ft. high. It is hewn out of the solid 


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of Jerusalem. GROTTO OF ST. JAMES. 5. Route. 95 

rock and is detached on three sides, being separated from the 
rock by a passage 8-9 ft. wide. The E. side, however, is imbedded 
in rubbish. On each side of the rock-cube are four half-columns 
with very prominent capitals of the Ionic order, those on the W. 
front being best preserved. They bear, together with the corner 
pilasters, a frieze and architrave of the Doric order. As the 
surrounding rock was not high enough to admit of the whole 
monument being executed in a single block, a square superstructure 
of large stones was erected above the massive base. On this is 
placed a drum , terminating in a low spire which widens a little at 
the top like an opening flower. So far as it is visible above the 
rubbish, the monument is 48 ft. high. The proper entrance to the 
structure is imbedded in rubbish. 

In the rock on the E. side , behind the Tomb of Absalom, is 
the Tomb of Jehoshaphat. The entrance is entirely choked with 
rubbish and surmounted by a kind of gable. The first chamber 
(PL 1) is adjoined by three others, of which that on the S. side 
(PL 2) has an additional cell of two compartments (PL 3). The 
traces of a coat of mortar and of frescoes suggest that the prin- 
cipal chamber has once been used as a Christian chapel. It may 
possibly be the chapel 
which enclosed the 

tomb of St. James . v 

in the time of the ^fcjJffe : T 

Franks. d | 

We proceed over 
the hill towards the S £a &T g jf^& 

to the Grotto of St. 
James, which is enter- 
ed by a long passage, 
leading to a kind of 
vestibule (PL 1). In 
front, towards the val- 
ley (W.), the vestibule 
is open for a space of 16 ft. and is borne by two Doric columns 
7 ft. in height (PL a), adjoining which are two side-pillars incor- 
porated with the rock. Above these runs a Doric frieze with tri- 
glyphs ; over the cornice is a Hebrew inscription. We next enter an 
ante-chamber (PL 2) towards the E. , and beyond it a chamber 
(PL 3) with three shaft-tombs of different lengths; beyond which 
we ascend by several steps to a small chamber to the N.E. (PL 4). 
To the N. of No. 2 is a chamber (PL 5) containing three shaft-tombs, 
and to theS. of it is a passage (PL 6) with a shelf of rock, to which 
steps ascend; above the shelf are four shaft-tombs. St. James is 
said to have lain concealed here from the taking of Jesus until the 
Resurrection, during which time he ate no food. This tradition, and 
another that he is buried on the Mt. of Olives, date from the 6th 

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96 Route 5. SILOAH. Environs 

cent. , while another to the effect that this grotto is his tomb is not 
older than the 15th. Monkish preachers are said to have lived here 
for a time, hut the cavern -was afterwards used as a sheep-pen. 

From the vestibule of the Grotto of St. James a passage (PI. 7) 
leads southwards to the Pyramid of Zacharias, executed according 
to the Christians in memory of the Zacharias mentioned by St. Mat- 
thew (xxiii. 35), but according to the Jews in memory of the Zech- 
ariah of 2 Ohron. xxiv. 20. The monument resembles Absalom's 
tomb, but is entirely hewn in the rock. This cutting in the rock 
is very remarkable. On the S. side are still seen the holes which 
probably supported the scaffolding of the masons. The monument 
is about 29 Yj ft. high and 16 72 ft- square. The sides are adorned 
with Ionic columns and half-columns, and at the corners are square 
pillars. Above runs a bare cornice, over which rises a blunted 
pyramid. A great number of Hebrew names are inscribed on the 
monument. — All these rock-tombs were probably executed in the 
Gr»co-Roman period. 

Above these monuments , to the E. , the whole hill is covered 
with Jewish tombstones, and we pass others on our way south- 
wards to the village of Siloah (Arab. Silwdn) , which we reach in 
4 minutes. The village clings to the steep hill-side and, when seen 
from the opposite side, is not easily distinguished from the neigh- 
bouring rocks, which are of the same colour. The main street inter- 
sects the village from N. to S. ; it consists of about eighty houses, and 
miserable as is its appearance, there are many worse in Palestine. 
As many of the ancient caverns of the Jewish necropolis, which was 
formerly here, are now used as dwellings and stables, they cannot 
easily be examined. At the entrance to the village there is another 
monolith , known as the 'Tomb of Pharaoh's Daughter 7 ; over the 
entrance are the remains of an inscription in ancient Hebrew letters. 
In the lower part of the cliff is a series of entrances to tombs, 
some of them artistically hewn. Still farther to the S., on the 
descent to Job's well, numerous remains of tombs are seen on the 
hill to the left. The inhabitants of Silwan, who are all Muslims, 
are notorious for their thievish propensities. They live chiefly by 
farming and cattle-breeding, and some of them bring water from 
the Siloah or Job's well on the backs of donkeys into the town for 
sale. They are easily induced by a small bakhshish to show the 
caves to visitors. Two early Hebrew inscriptions (now in London) 
were found in a rock -chamber here. These grottoes were once 
tenanted by hermits, and the Arabian village has only existed for 
a few centuries past. — Near Siloah is the house for lepers, erected 
by the Turkish government (p. 102). 

The village lies on the slope of the S. eminence of the Mt. of 
Olives, called Batn el-Hawd, and sometimes Mountain of Offence 
(Afona Offensionis, Mons Scandali), from 2 Kings xxiii. 13 j but it is 
questionable whether there is any foundation for the story that this 

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of Jerusalem. ST. MARY'S WELL. 5. Route. 97 

was the scene of Solomon's idolatrous practices, although they 
appear to be localised here by the Vulgate. The top, which may- 
be reached in 7 min., commands an interesting view, though very 
inferior to that from the Mt. of Olives. To the E. lies the Wddi 
KattiLn, to the W. the valley of Jehoshaphat and to the S. the 
valley of the Kidron, or valley of fire. 

From the N. part of the village of Siloah a road leads to tho 
neighbouring (4 min.) St. Mary's Well, Arab. 'Ain Situ Maryam, 
or *Ain Umm ed-Derej (fountain of steps). 

The name is derived from a legend of the 14th cent, to the effect that 
the Virgin once washed the swaddling clothes of her Son, or drew water 
here. It has also been called the Dragon's Welly or Well of the Sum. It 
is probably identical with the spring of OiJion (1 Kings i. 33). Gihon lay 
outside the walls of the city, and at various times efforts were made to 
render its water available for the inhabitants. Perhaps the earliest of 
these is the canal, discovered by Schick in 1891 and not yet fully ex- 
cavated, which conveyed the water along the surface of the ground to the 
Pool of Siloam (p. 98). As this channel would be of little use in time 
of war, a subterranean passage was constructed (probably also under one 
of the early kings) from within the walls to a perpendicular shaft above 
the spring. An attempt to deprive enemies of the water was made by the 
construction of a subterranean channel (see below), which is very probably 
a work of Hezekiah (2 Kings xx. 20). The basin near the Gihon was also 
called the King's Pool (Nehem. ii. 14). The spring also watered the orchards 
in this part of the valley. 

The entrance is to the W. of the remains of a small mosque. 
We descend by sixteen steps through a vault to a level space, and 
by fourteen steps more to the water. The basin is 11^2 ft- long and 
5 ft. wide, and the bottom is covered with small stones. Tho 
spring is intermittent. In the rainy winter season the water 
flows from three to Ave times daily, in summer twice, and in 
autumn once only. This is accounted for as follows. In the interior 
of the rock there is a deep natural reservoir, which is fed by nu- 
merous streamlets and has a single narrow outlet only. This outlet 
begins a little above the bottom of the basin, rises to a point higher 
than the top of the basin, and then descends. As soon as the wator 
in the basin has risen to the height of the bend in the outlet, it 
begins to flow through it, and continues to flow on the syphon prin- 
ciple until it has sunk in the basin to the point where the outlet 
begins. — A channel or passage descends to the lower pool of Siloam. 
This passage is of very rude construction and now (though not orig- 
inally) of varying height, being so low at places as only to be pass- 
able on all fours. Curiously enough, it is not straight, but has 
several windings, and there are a number of small culs de sac in 
its course, apparently showing that the unskilled workmen had 
frequently lost the right direction. The distance in a straight line 
is 368 yds., but by the rocky channel 586 yds. As the water fre- 
quently Alls the passage quite unexpectedly, it is dangerous to 
attempt to pass through it. 

In 1880 the oldest Hebrew inscription we possess (now in Constan- 
tinople) was found at the mouth of this channel in the rock. It contains 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 7 

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98 Route 5. POOL OF SILOAM. Environs 

a brief account of the construction of this channel, 1200 ells long, and, 
among other details, mentions that the workmen began the boring from 
both ends. In consequence of this most important discovery, the channel 
was again examined, and the spot was found where the hoes of the diggers 
met. The shafts in a vertical direction, which have been discovered in 
the interior, are also very remarkable. 

A path ascends from St. Mary's Well to the N., towards the S.E. 
angle of the Temple wall. 

The Fool of Siloam or Siloah (Arab. 'Ain Silwdri), farther 
down the valley, lay near the Fountain or Water Gate (p. 26), 
within the walls. From this point also a road ascends to the Gate 
of Zion and the Dung Gate. The pool is 52 ft. long and 18 ft. 
wide. In consequence of the miracle recorded by St. John (ix. 7f), 
the pool was deemed sacred. In the year 600 a basilica with baths 
stood over the pool, and in the 12th cent, a kind of monastery was 
erected here. The walls of the pool are now fallen in, and the 
bottom is covered with rubbish. At the S.E. angle of the pond 
there is an outlet. Excavations now being carried on by English 
explorers have here revealed the remains of a church with fine 
mosaics, traces of an ancient wall, a flight of steps cut in the rock, 
a paved street, etc. — The water is salt to the taste, perhaps from 
the decomposition of the soil through which it percolates. It loses 
itself in the gardens of the valley below. E. of the upper pool is 
the Lower Pool of Siloam, now dry. The Arabs call it Birket el- 
Hamrd, or 'the red pool'. The oldest of the above-mentioned 
channels ends here. There was probably a double town wall in this 
vicinity. To the S. of the large pool stands an old mulberry-tree, 
enclosed by stones for its protection, and mentioned for the first time 
in the 16th cent. , where the prophet Isaiah is said to have been 
sawn asunder in presence of King Manasseh. The tradition of this 
martyrdom is alluded to by some of the fathers of the church. 

A road hence leads farther down the valley , reaching in a few 
minutes the junction of the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Hinnom. 
We follow the road to Mdr Sdbd (p. 161), which leads us in 2 min. 
to a spring called Job's Well (Bit Eyytib), from a late and senseless 
Muslim legend. The channel of the Kidron is at this point 345 ft. 
lower than the Temple plateau (near Gethsemane 146 ft. only), and 
Mt. Zion rises steeply on the N.W. Near the well is a ruined mosque. 
The well is lined with masonry, and is 123 ft. deep. The water 
varies greatly in height, sometimes overflowing after much rain, 
which is considered to indicate a fruitful year, and gives occasion 
for a general festivity; it very seldom dries up altogether, and is 
noted for its excellence. 'Job's Well' has been called the 'Well 
of Nehemiah' by the Frank Christians since the 16th cent., from 
the tradition that the holy fire was concealed in this well during 

i 'Go, wash in the pool of Siloam (which is by interpretation, Sent). 
He went his way, therefore, and washed, and came seeing/ 

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of Jerusalem. VALLEY OF HINNOM. 5. Route. 99 

the captivity until recovered by Nehemiah. Probably we are here 
standing on the brink of the well of En-Rogel ('fullers' spring'), 
mentioned (Josh. xv. 7) as the boundary between the tribes of Judah 
and Benjamin. Here, too, Adonijah prepared a feast for his 
friends on the occasion of his attempted usurpation of the throne 
of David (1 Kings i. 9). The modern Ez-Zahwileh has of late 
been supposed identical with the 'stone of Zoheletti mentioned in the 
latter passage, but the fullers' spring would then have to be placed 
nearer that of St. Mary. The question cannot be answered until it 
has been settled whether Job's well is of ancient or modern date. 

About 20 min. from this point, on the hill to the S.E., is the village 
of Bet S&hur el- r Atika, which consists of a few miserable hovels, but 
contains several rocky caverns and a pigeon-tower. Some flint implements 
were also found here. Along the whole N. and N.E. side of the hill of 
Bet Sahur are rock-tombs and large tomb-chambers, some with a hand- 
some portal. Most of these tombs are probably to be referred to the Jewish 
epoch. The traces of oil-presses should also be observed. — For the 
return, we may take the Mar Saba road in the valley. 

3. The Valley of Hinnom. 

The Valley of Hinnom is bounded on the S. (left) by the Jebel 
Abu Tdr, a hill also called the Hill of the Tombs, the Hill of the Field 
of Blood, and most usually by the Franks the Mount of Evil Counsel. 
It is most easily ascended from the Bethlehem road (p. 117). It 
derives the last of these names from a legend of the 14th cent., to 
the effect that Caiaphas possessed a country-house here, where he 
consulted with the Jews how he might kill Jesus. 

The Valley of Hinnom, which never contains water, separates 
this hill from Zion. It comes from the W. and slopes precipitously. 
The soil is well cultivated at places, though plentifully sprinkled 
with small stones. 

The name of the valley is properly Gi Ben Hinndm, 'the valley of 
Ben Hinnom' (Josh. xv. 8), a name especially applied to the lower half 
of the valley (now Wddi er-Rebdbi). It was in this valley that children 
were at one time sacrificed to Moloch (Jer. xii. 31 * 2 Kings xxiii. 10). 
The spot was called Tophet, or place of fire. Even at a later period the 
valley was an object of detestation to the Jews, whence the word Gehenna, 
used in the New Testament, a contraction of Gehinnom, came to signify 
hell among both the Jews and the Mohammedans. The name 'valley of 
nre\ at present applied to the lower part of the valley of the Kidron 
(Wddi en-Ndr), may perhaps have some connection with these ancient 
idolatrous rites. 

From Job's Well we turn to the W. and ascend the slope of the 
hill to the left, to the ancient Necropolis. A little beyond the point 
where the valleys unite we find tombs in the hill to the left. They 
are excavated in two slopes of rock, one above the other. The 
low entrances, many of which are tastefully ornamented, are in 
some cases approached by rock-hewn steps ; they are said once to 
have been furnished with stone doors. The tombs contain a number 
of vaults for different families. Some of them were occupied by her- 
mits from the early Christian period down to the middle ages, and 


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100 Route 5. VALLEY OF HINNOM. 


afterwards by poor families and cattle. — We here adopt Toiler's 
plan, which is, unfortunately, not altogether reliable: — 

1 . Group of chambers , blacken- 
ed with smoke, once a hermitage. 

2. Rock -chamber with four 

3. Portal. The second cham- 
ber towards the S. was once a 
beautiful vaulted chapel. Farther 
S., a tomb-chamber. 

4. Chamber (now filled up) 
with ten shaft- tombs. 

5. Cavern farthest E., once a 
hermitage. That in the centre has 
a vault, and cells adjacent to it. 
Next to it, on the N., is a cavern 
with an illegible Greek inscrip- 

6. Tomb-chamber. 

7. Chamberwith three niches, 
and a cross over the entrance. 

8. Chamber remarkably well 
hewn. A few steps descend to the 
portal adorned with mouldings 
and gable. The upper story con- 
tains a large anteroom with six 
finely enriched doors , and there 
are in all fourteen tomb-niches. 
The lower story is uninteresting. 

9. Tomb-grottoes and chapel 
with paintings. 

10. The so-called Apostles 
Cavern, in which, according to a 
tradition of the 16th cent., the 
apostles concealed themselves 
when Christ was taken prisoner, 
and during the Crucifixion. Above 
the entrance is a frieze in ten sec- 
tions. In the forecourt are two 
series of frescoes, one above the 
other, with monograms of the 
name of Jesus Christ, crosses, 
and other devices. The first 
chamber was a chapel, the walls 
and ceiling of which are painted. 
The large chamber at the back of 
the chapel was probably once a 

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of Jerusalem. VALLEY OF HINNOM. 5. Route. 101 

hermitage; beyond it is another chamber with tombs, as there is 
on the E. side also. 

11. This is a group of three different sets of chambers. Over 
the entrance is the inscription 'to the holy Zion' in Greek. The 
tombs were probably those of members of the 'church of Zion'. 

12. We now ascend to the Aceldama, or Building of the Field 
of Blood, Arab. El-FerdHs (paradise). 

The Bible doea not inform us where the 'field of blood' (Acts i. 19) 
lay, and it has since been shown in different parts of the environs of Je- 
rusalem, churches and monasteries having been erected in connection 
with it. The present Aceldama has always been much revered by Christ- 
ians, and is frequently visited by pilgrims, many of whom are buried 
here. The soil is believed to be very favourable to decomposition. Accord- 
ing to the legend it is also called Shurnfrhy i. e. charnel-house (of the Cru- 
saders), and in a map of the 13th cent, it is marked 'Carnelium\ 

The structure is formed of a large half-open grotto, walled up 
in front and roofed over with masonry. Originally the only openings 
were in the roof, but a gap in the wall now permits the visitor to 
enter the interior. In the centre is a massive pillar and in the 
rocky sides are shaft-tombs. The floor is covered with a layer of 
bones about 6 ft. thick, above which is a covering layer of sand and 
rubbish. On the W. wall of the interior are crosses and Armenian 

13a. Cavern, which the Greek Christians call FerdHs er-R&m, 
'the paradise of the Greeks', or the 'cavern of the giant saint 
Onophrius'. Near it are some ruins. 

13b, 13c. Uninteresting. 

14. Two chambers with shaft and niche-tombs. 

15. Unimportant. 

16. A cavern with a lower story containing shaft-tombs. The 
white limestone of the central chamber is remarkable for its red 

17. A cavern with ancient Greek inscriptions. 

18. A double-cave, with the inscription, 'Burial-place of the 
holy church of Zion for several persons from Rome,' in Greek. 

19-21. Unimportant. Some with inscriptions. 

22. Tomb with an inscription like No. 11, and provided with 
a cistern. 

23. Cavern, to which ten steps in the rock ascend. Over the 
entrance to the chamber is the inscription, 'Tomb of Thekla the 
daughter of Marulf in Greek. 

From the W. end of the tombs we pass by the eye-hospital of 
the English knights of St. John, on a hill to our left, and come to the 
Bethlehem road (p. 117), where a road branches off to the S.W., past 
the large Jewish Hospice (PL f) founded by Sir Moses Monteflore. 
This road divides after a few min., the left branch leading to the 
Railway Station, the right branch to the pleasing houses of the 
German Colony of the Temple. This flourishing colony (some 400 
souls) is named Rephaim, from the plain (p. 118). Here are the 

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102 Route 5. LEPERS' HOSPITAL. Environs 

offices of the Temple Society. — A road leads hence to the S.W., 
past the cemetery of the colony, and brings us in 12 min. to the 
Greek colony Katamon (p. 118). — The Lepers' Hospital is situated 
a few minutes to the W. of the Temple colony. The institution is 
maintained by Moravian Brethren. The disease is hereditary though 
not at all infectious, and the seclusion of the patients is necessary 
to prevent them from marrying and thus perpetuating the evil. 
Hideously repulsive leprous beggars from the Turkish Leprosy Hos- 
pital (p. 96) are still met with on the Jaffa road, especially on the 
way to the Mount of Olives. 

Leprosy was a disease of somewhat frequent occurrence among the 
Israelites. There are now about 40-50 lepers in Jerusalem. The Bib- 
lical regulations regarding leprosy are of a very rigorous character (Levit. 
xiii, xiv). Leprosy is the consequence of a kind of decomposition of the 
blood. Several months before the outbreak of the disease the patient 
feels languid and suffers from cold chills, shivering in the limbs, and 
attacks of fever. Reddish spots then make their appearance on the skin, 
and under them rise dark red lumps which are more or less movable. In 
the face particularly these lumps unite into groups resembling bunches of 
grapes. The mouth and lips swell, the eyes run, and the patient is fre- 
quently tormented by excessive itching over the whole body. The mucous 
membrane begins to be destroyed, and nodules form internally also. The 
organs of speaking, seeing, and hearing become affected. At length the 
swellings burst, turn into dreadful, festering sores, and heal up again, but 
only to break out at a different place. The fingers become bent, and some 
of the limbs begin to rot away. This kind of leprosy, with its accompanying 
swellings, differs from the smooth leprosy, which produces painful, flat, 
inflamed patches on the skin, followed by sores. Other maladies are gener- 
ally superinduced by the leprosy, but the patient sometimes drags on his 
melancholy existence for twenty years or more. The patients in this hospital 
present a spectacle of human misery in one of its most frightful phases, 
and the visitor will not fail to sympathise with the benevolent efforts 
that are being made to alleviate their suffering to the utmost, and to 
prevent the farther spread of the scourge. 

By proceeding directly to the N. from the Lepers' Hospital we 
reach the road to the Monastery of the Cross (p. 110), which passes 
the Mamilla Pool (^ hr). Returning by the Bethlehem road and 
proceeding along it for about 10 min., we cross the Valley of Hinnom, 
on the S. bank of the Birket es-Sult&n, or Sultan's Pool. 

This reservoir is probably to be referred to the ancient Jewish epoch. 
In the time of the Franks it was called Germanics, in memory of the 
Crusader who discovered Job's Well. It was remodelled at that period, 
and, in the middle of the 16th cent., was restored by Sultan Soliman, 
whence its present name. At a later period the spot was pointed out 
here where David first beheld Bathsheba. 

The pool is 185 yds. long from N. to S., and 73 yds. in width; 
the N. wall has fallen to ruin. On the N. side it is 35 ft. in 
depth, and on the S. side 41 ft., including the rubbish. This 
imposing reservoir has been constructed by the erection of two sub- 
stantial walls across the valley, the intervening space being ex- 
cavated as far as the rocky sides of the valley, these last thus form- 
ing the two other sides. The dry floor of the lower part consists of 
rock; the upper part on the W. side is now used as a garden. A 
cattle-market is held here every Friday. In the middle of the wall 

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of Jerusalem. DAMASCUS GATE. 6\ Route. 103 

to the S. of the pond is an old well, formerly fed by a branch of the 
conduit from the Pools of Solomon. This conduit (p. 129) descends 
the valley from the N., and turns to the S. beyond it. 

From this point the road skirts the town wall and brings us in 
5 min. to the Jaffa Gate (p. 81). 

4. N. Side of the City. Tombs of the Kings. Tombs of the 
Judges, etc. 

Carriage-road as far as the Tombs of the Kings. It is necessary to 
take a light when visiting the different caverns. — The key to the Cotton 
Grotto mnst be procured (through the landlord of the hotel) from the 
Serai, whence a guide will also be sent (fee 6-9 pi., or more in proportion 
for a party). 

We leave the town by the Damascus Gate, which with its battle- 
ments is a fine example of the architecture of the 16th century. 
According to the inscription it was built, or at least restored, by 
Soliman in the year 944 of the Hegira (beginning 10th June, 1537). 
On each side of the inside of the gate are very slender columns, 
above which is a pointed pediment with an inscription. From these 
columns (or perhaps from the small tapering columns on the battle- 
ments) the gate is called Bdb eWAmUd, or 'gate of the columns'. 
The tower of the gate commands a celebrated view. In the 12th 
cent, the gate was called St. Stephen's Gate (p. 106). Excavations 
here have elicited the fact that the gate undoubtedly stands on the 
site of an ancient gate, as a reservoir and a fragment of wall (running 
from E. to W.) constructed of drafted blocks have been discovered 
here. Outside the gate we can still clearly see on our right (E.) 
ancient courses of drafted blocks j when the gateway was rebuilt 
the Turks had grooves cut in the blocks to make them look more 
modern. The Damascus Gate is built in an angular form. It con- 
sists, properly speaking, of two gate-towers, between which there 
are distinct traces of an ancient gateway, or, at least, of the upper 
part of the arch of the gateway. Under the gates there still exist 
subterranean chambers. That of the E. tower is 15 paces long and 
9 paces wide, and is built of large blocks. The rushing of a sub- 
terranean water- course is said to have been frequently heard below 
the Damascus Gate, and it is not improbable that one may exist here. 

The open space in front of the Damascus Gate is the point where 
four roads meet. On the left is the road skirting the wall from the 
Jaffa Gate, and descending on the right into the valley of the Kidron. 
Straight before us (N.) is the road to Nabulus (p. 105) j the road to 
the N.W. leads between Jewish colonies to the Jaffa road (p. 82). 

We skirt the wall in an easterly direction. About 100 paces to 
the E. of the Damascus Gate, there is in the rock, 19 ft. below 
the wall, the entrance to the so called Cotton Grotto, discovered in 
1852. This cavern is called the linen grotto (maghdret el-kettdn) 
by Muslim authors , and it corresponds to the 'royal grottoes' of 

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104 Route 5. 



Josephus (Bell. Jud. V. 4, 2). It is an extensive subterranean 
quarry, stretching 213 yards in a straight line below the level of 
the city, and sloping considerably down towards the S. On the sides 

are still seen niches for the 
lamps of the quarrymen. 
The rocky roof is supported 
by huge pillars. The blocks 
were separated from the rock 
by means of wooden wedges, 
which were driven in and 
wetted so as to cause them 
to swell; and traces of this 
mode of working the quarry, 
are still distinguishable. 
We possess no clue as to the 
period when the quarry was 
used. On one of the walls 
is a kind of cherub in the 
Assyrian style (a four-footed 
being with a human head). 
There is a trickling spring on the right side, but the water is bad. 
Exactly opposite the Cotton Grotto, and a little to theN. of the 
road, is the so-called Grotto of Jeremiah (el-Edhemiyeh). This is 
now a Muslim sanctuary, and a wall is built across the entrance. 
The Muslim custodian often makes extortionate demands before he 
will open the door, but becomes reasonable when the traveller turns 
to go away (6 pi.). We first enter a small open court planted with 
fruit-trees , a view of which can also be obtained from the hill. 
Fragments of columns are scattered about here. Passing through a 
place of prayer we are conducted into a cavern towards the E., and 
then into a second , circular in shape, about 40 paces long and 35 
wide, and supported by a pillar in the centre. To the S.W. we are . 
shown the tomb of the Sultan Ibrahim, and beyond it a lofty rook- 
shelf, with a tomb, which since the 15th cent, has been called the 
tomb of Jeremiah. The prophet is said to have written his Lamenta- 
tions here. These caverns were once inhabited by Muslim santons 
or monks. — In the S.E. angle of the court there is an entrance and 
a descent of 7 steps to a vault borne by a short, thick column, beyond 
which a passage like a door leads to the N. We find here a large 
and handsome cistern, with its roof supported by a massive pillar, 
and lighted from above. Steps lead down to the surface of the water. 
— ; The Cotton Grotto and the Grotto of Jeremiah were probably 
originally parts of the same quarry, and a ridge of rock may have 
once extended from this point to the town-wall, and been afterwards 
removed to increase the strength of the fortifications. — As already 
mentioned (p. 59) several English authorities (including the late 
General Gordon) regard the hill immediately above the Grotto of 

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of Jerusalem. CHURCHES OF ST. STEPHEN. 5. Route. 105 

Jeremiah as the true Golgotha, and one of the rock-tomhs there as 
the Holy Sepulchre. 

We return to the Damascus Gate and take the Ndbulus Road 
(p. 248). About 390 yds. from the gate is a high wall, on the right, 
enclosing the extensive possessions of the Dominicans. These in- 
clude a church, a monastery, and the 'Ecole Biblique', a theological 
seminary, where public lectures on the archaeology and history of 
Palestine are given at regular intervals. The ruins of two Churches 
of St. Stephen have been discovered here. 

In 460 the Empress Eudoxia built a large church in honour of 
St. Stephen to the N. of the city, but this appears to have been destroyed 
when the Arabs besieged Jerusalem in 634-637. About the 8th cent, a 
humbler church and a monastery, dedicated to the same saint, was raised 
by the Greeks, also to the N. of the city. At that time and also later 
another church, to the S. of the Church of Zion, is mentioned as occupy- 
ing the site of the saint's martyrdom. When the tradition was transferred 
to the N. church is unknown. The Crusaders found the latter in ruins 
in 1091, and though they restored it, they pulled it down again during 
the siege by Saladin in 1187. 

The remains of the larger church found here, to the E., are those 
of the basilica of Eudoxia. Mosaic pavements, the altar-slab, and 
fragments of columns were discovered, and the positions of the 
apse, the columns, and the aisles were quite distinct. Beneath is a 
spacious crypt. The church has been rebuilt on the old plan. 
Immediately to the W. of it lies the smaller church of the Crusaders 
(66 ft. long by 23 ft. wide), which was partly built with the ruins 
of the basilica. To the N. are four vaults, in a row from E. to W., 
75 ft. long and 26 ft. broad. 

We now proceed along the Nabulus road till we come to a cross 
road (5 min.). A few paces to the E. of the cross-road are the so- 
called Tombs of the Kings, Arab. Kubitr es-Saldtin. They belong 
to the French and are surrounded by a wall (fee to the custodian 5 p., 
more for a party). We enter from the W. side. A rock-hewn staircase 
of 24 steps, 9 yds wide, leads down into the tombs in an E. direction. 
We here observe channels cut in the rock for conducting water to the 
cisterns below; these cross the staircase at the 10th and 20th steps 
and lead down beside the wall to the right. 

At the foot of the staircase we observe the beautiful cisterns, 
which have now been repaired ; the smaller is on the right ; straight 
before us is a much larger one, with a double-arched entrance in the 
wall of the rock. The roof is slightly vaulted and supported by a 
pillar. At the corners of each cistern are steps for drawing water. On 
the left is a round-arched passage which leads hence through a rocky 
wall, 44/2 ft- thick, down three steps into an open court hewn in the 
rock, 30 yds. long and 27 yds. wide. We now at length perceive to 
the W. the richly hewn portal of the rock-tombs. The portal has 
lately been widened to 38 ft. ; like that of St. James's grotto (p. 95), 
it was formerly borne by two columns, which relieved the open 

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106 Route 5. TOMBS OF THE KINGS. 


space. Some of the mouldings of the portal are still in admirable 
preservation, consisting of a broad girdle of wreaths, fruit, and 

In the vestibule (1) are fragments of columns, capitals, and frag- 
ments of sarcophagi. We cross over a round cistern (k) and descend 
a few steps j on our left is an angular passage (b) with a movable 
rolling stone (c) by which the entrance^to the tomb could be closed. 

The chamber a is about 6^2 yds. square, and from it four en- 
trances, two to the S., one to the W., and one to the N., lead to 
tomb-chambers. The S.E. chamber (d) contains rock-shelves on 
three sides, and shaft-tombs (p. cxi) on the E. and S. In the N.W. 
angle we descend by 4 steps into a lower chamber (d") with 3 shelf 
tombs. The second chamber (e) has a depression in the middle, 
three shaft-tombs on the S.. and three on theW.j this chamber 
also has a subsidiary chamber (f). The chamber (g) to the W. of 
the vestibule contains two shaft-tombs on the right and on the left, 
in addition to the shelves in the walls. In the middle is a passage 
leading to a small chamber with 3 shelf-tombs. From this chamber 
in the N. wall a passage leads farther down to a larger apartment (h), 
in which is a vaulted niche-tomb on the left, and a double shelf 
at the back. The different chambers bear distinct traces of having 
once been closed by properly fitted stone doors. The chamber i to 
the right of the principal entrance once contained a richly decorated 
' sarcophagus (now in the Louvre). 

These catacombs are revered by the Jews, who from a very early 
period have called them the Cavern of Zedekiah, or the Tomb of the rich 
KaJba Sabua y a noble who lived at the time of the Roman siege. It is 
most probable however, that this is the Tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene 

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of Jerusalem. TOMBS OF THE JUDGES. 5. Route. 107 

which, according t> Josephas (Ant. xx. 4, 3), was situated here. This 
queen, with her son Izates, became converted to Judaism and for some 
time resided at Jerusalem, where she had a palace. Helena and Izates 
were buried in a handsome tomb with three pyramids, situated three 
stadia from Jerusalem, which was so famous that Pausanias compares it 
with the tomb of Mausolus. Izates had twenty-four sons, and hence the 
extent of the tomb. A sarcophagus, found by De Saulcy, bore an Aramaic 
inscription (in which the name of Queen Zaddo occurs) in Syriac and 
Hebrew characters, a proof that this Jewish queen belonged to a Syrian 
royal family, viz. that of Adiabene. These vaults were understood to be 
tombs as early as the 14th cent., and they were sometimes referred by 
tradition to the early kings of Judah, whence they are still called 'tombs 
of the kings'. 

To the N. of the Kings* Tombs (to the right of the Nabulua road), 
lie the house of the sect of the Overcomers (p. 36) and the well of Shekh 
Jerrdh. Farther on, crossing over the flat bed of the upper valley of the 
Kidron (Arab. Wddi el-J0z y the valley of nuts), we pass a Jewish colony 
on the left, and on the right come to graves in the rock, among which 
the so-called grave of Simon the Just should be noticed. The Jews make 
pilgrimages to this spot. These is another Jewish colony to theiN. 

I. Tombs on level of ground. II. Basement. HI. Upper series of tombs. 


c3 I 

3 J J3^ 

. . i 



The road to the Tombs of the Judges, Kubur el-Kuddt, which 
leads on to En-Nebi Samwil, branches off to the N.W. (left) from the 
Nabulus road opposite the Church of St. Stephen (p. 105) and reaches 
the tombs in about 35 min. from the town. From the Tombs of the 
Kings we go in the direction of the minaret of En-Nebi Samwil. After 
about 1/2 hr. we observe the entrance to the tombs in the rock on the 
right of the road. A forecourt, 6 1 /2-7 ft- wide, has been hewn east- 
wards in the rock j the vestibule is 12 ft wide , open in front, and 
provided with a gable. In the pediment is a ring from which 
pointed leaves extend in the form of rays. There is also a ped- 
iment over the portal leading into the tomb-chamber. The portal 
was once capable of being closed from within. The S.E. and N.W. 
corners of the first tomb-chamber are imbedded in rubbish. On the 
left (N.) side of it are seven shaft-tombs, above which, at irregular 
distances, are three vaulted niche -tombs; and at the back of 
these there are two other shaft-tombs. In the W. wall is a niche. 
Adjoining this first chamber on the E. and S. (PI. 1) are two others 
on about the same level, and two on a lower level (PI. II). On 

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108 Route 5. TOMBS OF THE JUDGES. 

each of three sides of the E. chamber are three shaft-tombs on a 
level with the ground (PI. I), and 3 ft. above these (PI. Ill) are 
four more of the same kind. The S. chamber has on each of threo 
sides three shaft-tombs, and above these a long vaulted niche-tomb. 
From the first chamber a passage , with three shaft- tombs , des- 
cends to the N.E. chamber, which contains five shaft- tombs on the 
N., five on the S., and three on the E. side. The subterranean 6ide 
chamber to the S.W. was originally a quarry. The myth that the 
'Judges of Israel' are buried here is of modern origin. These cham- 
bers have also been styled 'tombs of the prophets' KubUr el-Anbiyd, 
and by others are assigned to members of the Jewish courts of jus- 
tice. — There are other rock-tombs in the vicinity, but none of so 
great extent. 

We return by the road from En-Nebi Samwil to the Damascus 
Gate, or we turn by a hill of ashes into a path to the right, which 
takes us past St. Paul's (p. 82) to the Jaffa road. 

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6. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, Philip's 

Well, and Bittir 110 

From the Monastery of the Cross to f Ain Karim ... Ill 

From Bittir to Bethlehem 112 

7. From Jerusalem to r Ain Klrim 112 

From c Ain Karim to' Philip's Well 113 

8. From Jerusalem toEn-Nef>i Samwil and El-Kubebeh. 114 

From El-Kub§beh to Jerusalem via El-Jib . . . . . 115 

9. From Jerusalem to 'Anata/AinFara, Jeba f ,andMakhmas 116 

From Jeba f to Jerusalem direct 11? 

From Makhm&s to BStin via DSr Divan 117 

10. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem 117 

B3t Sahur and the Field of the Shepherds 127 

11. From Jerusalem (Bethlehem) to the Pools of Solomon, 

Khareitun, and the Frank Mountain 127 

From Aytas to Bethlehem 130 

From Ar't&s to Tekoah . 130 

12. From Jerusalem to Hebron 182 

13. From Hebron to Bdt Jibrin and Gaza 137 

From Jerusalem to B£t Jibrin direct 137 

From Gaza to El-'Arish 143 

14. From Gaza to Jerusalem via A scalon 144 

From Ascalon to Jaffa 145 

16. From Jerusalem to Jericho , the Ford of Jordan , the 

Dead Sea, and back to Jerusalem by Mar Sabfi . . . 148 

Jebel Karantel 152 

From Jericho to Beisan 153 

From Ma* Sftbtt to Bethlehem 161 

16. From Jericho to Es-Salt and Jerash 162 

Jebel Osha f . . . . ' 163 

17. From Jerash to 'Amman, 'Arafc el-Emir, Hesban, Me- 

deba, and El-Kerak ' .... 170 

From 'Amman to Es-Salt 172 

From f Arak el-Emir to Jericho 173 

From <Araic el-Emir to Es-8alt 173 

From Mede'ba to the Jebel Neba 176 

From Jericho to Medeba 176 

Ma'in, Callirrhoe, Mukaur, Umm er-Resas 177 

18. TheHauran 180 

History 180 

1. From Damascus to El-Muzerib 182 

a. By Railway 182 

b. By the Pilgrim Route 184 

2. From Jerash to El-Muze*rib 185 

3. From Tiberias to El-Mnzerib 186 

a. Via Irbid 186 

b. Via MukSs 187 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

110 Route 6. MONASTERY OF THE CROSS. From Jerusalem 

4. From El-Muzerib to Bosra 188 

Tour in the Eastern Hauran 192 

5. From Bosra to Damascus 192 

From Bosra to Es-SuwSda via Hebran 192 

From Eanawat to Shuhba via Suleim J95 

From Shuhba to Burak via Shakka 19< 

19. Southern Palestine (Beersheba, Engedi, Masada, and 

JebelUsdum) 198 

From Gaza to Beersheba Jgjj 

From Beersheba to Hebron l«Jo 

From Bethlehem to Engedi JW 

From Hebron to Engedi jJJJ 

From Jericho to Engedi **{ 

From Engedi to Masada £{l 

From Masada to Hebron ;Jg 

From Masada to Jebel Usdum *JJJ 

From Hebron to Jebel Usdum 2U4 

From Jebel Usdum to El-Kerak 2U4 

20. Petra 205 

Environs of Petra 


From Jebel Usdum to Petra 2U» 

From El-Kerak to Petra jgy 

From Petra to Hebron -J* 

21. The Peninsula of Sinai \ ' 

1. From Suez to Mount Sinai via Maghlra and Wadi 
Firan 216 

2. From Suez by sea to Tur, and thence to Mt. Sinai . 229 

3. Monastery of St. Catharine on Mt. Sinai and its En- 
virons . . , . , ™* 

4. Return from Mt. Sinai to Suez via the Wadi esh- 
Shekh and Sarbut el-Khadem 241 

5. From Mt. Sinai to f Akaba and Petra 245 

6. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, 
Philip's Well, and Bittir. 

The road is not practicable for carriages. Horses and donkeys, see 
p. 20. From Bittir the return may be made by railway. 

From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross 20 min. $ thence to the 
Well of Philip i.1/4 hr., and thence to Bittir 25 minutes. 

From the Jaffa Gate to the Birket MdmUla see p. 81. We next 
leave the road to ( Ain Y&ld to the left , and the old road to r Ain 
Kdrim to the right (see the map, p. 84), and descend the valley to 
the (20 min.) Monastery of the Cross, Arab. Mr el-Musallabeh. 

Monastery Of the Cross. — Histoby. The foundation of the mon- 
astery is attributed to the Empress Helena; according to another tradi- 
tion it was founded by Mirian (265-342), first Christian ruler of Georgia, 
one of the three kings depicted over the inner portal of the church. It is 
at any rate certain that it was founded before the introduction of El-Islam- 
It was rebuilt in the middle of the 11th century. At the period of the 
crusades the monastery was the property of the Georgians, from whom, 

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Engraved * printed "by Wagner *■ De'beH.Leipiie-. 
Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Hebron, Jericho, and the Oea 

Scale of I'. 250.000 


lira Tjv XDlfttl. 

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1 12 Route 7. r AIN KARIM. From Jerusalem 

beneath a niche in the wall, with Corinthian columns on each side. 
At the back is a small pointed window, now walled up. The build- 
ing is a ruin ; remains of columns and hewn stones still lie scattered 
about. The tradition that f Ain el-Haniyeh was the spring in which 
Philip baptised the eunuch of Ethiopia (Acts viii. 36), dates from 
1483, before which the scene of that event was placed near Hebron 
(p. 134). 

From Philip's Well to Bittir the road Q/ 2 hr.) descends the Wddi 
el-Werd. After 20 min. the village of El- Welejeh, with its vine- 
yards and nursery gardens, lies on our right. A few min. beyond 
the spot where the Valley of Roses enters the Wddi Bittir lies the 
village of Bittir (p. 14). 

From BittIr to Bethlehem, l 3 /4 hr. The direct road ascends the 
Wddi Bittir. In V2 hr. it reaches KaVat Sabdh el-Khtr^ where a cavern, 
probably once a hermitage , is hewn in a block of rock. After 20 min. 
we ascend to the E. from the bottom of the Wadi Bittir; in 1/2 hr. we 
reach Bit Jdld (p. 128), and in 25 min. more Bethlehem. 

From Bittir to 'Ain Kdrim via El- Welejeh, 1 1/4 hr. 

7. Prom Jerusalem to c Ain Kdrim. 

4 M. Carriage (p. 20) there and back (1/2 day), 10-12 fr. 

We follow the Jaffa road as far as the third watch-tower, see 
p. 18. Here our road diverges to the S.W. (left) and passing 
the tomb of Shlkh Bedr (on the left) follows the verge of the ridge 
almost in a straight line. From the top of the hill above r Ain Karim 
we command a view of the Mediterranean, the Mt. of Olives, and 
part of Jerusalem. The carriage-road leads in great windings down to 
r Ain Karim. During the descent, we have a beautiful view of the 
village; below us, the Franciscan monastery and church, with the 
village behind; a little to the right, on an eminence, is the large 
establishment of the Sisters of Zion : convent, girls' school, and girls' 
educational institution (founded by Father Ratisbonne). On the hill 
to the left (S. of the village) are the Russian buildings (chapel, 
hospice, and dwellings) and a Latin chapel; below in the valley, be- 
tween this hill and the village is the beautiful St. Mary's Well. 

f Ain K&rim. — History. r Ain Karim probably corresponds to the 
Karem of the Septuagint (Josh. xv. 60). A tradition, which arose in the 
time of the Crusaders, makes r Ain Karim the r City of JudV (Luke i. 39) ; 
but that place is probably the modern Yuttd near Hebron (p. 199). 

'Ain Kdrim (St. John) is much visited by Greek and Latin pil- 
grims. The village lies in a beautiful and fertile district. It con- 
tains about 2500 inhabitants, of whom 350 are Latins, 50 Greeks, 
arid the rest Muslims. They are all tillers of the ground, and possess 
fruitful olive-gToves and vineyards. 

The castellated Latin Monastery of St. John belongs to the 
Franciscans. Travellers can be accommodated on bringing letters of 
recommendation from the secretary of the Salvator monastery in 
Jerusalem. The garden of the monastery, with its conspicuous cy- 

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to r Ahi Kdrim. f AIN EL-HABS. 7. Route. 113 

presses, lies within the enclosure. The dome-covered Church of St. 
John, which is enclosed by the monastery on thiee sides, peers 
prettily above the walls. Tradition declares it to be the spot on 
which stood the house of Zacharias, John the Baptist's father. 

After this church had long been used by the Arabs as a stable, 
the Marquis de Nointel, ambassador of Louis XIV., prevailed upon the 
sultan to restore it to the Franciscans; and these indefatigable monks 
succeeded in firmly establishing themselves here, rebuilding the monastery, 
and purging and restoring the church. The older part of the building is 
probably not earlier than the Crusaders 1 period, when the birth of John 
the Baptist was first localised here. 

The church consists of nave and aisles; the elegant dome is 
borne by four pillars , and the pavement is still adorned with old 
mosaics. The high-altar is dedicated to Zacharias, the father of 
John the Baptist, and the S. chapel to the memory of the Virgin's 
visit to Elizabeth. Adjoining the organ is a picture representing 
St. John in the desert, copied from Murillo. On the left (N.) of 
the altar seven steps descend to a Crypt, the alleged birthplace of 
the Baptist, where five well-executed basreliefs in white marble, 
representing scenes from his life, are let into the black walls. 

Following the carriage-road, in 4 min. from the Monastery we 
reach the Spring of f Ain Karim , which was associated in the 14th 
cent, with the supposed visit of the Virgin and called St. Marys 
Well. Over the spring is a mosque with a minaret. — About 
4 min. to the W. of the spring stands the chapel Mdr Sakdryd, con- 
structed in 1860 from ruined walls and vaults, marking the alleged 
site of the summer-dwelling of Zacharias, where the Virgin visited 
Elizabeth. Near the entrance is shown a piece of the stone which 
yielded when Elizabeth, during her flight before Herod, laid the in- 
fant John on it. Beside the chapel is a Greek monastery. On the 
hill-slopes are a church and numerous new houses, and on the top 
of the hill is a tower commanding a good view — all Russian property. 

From f Ain Karim we proceed to the W. , towards the Wddi Bit 
Hanind or Wddi Kaldniyeh (p. 17). In 1 hr. we reach the spring 
f Ain el-Habs. The Grotto of St. John (el-habs, 'the prison'), to 
which steps hewn in the rock ascend, lies close to the spring. It 
belongs to the Latins. On the side next the valley there are two 
apertures in the wall of rock, leading to a kind of balcony, whence 
we survey the Wddi Sdtdf and the village of Subd. The place is 
called by the Christians the Wilderness of St. John, although it is now 
well planted, and was cultivated in ancient times also, if we may 
judge from the traces of garden-terraces. The altar in the grotto is 
said to stand on the spot where the Baptist slept (Luke i. 80). 
From other passages, however (Luke iii. 3), it is obvious that by 
the 'wilderness of Judaea' the region near Jordan is meant; and, 
moreover, the tradition attaching to r Ain el-Habs does not date 
farther back than about the year 1500. 

From c Ain Kabim to Philip's Well. We ride through the Moham- 
medan burial-ground of the village and ascend the side of a narrow valley 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 8 

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114 Route 8. EN-NEBI SAMWIL. From JtnuaUm 

towards the 8.E. Halfway up we leave on our left the path which leads 
by JEl-Mdliha and Bit Sa/d/d and joins the Bethlehem road near ZYwlflr 
(p. 118), and keep to the right (S.E.) After i/shr. we arrive at the top, 
which commands a splendid view. Continuing in the same direction we 
descend on the right side of a small dale, passing some tombs on our 
way. We then cross ihe dale and arrive in V*br. at the wa * % e * vfi ' 
near the spot where the Wddi Ahmed runs into it from the*other jide. 
Thence we descend the valley to (1/4 hr.) Philips Well (p. 111). 

8. From Jerusalem to En-Nebi Samwfl andEl-KubSbeh 

From the Damascus, Gate or the Jaffa Gate to the Tombs of the 
Judges (about 35 min.), see p. 107. The road descends steeply into 
the valley (8 min.). Following the downward course of the valley, 
we arrive in 13 min. at the Wddi BU Hanind, deriving its name 
from the village of BU Hanind (Ananiah, Neh. xi. 32), on the spur 
rising between the two valleys which unite here. We now cross the 
wide bed of the brook which is full of boulders, and ascend to the 
N.W. in the side-valley which opens exactly opposite. After 25 min. 
we reach a small plain ; to the left, on the crest of the hill, is the 
ruin of Khirbet el-J6%, or Khirbet el-Burj, dating from the Crusaders' 
period, and supposed in the middle ages to have been the chateau of 
Joseph of Arimathea. To the S.W. we see Bet Iksa, the Jaffa road, 
and , farther distant, f Ain Karim. The village of En-Nebi Samwil 
is reached in 20 min. more. Before we enteTTTwe see, on the right 
of the road, two reservoirs hewn in the rock and of high antiquity; the 
spring which supplies them is more to the N. The village possesses 
few houses, but its walls partly hewn in the rock, and the fine large 
blocks of building-stone outside the mosque^onike N.E. side, show 
traces of great antiquity. — The summit is reached in § minutes. 

En-Nebi Samwil ('Prophet Samuel'), 2935 ft. above the sea- 
level, is the highest mountain near Jerusalem. 

We are here standing on what is most probably the venerable spot 
where rose the ancient fortress of Mitpah, the famous city of Benjamin. 
King Asa of Judah fortified it against Israel (1 Kings xv. 22). Tradition 
points out En-Nebi Samwil as the birthplace, residence, and burial-place of 
the prophet Samuel, although without sufficient foundation. It is recorded, 
however, that the Emperor Justinian (d. 565) caused a well to be dug in 
tje monastery of 8t. Samuel, which probably occupied this site. The 
— Urusaders regarded the place as the ancient Shiloh, and built a church 
bere over 'Samuel's Tomb\ They called the mountain Mons Gaudii, or 
_J£G3ntain .of Jojr, because it was their first halting-point that commanded 
a view oTJerusalem. In the 16th cent, a handsome and much-frequented 
pilgrimage-shrine stood here. 

The transept and the N. apse of the Crusaders' church, which was 
erected here in 1157, are still extant. The present mosque, to which 
admission is easily obtained (entrance from a court), contains the 
traditional tomb of Samuel. The tomb is shown reluctantly, though 
revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims alike. The traveller loses 
nothing if he fails to see it, as the sarcophagus and the pall 
are certainly modern. He should not, however, fail to ascend the 

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to El-Kubtbeh. EL-KUB^BEH. 8. Route. 115 

minaret for the sake of the magnificent *View. To the right, to the 
N. of El-Jib, rises the hill of Ramallah (p. 248) ; in front of it, 
below, lies the village of Bir Nebala; to the E., Bet Hanina, and 
farther E., the hill of Tell el-Ful (p. 248). Beyond these, in the 
distance, rise the blue mountains beyond Jordan ; to the S.E. are Je- 
rusalem and the Mount of Olives ; adjoining these, on the hill to the 
S., is Mar Ely as; above it rises the round summit of the Frank 
Mountain (p. 131), and farther distant is Bethlehem. The village 
of Bet Iksa lies quite near us to the S. ; to the S.S.W. is Lifta, and 
to the W.N.W., Biddu. Raraleh and Jaffa lie farther W. ; the Me- 
diterranean is also visible in clear weather. 

From En-Nbbi Samwil to El-Kubbbbh. From the summit we 
descend to the S.W. and then turn directly to the W. We remain on 
the height and thus skirt the valleys which descend towards the S. 
(left). After 35 min. we reach the village of Biddu, surrounded by 
heaps of stones and destitute of trees. It was at Biddu that the 
Crusaders gained their first glimpse of Jerusalem (the road by BU 
NUbd and Biddu is a very old one ; traces of the pavement are still 
visible). El-Kubebeh is reached in V4 nr - more On the identification 
of the village with the Emmaus of the N.T., see p. 16. The village 
is prettily situated and contains numerous ruins. The Franciscan 
monastery offers a friendly welcome. Ruins of an old Crusaders' 
church (100 ft. long by 50 ft. broad), with a nave and aisles (the 
apses are distinctly visible), were found in the ground on which the 
monastery is built. The church is said to stand on the spot where 
Jesus broke bread with the two disciples (Luke xxiv. 30). Some anti- 
quities (a sarcophagus) have also been dug up. In return for the hos- 
pitality of the monks, each visitor should give 1 or 2 francs for the 
poor. There is also a German Trappist monastery, with a new church. 
From El-Kub£beh to Jerusalem, a. Direct in 2*^ hrs. 
We return to Biddu (see above). Three roads meet here ; we take 
the central one, which leads us along the valley past the spring r Ain 
BU Sfiftk (above us, on the right, is the village of the same name). 
In 8/4 hr. we pass the ruins of Khirbet el-L6za on our right; in 20 
min. more the valley unites with the Wddi BU Hariind; on the right 
are the ruins of BU Tulmd (road on the right to Kaldniyeh in 20 
min.). We cross the valley, ascend straight on to the S.E., and in 
10 min. reach the Jaffa road. Thence to the Jaffa Gate 1 hr. (p. 18). 
b. Via El- Jib, 3 8 /4 hrs. We return to Biddu (see above), pass through 
the village, and follow an old Roman road to the N.E. In 40 min. we 
- reach El-Jib, a small village on an isolated hill, the ancient Gibeon (Josh, 
ix. 3f ; 1 Kings iii. 4f.). The houses are built among old ruins and there 
is a large building that seems to have been a castle. On the E. slope of 
the hill is a large reservoir with a spring, and a second farther down, 
perhaps the pool mentioned in 2 Sam. ii. 13. To the S. the view embraces 
En-Nebi Samwil and Biddu; to the N.E., Jedireh and Kalandia; to the right 
of these, the hill of Ramallah; to the E., below us, Bir Nebala. From El- 
Jib we proceed to the S.E., passing Btr Nebdla, via (l'Ahr.) BH Hanind 
(p. 114) and »/« hr. Shtffdt. In 7 min. more we .ioin the Nabulus road. 
Thence to the (40 min.) Damascus Gate, see p. 248. 


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9. From Jerusalem to 'An&t&j c Ain P&ra, Jeba c , and 

Leaving the Damascus Gate we turn to the right and follow the 
city- walls. From the N.E. corner we proceed by a road to the left, 
and crossing the upper valley of the Kidron reach the top of the 
Mount of Olives in 20 min. (p. 93). From the top we have a fine 
view towards the E. (the Dead Sea and valley of the Jordan). We 
avoid a road to the right, leading to the village of El-Isawtyeh, per- 
haps the ancient Nob (Isaiah x. 32). The path next descends grad- 
ually to the N. to (28 min.) the village of — 

An&tft.. — History. r Anata corresponds to the ancient Anathoth, in 
the territory of Benjamin, the birthplace of Jeremiah (Jerem. i. 1 -, xi. 21- 
23). Tradition has erroneously placed Anathoth near Abu QMsh (p. 17). 
The district we are now surveying is mentioned in Isaiah's description 
of the approach of the Assyrians under Sennacherib (x. 28, 30). The village 
was repeopled after the captivity (Ezra ii. 23). 

'Anatd seems to have been fortified in ancient times, and 
fragments of columns are built into the huts of the present village. 
A little to the right of the road, at the very entrance to the village, 
we observe the ruins of a large old building, probably a church, 
with a well-preserved mosaic pavement. The view from the top of 
the broad hill on which the village lies embraces towards the E. 
the mountains of ancient Benjamin, sloping down to the valley of 
Jordan, and part of the Dead Sea, and a number of villages on the 
hills to the W. and N. 

From 'Anata. to r AiN Faba. The road (guide necessary) leads 
us towards the N.E., and in 3 /4 nr - skirts the Wddi Ffoa (magnificent 
view). After 20 min. more we descend precipitously into the valley 
a little below the r Ain Fara, a spring with abundant water. The 
vegetation in the bottom of the valley remains green and fresh even 
in summer; the brook in some places runs underground; numer- 
ous relics of aqueducts , bridges, and noble buildings are visible. 
High up on the steep rocky sides are ancient habitations of her- 
mits (which may be reached from the S. side, but the ascent is 

Following a small side-valley which issues a little below the 
spring, we ascend in a N.W. direction, and in 3/ 4 hr. reach the 
village of — 

Jeba f . — Histobt. Jeba* is the ancient Geba in the tribe of Benjamin 
(Is. x. 29), near Gibeah of Benjamin (1 Sam. xiv. 2), but not to be con- 
founded with it. The latter is now Tell el-F<kl (p. 218) and is identical with 
'Gibeah of SauF (i Sam. xv. 34) and 'Gibeah of God' (1 Sam. x. 26). But 
'Gibeah of God" in 1 Sam. x. 5 seems to have been confounded with Geba 
(comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 3). Geba and Gibeah seem to have been confounded 
again in 1 Sam. xiii. 16 and 1 Sam. xiv. 16; Gebah, which commands the 
pass of MakhmSs, is obviously intended instead of Gibeah In 2 Kings 
xxiii. 8 thu kingdom of Judah is described as extending 'from Geba to 

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MAKHMAS. 9. Route. 117 

The shrine of Jeba f is called Nebi Ya'kub ('Prophet Jacob'). Here 
also we obtain an extensive view, especially towards the N., where 
the villages of Burka, Dirlftwdn, and Et-Tayyibeh are situated. The 
last, a Christian village, is perhaps Ophrah of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 
23 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 17). To the N.E. Kammon is visible. 

From Jbba' to Jebusalem the direct route leads via ( Andtd. Going 
S., we descend after 25 min. into the Wddi Fdra, near its head •, in about 
10 min. we ascend the hill again towards El-Hizmeh, enjoying a fine view 
from the summit. N. of the village lie the' stone monuments of KubCr 
Beni IsrafimO'), to the W., numerous cisterns and caves. — In 20* min. 
we descend into the Wddi Seldm, cross it, and ascend the steep slope to- 
wards the 8., reaching r Andtd in 10 min. (see p. 116). 

From Jeba' to Makhmas the route now descends to the N.E. into 
the Wddi es-SuxvtnU (35 min.) ; another valley also opens here to the 
N. The village of Makhmas (400 inhab.), on a hill l/ 4 hr. to the 
N.E., contains no curiosities except a cavern with columbaria (p. 139). 
Farther down the Wddi es-Suvolnit contracts between lofty cliffs 
and forms a ravine, answering to the description of the l passage of 

-- Michmash* in 1 Sam. xiv. 4, 6 ; the 'sharp rocks* there mentioned 

may also be identified. 

From Makhmas to B£t!n. We ascend towards the N. to the table-land 
along the E. side of a narrow, but deep valley which runs into the Wddi 
es-Suwinit. At the point where we obtain a view of the valley there are 
several rock-tombs on the W. slope, above which lie the ruins of MakHln, 
the aneient Migron (Is. x. 28). After 36 min. the village of Burka lies 
opposite, to the W. N.W., and that of Kudira farther to the N. ' After 
1/4 hr., tombs and quarries. We next reach O/4 hr.) the large village of 
Der Diwan, loftily situated, and enclosed by mountains. To the N. the 
deep Wddi Matyd descends to the Jordan. 

The city of f Ai lay near Der Diwan, but where, is quite uncertain. 
r Ai is described as having lain to the E. of Bethel (Gen. zii. 8). It was 
captured by Joshua (Josh. viii). Isaiah (x. 28) calls it Aiath, and after 
the captivity it was repeopled by Benjamites. 

From Der Diwan the road leads through a hollow to the (20 min.) 
top of Tell el-Hajar } and then traverses a beautiful, lofty plain. To the 
N.E. we see the hill of Rimmon, now Ramm6n (Judges xx. 46-47). Farther 
on we pass the ruins of Burj BHtn. On the opposite side of a fertile 
valley we perceive the village of Bitin, which we reach in 20 min. more 
(p. 249). 

10. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem. 

5 M. Good Boad. The excursion may also be made on foot. — Carriages 
and Riding Horses, see p. 20. Price of a carriage about 10 fr. — Half a 
day will suffice for Bethlehem itself, but travellers who go on to Solomon's 
Pools require a whole day (comp. p. 127). 

Immediately outside the Jaffa Gate the road descends to the left 
into the Yalley j? f Hinnom (p. 99), skirting the Birket es-Sullan 
(5 min.) and the Mpnt.eflpre institution. We leave the road to the 
railway-station and the Temple colony (p. 101) on our right. At 
the point where the valley turns towards the E., our route ascends 
to the S., passing the English eye-hospital (p. 35). A road to the 
railway-station diverges to the right immediately before the table- 
land is reached, and another, to the left, ascends the Hill of Evil 
Counsel (p. 99), a walk of a few minutes only. Its summit coni- 

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118 Route 10. MARELYAS. From Jerusalem 

mands a particularly good survey of the.J9, .side of Jerusalem, with 
the village of Silwdn and the Mt. of Olives to the N.E., and the 
villages of BUSaf dfd} Esh-Sherdf&t, and the monastery of M&rEly&s 
to the S. 'jfhe ruins on tluPnm of evil counsel' are probably those 
of an Arabian village, though traditionally called the Country House 
of Caiaphas. Above is the Well Abu T6r; to the S. of it the tree 
on which Judas is said to have hanged himself is shown; all its 
branches extend horizontally towards the E. 

The lofty and tolerably well cultivated plain extending hence 
towards the S., which our route traverses, is called M T BukeVa^ and 
is probably identical with the valley of Reghaim (p. lCTlVxo the 
left of the road is a large Consent of tk^Clarigses.— The plain 
sinks towards the W. to the Wddi el-Werd (p. 111). On the right, 
at the entrance to this valley, we first observe the village of Bit Sa- 
fdfd, and then that of Esh-Sherdfdt, at some distance. On thTroa^ 
are several dwelling-houses. The Greek settlement on an eminence 
to the right, at some distance, called Katamdn, is said to have been 
the House of Simeon (Luke ii. 25). It consists of a small church and 
the summer-residence of the Patriarch, and affords a pretty view 
(road to the colony, p. 102). Farther on, to the left of the road, a 
cistern is pointed out as the traditional Well of the Magi* where 
they are said to have again seen the guiding star (Matth. ii. 9). 
Mary also is said to have rested here ou her way to Bethlehem, whence 
its ancient name Kathisma (seat), preserved in the modern name 
Btr KadXsmd. 

At the extremity of the plain we ascend a hill to the monastery 

of M&r Ely&s, 3 M. from Jerusalem, very pleasantly situated on 

the saddle of the hill. On the left of the road lies jt well from 

which the HolyJEamily is said once to have drunk. The__view from 

the adjoining hill to the right is quite as fine as that from the tercace 

t of the monastery. To the S. lies Bethlehem, to the N. Jer usa lem, 

V beyond which rises En-Nebi Samwil, and the blue mountain-range 

\ to the E. of Jordan forms a beautiful background. 

The monastery was erected at an unknown date by a bishop Elias, 
whose tomb was shown in the monastery church down to the 17th cent., 
and was rebuilt during the Frank regime (1160) after its destruction by 
the infidels. Shortly afterwards the tradition was invented that the place 
was connected with the prophet Elijah, and the events described in 1 Kings 
xix. 3 et seq. were even localised in a depression in the rock (to the right 
of the path, opposite the monastery-door), which was said to have been 
made by the prophet's foot. 

Beyond the monastery the road leads to the right, skirting a 
valley which descends to the E. The soil here is cultivated. In front 
of us, beyond the valley towards the S.E., the round summit of the 
Frank Mountain (p. 131) comes in sight, and towards the S., Beth- 
lehem. On the right (S.S.W.) lies the large village of Bit Jdld 
(p. 128), with its white buildings. After 13 min. we observe on a 
hill to the right the beautifully situated Tantur, a settlement of 
the Roman Catholic Maltese Order, containing a hospital, house for 

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to Bethlehem. TOMB OF &ACHEL. 10. Route. 119 

the brethren, and chapel. Here is shown the Fiel d of Peas , so called 
from the legend that Christ once asked a man what he was sowing, 
to which the reply was 'stones'. The field thereupon produced peas 
of stone, some of which are still to be found on the spot. To the 
left is a fine view of the Dead Sea. 

After 9 min. (4 M. from Jerusalem) we see on our right an in- 
significant building styled the Tomb of Rach el (Kubbet Rdhil). The 
dome of the tomb closely resembles those of the innumerable Muslim 
welis, and the whitewashed sarcophagus is modern. The entrance 
to the forecourt is on the N. side. The tomb is revered by Mus- 
lims, Christians, and Jews, and is much visited by pilgrims, espe- 
cially of the last-named faith ; Beduins bring their dead to be buried 
here. The walls are covered with the names of these devotees. 

According to 1 Sam. z. 2f. and Jer. xxxi. 15, the tomb of Rachel was 
on the border of Benjamin, near Bamah (Er-Ram, p. 248). Traces of a 
conformable spot (based on old tradition) have been discovered about 
IV* M. to the N.E. of Kattal (p. 17). In the time of Christ, however, 
the tomb was located near Bethlehem and the passage in Jeremiah was 
regarded as applying to Bethlehem. The rise of this view cannot be 
dated. It was already shared by the author of the erroneous gloss ('that 
is Bethlehem') in Gen. xxxv. 19 and xlviii. 7, placed after the name of 
Ephrdth, near which Rachel died ; and also by the writer of Micah v. 2. 
Throughout the whole of the Christian period the tradition has always 
attached to the same spot, and for many centuries the supposed tomb 
was marked by a pyramid of stones, of which the number was said to have 
been twelve, corresponding with the number of the tribes of Israel. The 
monument appears to have been altered in the 15th cent., since which time 
it has been repeatedly restored. 

Here the road divides ; the branch straight on leads to Hebron 
(p. 132). We, however, turn to the left, and in 13 min. reach the first 
houses of Bethlehem on a hill opposite the town proper. At the point 
where the road bends to the right a narrow path straight on brings us 
in a minute or two to the so-called David's Well, consisting of three 
cisterns hewn in the rook. Since the 1 5th cent, tradition has as- 
sociated this spot with the narrative in 2 Sam. xxiii. 14-17. Close 
beside the well a necropolis has been discovered with' inscriptions 
in red pigment (mostly names of the deceased). In the vicinity is 
a fine mosaic pavement with a Greek inscription (Psalms cxviii._ 
19). The view of Bethlehem, situated beyond the Wddi el-Hrobbeh, 
is very picturesque from this point. The eye is at once struck with 
the careful way in which the ground is cultivated in terraces. The 
vegetation here, partly owing to the greater industry of the inhab- 
itants, is richer than in the immediate environs of Jerusalem. 

Bethlehem. — History. In the name of this town (Arab. BU Lahm), 
which has existed for thousands of years, is perpetuated a very ancient 
popular tradition. In Hebrew the word means the 'place of bread', or, 
more generally, the 'place of food', and is probably derived from the fact 
that the region about Bethlehem has from very remote antiquity presented 
a marked contrast to the surrounding 'wilderness' (comp. p. 199). As to the 
epithet Ephrat or Ephratah, see above. Bethlehem is the scene of the 
beautiful idyl of the book of Ruth, but it was specially famous as the 
home of the family of David. Not only that monarch but also other cel- 
ebrated members of the family, Joab, Asahel, and Abishai, once resided 

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120 Route 10. BETHLEHEM. Situation. 

here (2 Sam. ii. 12, 18, 32). It was not, however, until the Christian 
period, when it began to attract pilgrims, that Bethlehem became a place 
of any size. Constantine erected a magnificent basilica here in 330, and 
Justinian caused the walls to be rebuilt. So many monasteries and churches 
were soon erected, that it is spoken of as a flourishing place about the 
year 600, its church being at that period especially famous. On the approach 
of the Crusaders the Arabs destroyed Bethlehem, but the Franks soon 
rebuilt the little town and founded a castle near the monastery. In 1244 
the place was devastated by the Kharezmians; in 1489 the fortifications 
and the monastery were destroyed. For a time the place lost much of its 
importance, but within the last three centuries it has gradually recovered. 
Quarrels between the Christians and the Muslims frequently caused blood- 
shed, and the inhabitants were even occasionally molested by the Beduins. 
The Muslims, who occupied a separate quarter at Bethlehem, were ex- 
pelled by the Christians in 1831, and after an insurrection in 1834 their 
quarter was destroyed by order of Ibrahim Pasha. Since that period the 
town has been almost exclusively occupied by Christians. Comp. Palmer, 
Das jetzige Bethlehem: ZDPV, xviii. 89 f. 

Bethlehem is situated 2550 ft. above the level of the sea , on 
two hills running from E. to W. , and connected with each other by 
a short saddle. To the S. of the town is situated the Wddi er- 
Rdhib, and to the N. the Wddi el-Hrobbeh. The slope of the hills 
towards the W. and E. is gentler than towards the N. and S. The 
situation of Bethlehem and its surrounding valleys is not unlike 
that of Jerusalem. — The wine of Bethlehem is preferred to that of 
Jerusalem. Cafi in the square in front of the church. — Turkish 
Telegraph Office. 

The town is divided into eight quarters and numbers about 8000 
inhabitants, about 260 of whom are Muslims and 50 Protestants. 
The Latins possess a large Franciscan monastery here with a hospice, 
boys' school, and a handsome new church (these buildings lie on the 
slope of the hill, at the back of the large church) ; they have also a 
school for girls and a convent belonging to the sisters of St. Joseph. 
In the S.W. quarter is the convent of the French Carmelite sisters, 
a building in the style of the Castle of S. Angelo at Rome, with 
a church and a seminary; on the hill of the N. suburb is the 
large boys* home and industrial school conducted by Father Bel- 
loni, with a church; to the N.W., near the Hebron road, is a hos- 
pital of the sisters of Charity ; and on the highest point to the N. is 
a school of the 'freres de la mission alge*rienne\ The Greeks have 
a monastery of the Nativity, two churches (St. Helen and St. 
George), a school for boys, and another for girls. Adjacent is the 
Armenian monastery. The three monasteries together occupy a 
large building resembling a fortress, which forms a prominent ob- 
ject at the S.E. end of the town. There is also a school for girls and 
a seminary for female teachers of the British mission, and a German 
Protestant institution containing a school for boys and one for girls, 
with a handsome church. 

The inhabitants, who have often given proofs of their intrepidity 
in their battles with their neighbours (see above), live chiefly by 
agriculture and breeding cattle, besides which they have for several 

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Churchof SuMaiy^ 

Ngfcs / 

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St. Mary's Church. BETHLEHEM. 10. Route. 121 

centuries been occupied in the manufacture of rosaries, crosses, and 
other fancy articles in wood, mother-of-pearl, coral, and stinkstone 
(lime mixed with bitumen) from the Dead Sea. The vases made 
of the last-named material, however , are very fragile. A visit to 
one of the workshops, when buying, will prove interesting. Beth- 
lehem is also the market-town of the peasants and Beduins in the 
neighbourhood , many of the latter coming from the region of the 
Dead Sea. 

The large "Church of St. Mary, erected over the traditional birth- 
place of Christ, lies in the E. part of the town, above the Wadi el- 
Hrobbeh, and is the joint property of the Greeks, Latins, and 

The tradition which localises the birth of Christ in a Cavern near 
Bethlehem extends back as far as the 2nd century (Justinus Martyr). As au 
insult to the Christians, Hadrian is said to have destroyed a church which 
stood on the sacred spot, and to have erected a temple of Adonis on its 
site, but this story is not authenticated. In 330 a handsome basilica was 
erected here by order of the Emperor Constantine. The assertion that the 
present church is the original structure is based on the simplicity of its 
style and the absence of characteristics of the buildings of the sub- 
sequent era of Justinian. Other authorities consider it beyond question 
that the Church of St. Mary underwent considerable restoration in the 
days of Justinian (627-565). In any case, we are about to visit a church 
of venerable antiquity, and one which is specially interesting as an 
example of the earliest Christian style of architecture. In the year 
1010 the church is said to have miraculously escaped destruction 
by the Muslims under Hakim, and the Franks found the church uninjured. 
Throughout the accounts of all the pilgrims of the middle ages there 
prevails so remarkable an unanimity regarding the situation and archi- 
tecture of the church, that there can be little doubt that it has never 
been altered. On Christmas Day, 1101, Baldwin was crowned king here, 
and in 1110 Bethlehem was elevated to the rank of an episcopal see. 
The church soon afterwards underwent a thorough restoration, and the 
Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenos (1143-1180) munificently caused 
the walls to be adorned with gilded mosaics. These were executed by 
an architect named Efrem , who introduced the effigy of the emperor at 
various places. The church was covered with lead. In 1482 the roof, 
which had become dilapidated, was repaired, Edward IV. of England 
giving the lead for the purpose, and Philip of Burgundy the pine-wood. 
The woodwork was executed by artificers of Venice. At that period 
the mosaics fell into disrepair, and the condition of the roof soon became 
the subject of new complaints. Towards the end of the 17th cent, the 
Turks stripped the roof of its lead, in order to make bullets. On the 
occasion of a restoration of the church in 1672 the Greeks managed to 
obtain possession of it. The Latins , who had long been excluded, were 
admitted to a share of the proprietorship of the church through the in- 
tervention of Napoleon III. in 1852. 

In front of the principal Entrance on the W. side (PL 1) lies a 
large paved space, in which traces of the former atrium of the basilica 
have been discovered. This was a quadrangle surrounded by colon- 
nades, in the centre of which were several cisterns for ablutions and 
baptisms. From the atrium three doors led into the vestibule of 
the church; but of these the central one only has been preserved, 
and it has long been reduced to very small dimensions from feat of 
the Muslims. The portal is of quadrangular form, and the simply 
decorated lintel is supported by two brackets. The windows on 

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122 Route 10. 

BETHLEHEM. St. Mary's Church. 

each side are built up. The porch is as wide as the nave of the 
church, but is not higher than the aisles, so that its roof is greatly 
overtopped by the pointed gable of the church. The porch is dark, 
and is divided by walls into several chambers. One door only leads 
from it into the church, instead of three as formerly. 

On entering the church we are struck by the grand simplicity 
of the structure, but the transept and apse are unfortunately con- 
cealed by a wall erected by the Greeks in 1842. The building 
consists of a nave and double aisles, the nave being wider(ll 1 /2yds.) 
than either pair of aisles (4 1 /2 yds. and 4 yds.). The floor is paved 



a a D 

2 Sidi 







□ a a 


J ^l 

■ ■ a ■ a a ■ a a 


- -» g-- — -I 

1. Principal Entrance. 2. Entrance to the Armenian Monastery. 3. En- 
trance to the Latin Monastery and Church. 4. Entrances to the Greek Monastery. 
5. Font of the Greeks. 6. Entrances of the Greeks to the Choir. 7. Common 
Entrance of the Greeks and Armenians to the Choir. 8. Armenian Altars. 
9. Entrance to the Latin Church. 10. Steps leading to the Grotto of the 
Nativity (comp. Plan, p. 124). 11. Greek Altar. 12. Greek Choir. 13. Throne 
of the Greek Patriarch. 14. Seats of the Greek Clergy. 15. Pulpit. 
1G. Latin Church of St. Catharine. 17. Entrance to the Latin Monastery. 
J 8. Stairs to the Grottoes. 19. Latin Sacristy. 20. Schools of the Franciscans. 
21. Latin Monastery. 
The dotted lines in the Plan indicate the situation of the grottoes 
under the church (comp. Plan, p. 124). 

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St. Marys Church. BETHLEHEM. 10. Route. 123 

with large slabs of stone. Each pair of aisles is separated by two rows 
of eleven monolithic columns of reddish limestone, with white veins. 
The base of each column rests on a square slab. The capitals are 
Corinthian, but show a decline of the style; at the top of each 
is engraved a cross. The columns, including capitals and bases, are 
19 ft. high. Above the columns are architraves. In the aisles 
these architraves bear the wooden beams of the roof. The aisles were 
not, as elsewhere, raised to the height of the nave by means of an 
uppf r gallery , but walls were erected to a height of about 32 ft. 
above the architraves of the inner row of columns for the support 
of the roof-beams of the nave. These form a pointed roof, dating 
from the end of the 17th cent., and once richly painted and gilded. 
The church is lighted only by the windows in the upper part of the 
wall, each window corresponding to a space between the columns. 
Unfortunately very little has been'preserved of the mosaics of Com- 
nenus (p. 121), coloured glass cubes set in a ground of gold. This 
fivefold series of mosaics represented the following subjects, begin- 
ning from below : (1) A series of half-figures representing the an- 
cestors of Christ; (2) A number of the most important Councils, 
with groups of fantastic foliage between them; (3) A frieze of fo- 
liage with rows of beading ; (4) Figures of angels between the win- 
dows; (5) A frieze similar to No. 3. On the S. (right) side there 
are now about seven busts only, which represent the immediate 
ancestors of Joseph; above these are arcades, containing altars con- 
cealed by curtains, on which books of the Gospels are placed. The 
inscription above contains an extract from the resolutions of the 
Council of Constantinople , and still higher are two crosses. Ad- 
joining the arcades is placed a large, fantastic, artificial plant. On 
the N. (left) side, in the intervening spaces , are placed fantastic 
plants with vases or crosses ; but for the arcades are substituted re- 
presentations of sections of churches, containing altars with books 
of the Gospels. Two of these are still preserved, viz. the churches 
of Antioch and Sardike, and one-half of a third church. The draw- 
ing is very primitive, being without perspective. Here, too, are Greek 
inscriptions relating to the resolutions of Councils. The order in 
which the Councils were represented, with the relative inscriptions, 
is recorded in the writings of the earlier pilgrims. There are figures 
of six angels between the windows. 

A passage from the N. orS. aisle next leads us into the Transept, 
which is of the same width as the nave.YThe four angles, formed by 
the intersection of the transept with the nave are formed by four 
large piers , into which are built half-columns corresponding to the 
columns of the nave. The transepts terminate in semicircular apses. 
The nave is prolonged beyond the transept, but the aisles here are 
of unequal length, terminating in a straight wall, while the nave 
ends in an apse like those of the transept. This part of the church 
also was once embellished with mosaics, chiefly representing the 

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124 Route 10. 

BETHLEHEM. St. Mary's Church. 

history of Christ. The S. apse of the transept contains a very 
quaint representation of the Entry into Jerusalem. Christ, accom- 
panied hy a disciple (the other figures having been destroyed), is 
riding on the ass. The people come from Jerusalem to meet him, 
and among them is observed a woman with a child sitting on heT left 
shoulder. Children spread their garments in the way, and a man 
climbs a tree to cut branches. In the N. apse of the transept is a 
representation of the scene where Christ invites Thomas to examine 
his wounds. The apostles here are without the nimbus. In»the 
background is seen a closed door, in front of which are arcades with 
foliaged capitals. The third fragment represents the Ascension, but 
the upper part is gone. Here again the apostles are without the 
nimbus ; in their midst is the Virgin between two angels. The other 
small fragments are unimportant. 

We now descend to the Crypt, situated under the great choir. 
It has three entrances, two from the choir (PI. a) ; the third entrance 
(PI. b) is from the church of St. Catharine and was constructed in 
1479 by the Minorites. The two staircases (PI. a, a) descend 
through doors direct into the Chapel of the Nativity, the most 
important part of the crypt, lighted by 32 lamps. It is 137 2 yds. 

a. Stairs to the Crypt, 
descending from the Greek 
choir of the church of St 
Mary (see Plan, p. 122). 
h. Stairs to the Crypt , from 
the Latin Church of St. 
Catharine. c. Stairs now 
closed, d. Place of the Nati- 
vity, e. Manger of the Latins. 
f. Altar of the Adoration of 
the Magi, g. Spring of the 
Holy Family, h. Passage in 
the Rock. i. Scene of the 
Vision commanding the /light 
into Egypt, k. Chapel of the 
Innocents. 1. Tomb of Eusebius. 
m. Tomb of St. Jerome, n. 
Chapel of St. Jerome. 

long (from E. to W.), 4 yds. wide, and 10 ft. high. The pavement 
is of marble, and the walls, which are of masonry, are lined 
with marble. Under the altar in the recess to the E., a silver star 
(PI. &~) is let into the pavement, with the inscription l ffic de Vir- 
yine Maria Jesus Christus natus est'. Around the recess burn 15 

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St. Mary's Church. BETHLEHEM. 10. Route. 125 

lamps, of which 6 belong to the Greeks, 5 to the Armenians, and 
4 to the Latins. The recess still shows a few traces of mosaics. This 
sacred spot was richly decorated as early as the time of Constantino, 
and even with the Muslims was in high repute at a later period. 

Opposite the recess of the Nativity are three steps (PL e) 
descending to the Chapel of the Manger. The manger, in which, 
according to tradition, Christ was once laid, is of marble, the 
bottom being white , and the front brown ; a wax-doll represents 
thejnfant. The finding of the 'genuine' manger, which was carried 
to Rome, is attributed to the Empress Helena. The form of the 
chapel and manger of Bethlehem have in the course of centuries 
undergone many changes. — In the same chapel, to the E. , is the 
Altar of the Adoration of the Magi (PL f), belonging to the Latins. 
The picture is quite modern. 

We now follow the subterranean passage towards the W. At 
its end, we observe a round hole. (PL g) on the right, out of 
which water is said to have burst forth for the use of the Holy 
Family. In the 15th cent, the absurd tradition was invented 
that the star which had guided the Magi fell into this spring, in 
which none but virgins could see it. Passing through a door and 
turning to the right, we enter a narrow passage in the rock (PL h), 
probably hewn by the Franciscans in 1476-79, leading to the 
chapel (PL i; fitted up in 1621) where Joseph is said to have been 
commanded by the angel to flee into Egypt. Other Scriptural events 
were also associated by tradition with this spot. Five steps descend 
hence to the Chapel of the Innocents (PL k), where, according to a 
tradition of the 15th cent., Herod caused several children to be slain, 
who had been brought here for safety by their mothers. The rocky 
ceiling is borne by a thick column. Under the altar is an iron gate; 
generally closed, leading to a small natural grotto. 

Proceeding in a straight direction, we reach a stair ascending to 
the church of St. Catharine, where we turn to the left and come to 
the altar and tomb of Eusebius of Cremona (PL 1), of which there is 
no mention before 1556. A presbyter named Eusebius (not to 
be confounded with Eusebius, Bishop of Cremona in the 7th cent.) 
was a pupil of St. Jerome, but that he died in Bethlehem is very un- 
likely. Farther on is the Tomb of St. Jerome (PL m), hewn in the 
rock. The tomb of the saint has been shown for about three centuries 
on the W. side; opposite, on the E., the tombs of his pupil Paula 
and her daughter Eustochium (formerly on the S. side of the church) 
have been shown since 1566. 

St. Jerome was born about 340-342. While journeying in the East he 
had a vision at Antioch, commanding him to renounce the study of heathen 
writers. He then became an ascetic , went to Constantinople, and after- 
wards to Borne, where he interpreted the Bible to a band of Christian 
women. Paula, a Roman lady, and her daughter, accompanied him thence 
on a pilgrimage to the holy places, after which he retired to a cell near 
Bethlehem, where he presided over a kind of monastery, Paula becoming head 
of a nunnery. He died in 420. At a very early period, it began to be 

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126 Route 10. BETHLEHEM. 

related that he desired to be buried near the Place of the Nativity. St. Je- 
rome is chiefly famous as a scholar. As a dogmatist he anxiously strove 
to support the orthodox doctrine of the church. He learned Hebrew from 
the Jews, and translated the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate). Interesting 
letters written by him are also still extant. 

A little farther to theN. is the large Chapel of St. Jerome(V\. n), 
in which he is said to have dwelt and to have written' his works. 
It was originally hewn out of the rook, but is now lined with waUs. 
A window looks towards the cloisters. A painting here represents 
St. Jerome with a Bible in his hand. The chapel is mentioned for 
the first time in 1449, and the tomb of the saint was also once 
shown here. 

Retracing our steps, we ascend the stairs (PI. b) leading to the 
Church of St. Catharine. Here Christ is said to have appeared to 
St. Catharine of Alexandria and to have predicted her martyrdom. 
The church is probably identical with a chapel of St. Nicholas men- 
tioned in the 14th century. It is handsomely fitted up and in 1861 
was entirely re-erected and enlarged by the Franciscans, principally 
at the expense of the Emperor of Austria. On the N. and W. is 
the Monastery of the Franciscans, which overlooks the Wddi ' el- 
Hrobbeh, looking like a fortress with its massive walls. Within 
its precincts are several fine orchards. — S. of the basilica are the 
Armenian and the Greek Monastery. The Emperor of Russia has 
built for the Greeks a pretty tower, from which we have the most 
beautiful view of Bethlehem and its environs, particularly towards 
the S. and E. , into the WMi er-R&hib , and towards Tekoah and 
the Frank Mountain. 

To the S. of the basilica a street leads from the forecourt 
between houses, the Greek Monastery and its dependencies, back to 
the open air. The chain of hills still continues for some distance 
before we reach the descent into the valley. After 5 min. we come 
to the Milk Grotto, or Women's Cavern, to which 16 steps de- 
scend from a large, open, and vaulted entrance. The rooky cavern is 
about 51/2 yds. long, 3 yds. wide, and 8 ft. high. The tradition 
from which it derives its name, and of which there are various 
versions , is that the Holy Family once sought shelter or conceal- 
ment here, and that a drop of the Virgin's milk fell on the floor of 
the grotto. For many centuries both Christians and Muslims have 
entertained a superstitious belief that the rook of this cavern has 
the property of increasing the milk of women and even of animals, 
and to this day round cakes mixed with dust from the rock are sold 
to pilgrims. 

In order to visit the so-called Field of the Shepherds, we 
may continue to follow the road which led us to the Milk Grotto 
towards}[the E. , but as the descent is very steep, it is advisable to 
send round our horses by the easier route' on the N. to await us. 
About 7 min. after leaving the Milk Grotto," proceeding towards the 

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E., we observe to the right of the road a small ruin, which, accord- 
ing to a medieval tradition , occupies the site of the House of Jo- 
seph , in which he had his dream (Matt. i. 20). A little beyond 
it we reach the foot of the hill, and in 4 min. more the village of 
Bet Sahur, sometimes called Bit SdhUr en-Nasdrd (i.e. 'of the 
Christians'), to distinguish it from the village of that name men- 
tioned at p. 99. The first mention of it is by pilgrims in the 
16th cent. ; perhaps it is the Ashur of 1 Chron. ii. 24. It has about 
600 inhabitants, mostly orthodox Greeks with a few Latins and Mus- 
lims. There are several grottoes with flint tools and cisterns here. 
The highest cistern, situated in the middle of the village, is famous 
as the scene of a traditional miracle: the inhabitants having refused 
to draw water for the Virgin, the water rose in the well of its own 
accord. The dwelling of the shepherds is now placed here (Luke 
ii. 8). The key of the Grotto of the Shepherds must be obtained at 
the Greek monastery here (Der er-RUm). 

We then ride^on towards the E. to a small, well-cultivated plain, 
called by tradition the Field of Boaz (Ruth ii. 3 f.). After 10 min. 
(N.E.) we reach the FieW of the Shepherds, in the middle of which 
is the Grotto of the Shepherds. A tradition extending back to the 
year 670, and perhapiTto the time of the Roman Paula (p. 125), 
makes the angels to have appeared to the shepherds here. For cen- 
turies a church and a monastery stood on the spot, but there is no 
mention of a grotto until the Crusaders' time. The subterranean 
chapel, to which 21 steps descend, belongs to the Greeks. It con- 
tains some paintings, shafts of columns, and a few traces of a me- 
diaeval mosaic pavement. Around lie some ruins which perhaps be- 
long to the mediaeval church of ' Gloria in Excelsis\ An attempt 
has been made to identify the site of this church with a spot about 
half-a-mile to the N., but if that were its true locality the Tower 
ofEdar (Gen. xxxv. 21), or ' Tower of Flocks' , would also have to 
be transferred thither. This tower is mentioned by Paula as having 
stood in the Field of the Shepherds. In the middle ages its site was 
pointed out in the direction of Tekoah, but since the 16th cent, has 
been again fixed here. — In returning to Bethlehem, we leave the 
road to the village of Bet Sahur to the left. The ascent to Bethle- 
hem from the N.E. is more gradual than from the E., and this is 
the direct route to the Franciscan monastery. 

From Bethlehem to the Pools of Solomon, see below ^ to Engedi, see 
p. 199. 

11. From Jerusalem (Bethlehem) to the Pools of 
Solomon, Khareitun, and the Frank Mountain. 

Cabriagb Road as far as the Pools of Solomon. Carriages and Saddle 
Horses, see p. 20. — A guide is necessary to Khareitun and the Frank 
Mountain; provisions and lights should also be taken. — From Jerusalem 
to the Pools of Solomon 2*/* hrs., Khareitun 2 hrs., the Frank Mountain 
1 hr., Bethlehem i»/a hr., Jerusalem l»/4 hr.' 

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128 Route 11. BfrrJALA. From Jerusalem 

By starting early from Jerusalem the traveller may on the same day 
visit Khareitun and the Frank Mountain. If Tekoah be also included in 
the excursion one day and a half will be required, the night being spent 
at Bethlehem or Artas, whence an early start should be made, or else the 
Pools must be visited in connection with some other tour (see below). If 
the traveller only wishes to see the Pools, he can do this best when 
visiting Bethlehem (p. 119) or Hebron (p. 134). 

To the Tomb of Rachel (IVihr.) see pp. 117-119. Here we 
take the Hebron road, to the right (p. 132). After a few steps 
the road leads to the right to Bet Jfcla, which perhaps corresponds 
with Oiloh (Joshua xv. 51; 2 Sam. xv. 12). It is situated on the 
opposite slope of the valley, and possesses beautiful olive plantations. 
The village, which is large and tolerably clean, is inhabited by Christ- 
ians only (about 4000) , most of whom are Greeks (with a large 
church); about 160 Protestants (pretty little church, served from 
Bethlehem, and school); 700-800 Latins (seminary of the Latin 
patriarchate and school). — For some distance along the road, we 
see from time to time on our left the siphon pipes of the old aque- 
duct (see p. 129). After about 50 min., at the point where the road 
bends to the left, we observe on the right the Greek monastery Der 
el-Khadr, with an insane-asylum, close to the village of El-Khadr. 
A few minutes farther on is KaVat el-Burak, or 'castle by the pools', 
a large square building with corner- towers, resembling a large khan, 
and dating in its present form from the 17th century. It was erected 
for protection against the Beduins. Within the court are a num- 
ber of cylindrical beehives made of clay. — About 110 yds. to the 
W. of this , in the midst of the fields on the hill- side, is a small 
door, within which stairs descend to the so-called Sealed Spring 
(light necessary; key at the castle). We enter a vaulted chamber, 
and to the right of it a smaller chamber, at the end of which a 
spring bubbles forth. The different streams unite in a basin of 
beautifully clear water, which is conducted by a channel to a foun- 
tain-tower above the first pond, part of it, however, flowing into the 
old conduit which passes the pools. The Arabs call the spring r Ain 
Sdlih, while the Christians for the last three centuries have supposed 
it to be identical with the 'Sealed Fountain' of Solomon's Song(iv. 12). 
There is a second fountain a little to the S. of the castle ; this foun- 
tain unites with the water of f Ain Salih at the fountain-tower. 

The so-called *Pools of Solomon (El-Burak), thre e in number, 
are situated in a small valley at the back of the castle. They were 
repaired in 1865. As the valley descends abruptly towards the E., 
the reservoirs had to be constructed in steps, as an embankment of 
great size would have been necessary to confine the water in a single 
large reservoir. The three ponds do not lie exactly above each other. 
The second is 53 yds. distant from the highest, and 52 yds. from the 
lowest, and is about 19 ft. below the former and the same height 
above the other. At the lower (E.) end of each pond a wall is built 
across the valley, as is the case with the Sultan's Pool (p. 102). 

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to the Frank M t. POOLS OF SOLOMON. 11. Route. 129 

The Highest Pool is 127 yds. long, 76 yds. wide at the top and 
79 yds. below, and is at the lower (E.) end 25 ft. deep. It is partly 
hewn in the rock, and partly enclosed by masonry, buttresses being 
used for the support of the walls. A staircase descends in the S. W. 
corner. The Central Pool is 141 yds. long, 53 yds. wide at the top 
and 83 yds. below, and is 38 ft. deep. It is almost entirely hewn 
in the rock, and stairs descend in theN.W. and N.E. corners. In the 
N. E. corner is the mouth of a conduit from r Ain Salih (p. 128). 
The E. wall of the reservoir is very thick, and is strengthened by 
a second wall with a buttress in the form of steps. The Lowest 
Pool, the finest of the three, is 194 yds. long, 49 yds. wide at the 
top and 69 yds. below, and is at places 48 ft. deep. It is partly 
hewn in the rock, and partly lined with masonry. Stairs descend 
in the S.E. and N.E. corners. The inner walls are supported by 
numerous buttresses. On the S. side there is a conduit for the re- 
ception of rain-water. The lower wall (E.) is built of large blocks 
in the form of steps, and is penetrated by an open passage leading 
to a chamber. Similar chambers, but inaccessible, exist in the 
lower masonry of the other pools. In the chamber of the lowest pool 
rises the third spring, 'Ain Fcur&jeh, which flows through a channel 
into the Jerusalem aqueduct. A little to the E. of it, another spring, 
r Ain r Atdn, issues from a little valley to the S., runs into a stone 
cistern on the N. side of the valley of the pools, and there unites 
with the Jerusalem aqueduct. 

These springs , however , did not suffice for the water supply of an- 
cient Jerusalem. Two other large conduits met at the pools and allowed 
their water to flow into them. One of these conduits runs above the first 
pool and was carried through the valley of <Atdn by a tunnel. Farther 
on, it runs along the W. slope of the Wddi D$r el-Bendt (the 'Nunnery'), 
then for »/ 4 hr. along the bottom of the Wddi el-Biydr (Valley of Springs), 
in a channel cut in the rock and with openings in the top, and finally 
flows into the spring Bir «d-Derej (Spring of the Steps). The other con- 
duit, which is much longer, is a rectangular channel, 9 in. wide. It be- 
gins in the Wddi el-'Arr&b (p. 133), crosses the plateau of Tekffa, and is 
carried along the slopes of the hills in remarkable windings. It finally 
flows into the middle pool, the upper side of which it encircles. — From 
the pools the water was carried to the city in two different conduits. 
The higher of these conveyed the water from 'Ain Sdlih (the Castle Spring), 
and the aqueduct of the Wddi tl-Biydr along the N. slope of the valley of 
Burak. It was partly hewn in the rock , partly constructed of masonry. 
The conduit descends near Rachel's Tomb and then rises again : here the 
water ran in stone siphon pipes, The conduit then continues in the di- 
rection of the hill of TantUr and the Valley of Hinnom. The lower con- 
duit, still in a state of complete preservation, conveyed water to the city 
from all the pools and springs in great windings 7 hrs. long. It begins 
below the lowest pool, runs E. along the slope of the valley and W. 
above Arid*. One arm of the conduit was connected, no doubt under 
Herod's government, with the Artas spring, and conducted to the Frank 
Mountain. The main arm passed' Bethlehem and Rachel's Tomb on the 
S. By the bridge over the Valley of Hinnom the upper and lower con- 
duits met, and ran along the southern slope of the western hill of Jeru- 
salem towards the temple. The upper conduit is the more artificial con- 
struction, and is no doubt the older \ but it is difficult to say to what 
period these gigantic works should be assigned. The name 'Solomon's 
Pools* is based solely upon Eccles. ii. 6, and, notwithstanding the state- 
Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 9 

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130 Route 11. KHAREITH&N. From Jerusalem 

ment of Josephus.we have no evidence that the gardens of Solomon were 
situated in the Wddi Artds (= hortus, garden?). Josephus speaks of a 
conduit which Pilate began to build, taking the necessary funds from the 
Temple treasury, a proceeding which gave rise to an insurrection. The 
length of this conduit is stated by Josephus to have been 200, or in an- 
other passage, 400 stadia, and the latter figure (about 20 hrs.) would suit 
the conduit from the Wddi eWArrHb. It is probable, however, that Pilate 
simply repaired existing conduits. The question who built the pools and 
conduits, must therefore be considered an open one. It has lately been 
maintained, however, that these conduits are exactly similar to those 
which the Arabs constructed in Spain. 

Descending the Wddi Artds towards the E. , and skirting the 
pools, we And openings in the conduit whence water can be drawn. 
The surrounding mountains are barren, but the bottom of the valley 
is not entirely destitute of vegetation. After 10 min., we observe 
on the opposite side of the valley, to our right, a conical hill with 
ruins and rock tombs, probably the site of the ancient Etam (IChr. 
iv. 3), the name of which is still preserved in r Ain *Atdn (p. 129). 
In 7 min. more, we perceive to the right below us the village of 
Art as, chiefly inhabited by Muslims. The houses are miserably bad. 
A European colony has existed here since 1849 ; and an Alsatian 
(Baldensperger), who cultivates vegetables and keeps bees, also lives 
here. Accommodation may, in case of need, be found in his house. 

From Abtas to Bethlehem. The road continues to follow the conduit. 
After 8 min. a view of the town is obtained in front \ in 15 min. more 
the foot of the hill is reached, and the ascent is made in 10 minutes. 

FaoM Abtas to Khabeitun. The road descends the valley. The 
irrigation soon ceases, and the gardens disappear. After 20 min., a 
small lateral valley descends from Bethlehem on the left, while the 
main valley curves to the S.E. Our route frequently crosses the dry 
and stony bed of the brook. After ^hr., we observe the ruins of 
mills on the rock to the right. After 1 / 2 hr., we leave the Wddi Ar- 
tds, and ascend a lateral valley to the right (S.W.). After about 
10 min. this valley makes a sharp bend to the left (S.); another 
lateral valley descends from the right (N.W.). 

Proceeding further up the valley to the S. we come in about % &- r - 
to Khirbet Tek&a y the ancient Tekoah, on the summit of a long hill, 
2790 ft. above the level of the sea. At the foot is a spring. The place 
was fortified by Behoboam, and was celebrated as the birthplace of the 
prophet Amos, who was originally a herdsman (Amos i. 1). The ruins are 
a shapeless mass; the reniains of a church (there was a monastery here 
in the middle ages) may still be recognised, and an octagonal font is to 
be seen. There is a good view to the E. ; through the clefts between the 
mountains, glimpses of the Dead Sea may be obtained. 

At this bend we leave the valley and ascend the steep hillside 
to the E. At the top we again see Bethlehem, and enjoy a fine view 
of the hills to the E. of Jordan. In 20 min. we descend to the 
spring of Khareitun, named Bir el-Aineziyeh; by the rock opposite 
lies the ancient ruined 'laura', or monkish settlement of Khareitun, 
and before us opens a deep gorge. The whole scene is very impos- 
ing. A group of natives is generally congregated by the spring. We 
now descend on foot by a path to the right (1 min.). The opening 

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to the Frank ML FRANK MOUNTAIN. 11. Route. 131 

to the traditional Cave of Adullam is partly blocked by fallen rocks, 
and on the left yawns a deep abyss. 

Since the 12th cent, tradition has identified this cavern, now called 
El-Ma'sd, with the fastness of Adulldm in which David sought refuge 
(1 Sam*, xxii. 1 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13). According to the Book of Joshua (xv. 
36; xii. 16), however, the stronghold of Adullam must have lain much 
farther to the S. (p. 147), and this agrees also with the statement of Eu- 
sebius. The name Maghdret KhareitUn is derived from 8t. Chariton, who 
founded a so-called Laura, or colony of monks, near Tekoah, and retired 
to this cavern, where he died in 410. The cave was occupied by other 
hermits also at a later date. 

The cavern itself is a natural labyrinthine grotto formed by 
the erosion of water, 182 yds. long, and, as the explorer may easily 
lose his way, he should be provided with a cord of sufficient 
length, or better with a guide. The temperature in the interior is 
somewhat high. The cavern consists of a continuous series of gal- 
leries and side-passages, which are sometimes so low as to be passable 
by creeping only, but sometimes expand into large chambers. In 
many places the ground sounds hollow, as there are several stories 
of passages, one above another. A short rook-passage leads us into 
a spacious chamber, about 38 yds. long, from which several side- 
passages diverge. In a straight direction we traverse a long passage 
to a second cavern, into which we must clamber down a steep descent 
of 10 ft. ; another very narrow opening then leads to a third chamber. 
The innermost passages contain niches cut in the rock, and the frag- 
ments of urns and sarcophagi found here indicate that the place was 
once used for interments. The inscriptions found in the inmost 
recesses are illegible. 

From the Wddi Artds, and a little above the point at which we 
left it, a road ascends to the N.E. to the (1 hr.) — 

Frank Mountain. — Histobt. The attempted identification with 
Beth Haccerem (Jer. vi. 1) fails of proof. Josephus says (Ant. xv. 9, 4 etc.) 
that Herod founded the castle of Herodium near Tekoah and about 60 stadia 
from Jerusalem. This distance and tbe farther description of the castle 
seem to fit the present ruins. Josephus states that the hill was thrown 
up artificially, a statement which is correct, if the top only of the hill be 
taken into account. He also informs us that Herod was buried here. 
Herodium was the seat of a toparchy. After the overthrow of Jerusalem 
it surrendered without a blow to the legate, Lucilius Bassus. The tradi- 
tion that the Crusaders held out for along time here against the Muslims, 
dates only from tbe end of the 15th century. 

The hill (2490 ft. above the sea-level) is now called by the 
Arabs Jebel el-Fureidis ('paradise', t.e. orohard), by the Europeans 
the ' Frank Mountain*. At the foot of the hill, on the W. side, are 
some ruins called Stabl (stable) by the natives, and a large quadran- 
gular reservoir, called Birket Bint es-Sultdn (pool of the sultan's 
daughter), 81 yds. long and 49 broad, but now dry. In the middle 
of it rises a square structure, resembling an island. Remains of the 
conduit from the Ar$as spring are also visible. On the N. , we see 
traces of the great flight of 200 steps mentioned by Josephus. The 
summit of the hill, which rises in an abrupt (35°) conical form to 


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132 Route 12. BET SAKARYA. From Jerusalem 

a height of about 330 ft., may be reached in 10 minutes. The plat- 
form is not level , but depressed like a crater. The castle which 
once stood here has disappeared with the exception of the enclos- 
ing wall, of which the chief traces are the remains of four round 
towers. The E. tower contains a vaulted chamber with a mosaic pave- 
ment. The large, regular, and finely hewn blocks of stone which 
lie on the plateau at the top and on the slopes of the hill are excel- 
lent specimens of the masonry used in the buildings of Herod. 

The *Vibw is beautiful. It embraces to the E. the desert region 
extending down to the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, with a pro- 
fusion of wild cliffs, between which a great part of the blue sheet of 
water is visible. To the S. the view is intercepted by hills. To the 
S.W. are the ruins of Tekoah and the village of Kharei$un. To the 
W. S.W. is the weli of Abu Nejem, and to the N.W. Bethlehem; to 
the right of it Bet Sahur, and in the foreground Bet Ta r mar; on a hill 
rises Mar Elyas. To the N. are En-Nebi Samwil and the village of Abu 
Dis. Farther off stretches the chain of hills to the N. of Jerusalem. 

The road to Bethlehem runs to the N.W., along the Wddi ed- 
Diya\ After 1/4 hr. we leave Bit Tddmir (with traces of ancient 
buildings) on a hill to our right. After 25 min. we descend. Bethle- 
hem now lies before us, but we are still in an uncultivated region. 
When we have descended the valley for ifa nr - more cultivation 
begins, and in 17 min. more we reach Bethlehem. 

12. From Jerusalem to Hebron. 

Good Road. Time required: for carriages 4»/« hrs., for riders 6 hrs. 
Carriage* and Riding Horse*, see p. 20. Price for a carriage 20 fr., or if 
a night be spent out 30 fr. — A bait is usually made at El-Arr&b, about 
halfway. — If two days are taken, this trip affords the best opportunity 
of a visit to Solomon's Pools at the same time (comp. p. 128). Dragoman 

From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon (2*/ 4 hrs.), see p. 128. 
Our route ascends gradually past the highest pool to the hill towards 
the S.W. (i/ 4 hr.). Turning back, we see the small village of El- 
Khadr, to the left (p. 128) , and soon afterwards the ruins of Dlr 
el-Bendt on the right; to the left, far below, is the deep Wddi el- 
Fuhemish, or Wddi el-Biydr, along which the old road runs. The 
new road runs in great windings along the slopes of the hills round 
the ravines of the lateral valleys of the Wadi el-Biyar. On the right is 
Khirbet BU Sakdryd, where Judas Maccabeus was defeated by Anti- 
ochus Eupator (1 Mace. vi. 32), on the left Khirbet BU Faghur, After 
40 min. we cross the Wddi el-Biydr near its head and come to a 
small plateau. On our right is Khirbet Bit Sdwfr. In 10 min. more 
we descend into the broad Wddi el- r Arrub> and in */ 4 hr. we reach 
the bridge, near which is a cafe*. This is about half-way and a halting 
place for carriages. Right and left of the road are the copious springs 
of the Wadi el- f Arrub ; exactly on the right (W.) of the bridge a 

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to Hebron. BETH-ZUR. 12. Route. 133 

handsome well-room. A portion of the water is brought by a sub- 
terranean conduit from the isolated hill 5 min. to the W. On this 
hill there are extensive ruins. The water was formerly collected 
in a large reservoir, known as Birket el-ArrQb (10 min. below the 
bridge), and conveyed thence to the Pools of Solomon and Jerusa- 
lem (see p. 129). The reservoir (80 yds. long by 531/2 yds. broad) 
is fairly well preserved and lined with masonry like Solomon's Pools. 
It is now empty and has been converted into a garden. The springs 
now water the fruitful gardens of the Wadi el- r Arrub. 

From the bridge the road ascends to the W. and brings us in 
10 min. to a rather large but not very deep reservoir partly hewn 
in the rock. It contains no water in summer. In ancient times the 
water from It was conducted to the above-mentioned reservoir in the 
W&di el-'Arrub. Close by is a pretty plantation of olives. A few 
yards from the road on the S. side of the hill are handsome rock 
tombs and a number of small caverns, some of which were also used 
as burial places. To the W. we see the village of Bit Ummar (per- 
haps Ma'arath, Josh. xv. 69), and near it are the ruins of Khirbet 
JedUr (Gedor, Josh. xv. 58). — The road now crosses a valley and 
passes in great windings round the head of a second. The slopes 
are almost entirely bare, only a few low shrubs growing here and 

After 3/4 hr., we reach the spring of r Ain ed-Dirweh, the enclo- 
sure of which is built of fine, regular blocks. Above it are a Moham- 
medan house and praying place. In the time of Eusebius the spring 
in which Philip baptised the eunuch was pointed out here (oomp. 
p. 112). The traces of an ancient Christian church were formerly 

A little way to the S. there are tomb-chambers in the artificially 
hewn and levelled stratum of rock, and there are others on the hill 
to the W. of the road. At the top of the hill are ruins called Bit 
Stir, which answer to the ancient Beth-Zur (Josh. xv. 58; Nehem. 
iii. 16). At the period of the Maccabees Beth-Zur was a place of 
great importance. A little farther on (5 min.) a ruined tower rises 
on the right ; the rather large Mohammedan village of Halhdl (Josh. 
xv. 58) becomes visible on a hill to the left. The mosque of Nebi 
YHnu8 outside the village is built, according to Mohammedan tradi- 
tion, over the grave of the prophet Jonah. Some of the later Jewish 
writers mention a tradition that the prophet Gad was buried here 
(2 Sam. xxiv. 11). There are rock-tombs in the neighbourhood. 
Several other spots, however, claim to be the burial-place of Jonah 
(p. 317). 

After 35 min. we perceive about 200 yds. to the left of the 
road a large building called *Haram Bamet el-Khalil, the shrine 
of Abraham. The S. and W. walls only are preserved (71 yds. and 
63 V2 yds. long respectively), and two or three courses of stone are 
still visible. The blocks are of great length (10-16 ft.), and are 

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134 Route 12. HEBRON. History. 

jointed without mortar. In the N.W. angle of the interior there is 
a cistern. What purpose the building served, and whether it was 
ever completed, cannot now be ascertained. Jewish tradition places 
here the Grove of Mamre, and the valley is still called the Valley 
of Terebinths (pp. 18, 146). About 60 paces farther to the E. are 
the ruins of a large church , probably the basilica which Constan- 
tino erected by the terebinth of Mamre. Near it are two oil-presses 
in the rock. A large cistern 5 min. farther S. is shown as the bath 
of Sarah. 

Returning to the road we come, a few paces farther on, to a foot- 
path on the right, which leads past the ruins of the village of Khvrbet 
en-Nasdrd (ruin of the Christians), or RujUm Sebztn, and proceeds 
(30 min.) direct to the Russian hospice, the tower of which is visible 
from afar. Following the road we gradually descend the hill and in 
about i/ 2 hr. reach the small town of El-KhalU (Hebron). 


Accommodation. Russian Hospice, near Abraham's oak (p. 137; good 
lodging but without board j during the season a letter of recommendation 
from the superintendent of the Russian Buildings at Jerusalem is ne- 
cessary). In case of necessity male travellers can obtain accommodation in 
some Jewish houses. The price should be fixed beforehand. — Travellers 
are earnestly warned against that arrant beggar, the son of the deceased old 
shSkh Hamta. — The Muslims of Hebron are notorious for their fanaticism, 
and the traveller should therefore avoid coming into collision with them. 
The children shout a well-known Arabic curse after the 'Franks' 1 , of which 
of course no notice should be taken. — Guide through the town advisable; 
fee 6 to 12 pi., for a party proportionately more. 

History. Hebron is a town of hoar antiquity. Medieeval tradition 
localised the creation of Adam here \ and at a very early period, owing to 
a misinterpretation of Joshua xiv. 15 , where Arba is spoken of as the 
greatest man among the Anakim (giants), Adam's death was placed here. 
The ancient name of Hebron was Kirjath Arba ('city of four ). In Num- 
bers xiii. 22 it is claimed that Hebron was founded seven years before 
Zoan, i.e. Tanis ? the chief town of Lower Egypt. Abraham is also stated to 
have pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, the Amorite (Gen. xiii. 18). 
When Sarah died (Gen. xxiii.) Abraham purchased from Ephron the Hit- 
tite the double cavern of Machpelah as a family burial-place \ and Isaac and 
Jacob were also said to be buried here. Hebron was destroyed by Joshua 
(Josh. x. 37) and became the chief city of the tribe of Caleb (ch. xiv.) David 
spent a long time in the region of Hebron. After Saul's death David ruled 
over Judah from Hebron for 7V2 years. It was at the gates of Hebron that 
Abner was slain by Joab, and David caused the murderers of Ishbosheth , the 
son of Saul, to be hanged by the pool of Hebron. Hebron afterwards became 
the headquarters of the rebellious Absalom, but after that period it is 
rarely mentioned. It was fortified by Rehoboam, and re peopled after the 
captivity. Judas Maccabseus had to recapture it from the Edomites, and 
Josephus reckons it as a town of Idumsea. Hebron was next destroyed by 
the Romans. During the Muslim period Hebron still maintained its im- 
portance, partly by its commerce, and partly as a sacred place owing to 
its connection with Abraham, who was represented by Mohammed as a 
great prophet. The Arabs call him Khalil Alldh, or the 'friend of God' 
(James ii. 23), and their name for Hebron is therefore 'the town of 
the friend of God\ or briefly El-Khalil. The Crusaders also called Hebron 
the Castellum, or Praesidium ad Sanctum Abraham. Godfrey de Bouillon in- 
vested the knight Gerard of Avesnes with the place as a feudal fief. In 

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Quarters. HEBRON. 12. Route. 135 

1167 it became the seat of a Latin bishop, but in 1187 it fell into the 
hands of Saladin. Since that period it has been occupied by the Muslims. 

Ancient Hebron lay to the W., opposite the modern town, on 
the olive-covered hill Rumeideh, N.W. of the Quarantine. On this 
hill are ruins of old cyclopean walls and modern buildings called 
Dlr el-Arba'fa , 'the monastery of the forty' (martyrs) j within the 
ruins is the tomb of Jesse (Isai), David's father. At the E. foot of 
the hill is the deep spring of Sarah, r Ain Jedtdeh. Modern Hebron 
lies in the narrow part of a valley descending from the N.W. (3040 ft. 
above the sea-level). The environs are extremely fertile and beau- 
tifully green in spring. The vine thrives here admirably, and it has 
therefore been supposed that the valley of Eshcol ('valley of grapes', 
Numbers xiii. 23, 24) was situated in the neighbourhood, possibly 
in the Wddi BU Iskdhil, to the N.W. (p. 137). Almond and apricot 
trees also occur. 

The present town is divided into seven quarters. 1. In the N.W., 
the Hdret esh-Shtkh, deriving its name from the beautiful Mosque 
(begun in 668, or A.D. 1269-70) of the Shtkh <AU Bakka, a pious 
man who died in 670 (A.D. 1271-2), and whose minaret forms the 
handsomest modern architectural feature in the town. Above this 
quarter is the aqueduct of the Kashkala spring, near which there are . 
ancient gTOttoes and rock-tombs. From the spring a path well worn 
in the limestone of the mountain leads to the top of the hill Hobdl 
er-Riydh. 2. Hdret Bdb ez-Zdwiyeh, adjoining the first quarter on the 
W. To the S. of the second quarter is (3) Hdret el-Kazzdzin (of the 
glass-blowers), and to the E. (4) Hdret el-Akkdbi (water-skin 
makers). Farther S. is (5) Haret el-Hardm adjoined by (6) Hdret 
el-Mushdreka. To the S.E.'lies (7) Hdret el-Kitun, or quarter of 
the cotton-workers. The houses are generally spacious and built of 
stone, many of them having cupolas as at Jerusalem. The popula- 
tion numbers 18-19,000, including 1500 Jews (with three syn- 
agogues). A few English ladies and an English physician cooperate 
with the German Protestant Mission, which has a church and 
school at Hebron. But the work is carried on under considerable 

Hebron is the seat of a Kaimmakam and has a Turkish Post 
Office. The merchants of Hebron carry on a brisk trade with the Be- 
duins, and often travel about the country with their wares, going as 
far as Et-Tafileh in Moab (p. 210), where they have large ware- 
houses for the trade with the nomadic Beduins farther to the S. 
The chief branches of industry are the manufacture of water-skins 
from goats' hides, and glass-making. The glass-houses are not un- 
interesting. Glass was manufactured here as early as the middle 
ages, and the principal articles made are lamps and coloured glass 
rings used by the women as ornaments. The wine of Hebron is 
made by the Jews. 

In the bed of the valley to the S.W. of the Haret el-Haram 

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136 Routt 12. HEBRON. 

are situated two large reservoirs : the upper one, called Birket el- 
Kazzdzin, is 28 yds. in length, 18 yds. in width, and 27^2 ft. in 
depth ; the lower basin constructed of hewn stones, square in form, 
each side being 44 yds. long, is called Birket es-Sultdn. These 
pools are unquestionably ancient , and it was perhaps near one of 
them that David hanged the murderers of Ishbosheth (p. 134). 
Tradition has settled the point in favour of the larger pool. — In the 
town the tombs of Abner and Ishbosheth are shown (the former 
within the castle) but are not worth visiting. — The large building 
on the hill of Kubb el-Jdnib, to the S., is the Quarantine, 

The *Haram, apparently once fortified, encloses, according to tra- 
dition, the cave of Machpelah. The enclosing wall is built of very 
large blocks, all drafted and hewn smooth. The drafting, however, 
is not so deep as that of the stones of the Haram at Jerusalem. The 
wall is strengthened externally by square buttresses, sixteen on 
each side and eight at each end. These are without capitals, but a 
kind of cornice runs round the whole building. Above this old wall, 
which dates from the Herodian period and is 39 ft. high, the Mus- 
lims erected a modern wall and at the four corners minarets, of 
which two still exist at the N.W. and S.E. corners. The Mus- 
lims have also erected a second and modern enclosing wall on 
the N.E. and S. sides. Two flights of steps on the N. and S., be- 
tween this wall and the old one, lead to the court in the interior, 
which is 14'/2 ft- yds. above the street level. There are two en- 
trances to the Haram. 'Unbelievers' may ascend to the seventh step 
of that on the E. side. Beside the fifth step is a large stone with a 
hole in it which the Jews believe to extend down to the tomb. On 
Friday the Jews lament here as they do at the Place of Wailing in 
Jerusalem (p. 56). — From the elevation on the N. of the Haram 
a sight of the court and the buildings within the walls may be ob- 
tained. The interior is inaccessible, but good photographs of it may 
be purchased. 

Few Europeans have ever been admitted to the mosque, and then 
only by a special firman of the sultan. The last Christian visitor was the 
Prince of Wales in 1881. — The 8. part of the Haram is occupied by a 
Church (now a Mosque), 23 yds. long from to N. toS., and 301/2 yds. wide 
from E. to W. The interior is divided by 4 columns into a nave and 
aisles running N. and S. The capitals of these columns appear to be 
partly Byzantine, partly mediaeval. In the middle of the S. wall is a 
Mihr&b^ or prayer-niche, to the right (W.) of which is a handsome pulpit. 
Two openings in the floor of the church lead direct to the Cavern beneath. 
The cavern is said to be double, each half having a separate opening. 
A third opening in the floor of the church affords a view of a subter- 
ranean chamber, which seems to form a kind of antechamber to the 
cavern. At any rate, a door leading to the tombs is visible in the S. wall. 
The walls of the church are incrusted to a height of nearly 6 feet with 
marble, above which runs a band with an Arabic inscription. A church 
was probably erected here in the time of Justinian, but few relics of it 
are now extant. The present mosque was built by the Crusaders be- 
tween 1167 and 1187, and has been restored by the Arabs. — Above 
ground are six Cenotaphs, which are said by the Mohammedans to stand 
exactly over the spots where Abraham, Ifaic, and Jacob, with their wives 

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HEBRON) • , -.J 

£/. J '\$aha fthohvrki'li ' 

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W 2p -^^^^s^ 

OAK OF MAMRE. 12. Route. 137 

Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah were buried. The cenotaphs of Isaac and 
Rebecca are inside the church, those of Abraham and Sarah in octagonal 
chapels in the open court N. of the church, those of Jacob and Leah in 
chambers in the N. of the Haram. They are of stone and are hung with 
green cloth embroidered with gold and silver. A number of apartments 
have been built against the N. and W. walls of the Haram. — Outside 
the Haram, at the N.W. angle between the Haram and the castle, is a 
two-story building, containing two cenotaphs of Joseph. A footprint of the 
Prophet is still shown in a stone here. — The oldest Arabian buildings 
date from 1331, under the Mameluke Sultan Mohammed Ibn Kilawun; 
Joseph's tomb dates from 1393. — Comp. ZDPV xvii. 115 f., 228 "f. 

The building is surrounded with the dwellings of dervishes, 
saints, and the guards of the mosque, who derive their maintenance 
from six villages in the plain of Sharon and Philistia. Adjoining 
the Haram on the S. side is a 'castle', now used as barracks and 
half in ruins. 

In order to visit the traditional Oak of Manure (}!% hr.), we quit 
the town, leave the road to Jerusalem on the right, and ride towards 
the N.W., on a paved road between vineyard-walls. The garden 
with the oak belongs to the Russians, who have here built a hospice 
for pilgrims (p. 134). Behind the hospice stands a tower, which 
travellers should not fail to visit (key in the hospice), as a magni- 
ficent *Vibw as far as the sea may be obtained from the top. The oak 
which is shown here as the Oak of Abraham was highly revered as 
far back as the 16th cent., and is unquestionably of great age. For 
the earlier (Jewish) tradition see p. 134. The trunk of the oak is 
about 32 ft. in circumference at the bottom. This fine tree is unfor- 
tunately gradually dying. 

In the country to the W. of Jordan, the oak {el-ballUt^ Quercus ilex pseu- 
dococcifera) does not, as beyond Jordan, develop into a' large tree, but, as 
the young shoots are eaten off by the goats, it usually takes the form of 
bushes only. A few gigantic trees have been allowed to grow up un- 
molested, owing probably to superstitious veneration. 

13. From Hebron to Bet Jibrin and Gaza. 

For this tour a guide is desirable. 

1. From Hebron to Bbt Jibrin (4 hrs.). 

We follow the Jerusalem road to the point where the route to 
Abraham's Oak diverges (^hr., see p. 133). Here we turn to the 
left (W.) and descend the Wddi el-Ktif. A little to the left lies 
Khirbet en-Nasdrd; and on a hill to the right is Bit Ishdhil, perhaps , 
the Eshcol of Numbers xiii. 24 f. (comp. p. 136). In lhr. we reach 
the spring of r Ain el-Ktif. The valley now expands and turning to 
the W. receives the name of Wddi el-Merj. On the (V2 nr nil1 10 
left lies Terkumyd (Tricomias), with a few antiquities. In li^hr. 
the road skirts the base of another hill on the left upon which is 
Dlr Nakhkhds. In */ a hr. we enter Bet Jibrin from the N. E. 

From Jerusalem to Bet JibbZn , 88/4 hrs. To (21/* hrs.) the Pools of 
Solomon, see p. 128. Before reaching the pools we diverge by a road to 

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138 Route 13. B^T JIBRlN. From Hebron 

the right (W.), which leads via (1/4 hr.) El-Khadr (p. 128). In 35 min. we 
see Htisdn at some distance to the right; to the left opens the Wddi Ftiktn. 
After 1V2 hr. the road to Bit 'Atdb diverges to the right , while our route 
proceeds to the S.W. 'All&r el- B as I and Bit r Atdb (p. 147) are visible on 
the right. 8 /a hr. Hill with extensive ruins (on* the left") V« n r. * Ain et ' 
Tannilr, at the bottom of a valley with lemon-groves; 10 min. Ruins (to 
the left). We are now following an old Roman road. After 40 min. a 
road diverges to the right to Bit Nettif (p. 147); we, however, descend to 
the left. The valley expands and cultivation begins. 20 min. Roman 
milestone (prostrate); Vsnr. cross the dry bed of the Wddi es-Sant; to the 
left a 'Weir on a hill. In V* br. a road diverges to the left (which we 
do not follow) ; to the right Zakaryd (p. 147) is visible. In V2 hr. our route 
enters the Wddi Zakaryd (left) and leads to the S. across a well-cultivated 
plain, with frequent traces of the Roman road. The chalky formation, 
with its numerous caves, begins here. Beyond an ancient well, with 
reservoirs and olive-groves, we reach 0/2 hr.) Bit Jibrin. 

/ * B6t Jibrin. — HiSTOEy. Bit Jibrin is the ancient Baitogabra (Ptol- 
w emy; Tab. Peutinger), which is perhaps identical with the Betaris or 
Begabrit of Josephus (Bell. Jud. x. 8, 1). The town received various pri- 
vileges coupled with the name JSlevtheropolis from the Roman emperor 
Septimius Severus in 202, on the occasion of his journey in the East. The 
name Lucia Beptimia Severiana also occurs on its coins. It was the seat 
of a Christian bishop and an important point in S. Palestine as early as 
the 4th century. The names of some of its bishops have been handed 
down to us. The Crusaders found the place in ruins. Under Foulques of 
Anjou, in 1134, a citadel was erected here, and its defence committed 
to the knights of St. John. The Franks called the place Oibelin. In 
1244 it was finally taken by Beibars. The fortress was restored in 1551. 

Bit Jibrin ('House of Gabriel') lies between three hills, the Tell 
Burnai on the W., the Tell Sandehanneh on the S.E., and the Tell 
Sedeideh on the N.W. , the summits of which were probably once 
fortified. The village now contains about 900 inhab. (Muslims). 
It occupies about one-third of the site of the ancient town. Ruins 
of old buildings are incorporated with most of the houses. Num- 
erous coins , some of them bearing the name of Eleutheropolis, 
are offered here for sale. A portion of the ancient wall, perhaps 
built by the Crusaders in 1134, still exists on the N. side. To the 
N.W. and E. were forts. That on the E. side has been converted 
into a Muslim cemetery; fragments of columns, a fine large portal, 
and a reservoir still exist. The N.W. fort (small fee") stood on 
an eminence, and the ancient substructions are still easily distin- 
guished from the later work. Over the door is an inscription dating 
from the year 958 of the Hegira (1551). The fortress was flanked 
with a tower at each corner. The interior contains a handsome cis- 
tern and many vaulted chambers now used as dwellings and stables. 
On the S. side runs a gallery from E. to W., which was originally 
the aisle of a church. On the left and right are five pillars, formerly 
enriched with columns in white marble. Six of these, with Corin- 
thian capitals, are still in their places. The arcades are pointed. Out- 
side the enclosing wall are two similar columns. 

The chief objects of interest are the Bock Caverns C'ordk or 
r ardk}, which are found chiefly near Bet Jibrin and also throughout 
a wide radius round the town (comp. p. 146). St. Jerome informs 

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to Oaza. B^T JIBRIN. 13. Route. 139 

us that the Hdrim, or dwellers in mountains and caves, once lived 
in this district, and that the Idumaans lived in caverns throughout 
the country from here to Petra, in order to escape from the inten- 
sity of the heat. There is little doubt that these caverns are very 
ancient. Their number and similarity lead to the inference that 
they were used as dwellings. It has even been supposed that some 
of them were once used as churches, for several have apses turned 
towards the £. and crosses engraved on their walls. Those cav- 
erns which contain the crosses generally have Muslim inscriptions 
also. The stone, a kind of grey chalk, is so soft that it can be cut 
with a knife , yet the regularity and art with which the chambers 
have been excavated are none the less admirable. The caverns con- 
sist of round, vaulted chambers, 20-60 ft. (in some cases even 100 ft.) 
in diameter, supported by detached pillars. They are 30-40 ft. in 
height. Each cavern is lighted from above by a well-like opening. 
In N. Syria there are tomb-chambers of similar form, but smaller. 
Many of these caverns are now used as shelters for cattle. 

The following walk is the moat interesting here. We descend from 
the fortress to the S. E., pass the tombs, and ascend a email water-course. 
In 5 min. we observe caverns below us. To judge from the niches hewn 
in them (five at the back, three on each side), they must once have been 
used as sepulchres. The niches are 2 ft. above the ground, and high 
above them are hewn numerous triangles (possibly for lamps). Some of 
the round openings above have been widened in the course of ages. 
After the falling in of the chambers there have also been formed open 
spaces in front of them, within which the pillars of the groups of cham- 
bers are still preserved. — Farther to the S. is a second group of more 
lofty grottoes, in which numerous wild pigeons have taken up their abode. 
One of them contains a well , and at several places the ground sounds 
hollow. The walls are green with moisture and very smooth. Rudely 
engraved crosses, and inscriptions dating from the early period of Islamism 
(in Cufic characters) , are sometimes observed. The marks of tools are 
clearly visible on the walls. Fragments frequently split off owing to the 
penetrating moisture. Proceeding from one cavern to another we ascend 
the valley as far as a ruined church , which in a straight line is only 
1 M. from the village. It is still called by the natives M&r Hannd, or 
Sandehanneh. The substructions of this church date from the Byzantine 
period, but the ground-plan was altered by the Crusaders. The principal 
apse is well-preserved. The window-arches are round. The stones are 
carefully hewn, and the walls are massive. On each side of the entrance 
are pilasters , and under the N. aisle is a crypt with vaults. Opposite 
the church is the cavern Magh&ret Bandehanneh, comprising several cham- 
bers, the largest of which is 10 J ft. in diameter. Not far off, to the W., 
is the passage of E*-Sdk> over 33 yds. long. — From the last-mentioned 
cavern a bridle-path leads to the N.E. , leaving Der Nakhkhas (p. 137) 
on the left, direct to the road to Hebron. 

About 20 min. straight to the S. of BSt Jibrin lies Merdsh (Maresah, 
Josh. xv. 44), a shapeless mass of ruins. The whole chain of hills of Mar 
Hanna is honeycombed with caverns, especially on the S. and W. sides. 
The walls of some of the caverns are full of small niches or columbaria, 
ranged regularly along them; but what their use was is not clear, as 
they are too high from the ground to have been used for keeping stores 
or implements. They were perhaps employed as receptacles for skulls 
or cinerary urns. — On this hill there are also a number of handsome old 
cisterns, in some of which winding stairs are still preserved. Some of 
the caverns also contain such stairs. 

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140 Route 13. TELL EL-HASI. From Hebron 

2. From B£t Jibbin to Gaza (about 9 hrs.). 

We ascend the W. lange of hills by the central path. The top of 
the hill (^4 hi.) commands a last view of the village. After 35 miD. 
we observe in the fields to the right the weli of the Sh&ch *Amr, 
and in the distance Tell es-Sdfiyeh (p. 146). We now leave the 
mountains of Judah behind us and gradually descend their last 
spurs to the plain, in a W. direction. On the left, after */2 hr., 
rises Tell el-Manstira, with some ruins, and */2 nr - farther we reach 
some caverns which have fallen in, known as 'Ardk el-Munshiyeh. 
The hills (tell) we see in the plain are probably artificial construc- 
tions. — Our route next crosses the plain towards the S. W. On the 
right (72 ^r.) lies r Ajldn, the ancient Eglon (Josh. x. 34, 35), one 
of the cities of Judah in the plain. In the Septuagint Eglon is 
confounded with Adullam , and Eusebius places them both 12 M. 
to the E. of Bet Jibrin (see p. 131). In about l»/ 4 hr. from 'Affile 
el-Munshiyeh we reach — 

Tell el-Hasi. — HisTOEy. Tell el-Hasi is the ancient Lachish, an im- 
portant frontier-fortress in the direction of Egypt (2 Kings xviii. 14 f.). 
It was besieged by Sennacherib (2 Kings xix. 8) and, according to Egyp- 
tian inscriptions, captured by him. According to Jeremiah (xxxiv. 7), 
Lachish was one of the last cities taken from the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar. 
— The extensive and highly interesting excavations, which the Palestine 
Exploration Fund has undertaken here in the last few years, have brought 
to light many fragments of town-walls and fortifications of different pe- 
riods (some very ancient), numerous clay vessels, etc. 

From Tell el-Hasi our route continues to descend the Wddi el- 
Hasi. After about 1 hr. the ruins of Vmm Latis, formerly errone- 
ously identified with Lachish (see above) , lie to the right (N.) of 
the road , from which , however , they are not visible. In about 
40 min. more we reach Burir, where the first palms occur. To the 
right, after 40 min., we perceive the village of Simsim in an olive 
grove. We soon cross the Wddi el-Hasi. After */ 4 hr., on the left 
the village of Nejd , and on the right, in the distance , the dunes 
near the sea. The road next passes (25 min.) Dimreh on the right, 
and ( 3 / 4 hr.) Bit Hanun. In 35 min. more it reaches the top of a hill, 
on which are ruins. After 40 min. we reach orchards with palms, 
and in 10 min. more the town of — 

Gaza. — Accommodation: Hotel Gaza (proprietors J. Blaich A Co.y, 
also at the Latin Hospice (Mr. Gatt), or at the Greek Monastery (introduc- 
tion from Jerusalem desirable). The best place for pitching tents here 
is near the Serai. — Turkish Post Office; international Telegraph. 

History, a. The Philistines. In the country of Peleshet, i.e. the low 
plain between Carmel and the frontier of Egypt, we find in historical 
times a nation which, judging from its language, belonged to the Semitic 
race (p. lv). These *- PelishtxnC , or Philistines, however, were uncircumcised, 
to which the translators of the Septuagint perhaps refer when they de- 
signate the Philistines aXXoyoXoi, 'people of another race\ The Bible 
(Amos ix. 7 etc.) connects them with Caphlor, which has been supposed 
to be Crete. The Philistines must early have established a constitution; 
Jewish history , at any rate , shows us a perpetual league of their five 
chief towns, Gaza, Ashdod, Ascalon, Gath, and Ekron. According to all 
accounts the Philistines far surpassed the Hebrews in culture; and in 

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to Gaza. GAZA. 13. Route. 141 

war-chariots and cavalry they were superior to the Israelites (1 Sam. 
xiii. 5). The heavy-armed soldiers wore a round copper helmet, a coat of 
mail, and brazen greaves, and carried a javelin and a long lance, while each 
had a weapon and shield-bearer, like the Greeks in the Homeric poems. The 
light-armed were archers. The Philistines possessed fortified encampments ; 
they built lofty walls round their towns j and they kept the territory they 
had conquered in subjection by means of garrisons. They carried on a 
vigorous and extensive commerce, especially inland ; and their wars with 
the Israelites were partly caused by their efforts to retain the command 
of the great caravan route between their country and Damascus. — Their 
chief god was Dagon (Marnas), who, as well as the goddess Derketo (Ater- 
gatis) had the form of a fish. Ba'alzebub, the fly-god of Ekron, was famed 
for his oracles. — In the last decades of the period of the Judges the 
Philistines contested the hegemony of Palestine with the Israelites, and 
in fact, ruled over Israel for a long time. The tribe of Dan, in parti- 
cular, situated almost in the middle of the territory of the Philistines, 
had much to suffer from them. In what way this guerilla war was car- 
ried on, we may learn from the lively and vigorous narrative of the hero 
Samson (Judges xiii et seq.). The first kings of Israel, Saul and David, 
effected their final deliverance from the foreign yoke, though several of 
the succeeding kings had to wage war with the Philistines. In the course of 
the great war between Egypt and Assyria the Philistian plain became stra- 
tegically important, and its occupation therefore formed a constant source 
of strife between these nations to the great disquiet of the Philistines. Some 
of the Philistines, too, were probably exiled at this period. After the Jewish 
captivity the kingdom of the Philistines had disappeared, and a few of 
their towns only retained some importance. After the time of Alexander 
their power was entirely gone. In the wars between the 8yrian and Egyp- 
tian diadochi Philistia again became the scene of fierce conflicts. During 
the Maccabeean period the Philistian-Hellenic coast towns gave fresh 
proofs of their hereditary enmity against the Jews , but the Maccabeeans 
succeeded in permanently subjugating the Philistian plain. Once more, 
however, the inhabitants of that district exhibited their inveterate hatred 
of the Jews by co-operating in the destruction of Jerusalem with the 
other enemies of the ill-fated city. 

b. Ghazieh (Gaza) was the most southern of the five allied Philistine 
cities (p. 140), and it was here that Samson performed some of his re- 
markable exploits (Judges xvi.). The Israelites held possession of the 
town only during the most flourishing period of their empire (1 Kings iv. 24). 
The town was large, and probably chiefly of importance as a commercial 
place. Its port was Majumas, which was raised by Constantine the Great to 
the dignity of an independent town under the name of Const antia. Hero- 
dotus calls the town Kadytis. Alexander the Great took it after a vigorous 
defence. In B. C. 96 it was again taken and destroyed by Alexander Jan- 
neeus, as the citizens had allied themselves with the enemies of the Jews. 
Under Gabinius New Gaza was built some distance to the S. of the former 
town. It was presented by the Emperor Augustus to Herod, after whose 
death it reverted to the Roman province of Syria. Under the Romans Gaza 
peacefully developed its resources. Christianity, however, was not intro- 
duced until a late period , although Philemon was traditionally the first 
bishop of Gaza. Down to the time of Constantine the town was one of the 
chief strongholds of paganism, adhering to its god Marnas, whose statues 
and temples stood till the year 400, when they were destroyed by an edict 
of the emperor. On the site of the principal temple a large cruciform 
church was afterwards erected by Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcadius. 
In 634 the town was taken by the Arabs under 'Omar, and it was regarded 
as an important place by the Muslims, because Hashim, Muhammed's 
grandfather, who had once traded with the place, had died 'and been 
buried there. The Crusaders found Gaza in ruins. In 1149 Baldwin II. 
erected a fortress here and committed its defence to the Templars. In 
1170 8aladin plundered the town, though unable to reduce the fortress; 
in 1187, however, the whole place fell into his hands, and it was only for a 
short period that Richard Cceur de Lion established a footing there. In 

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142 Route 13. GAZA. 

1244 the Christians and Muslims were defeated by the Kharezmians near 
Gaza. Since that period Gaza has been a place of no importance. In 
1799 it was taken by Napoleon. 

Qa&a has grown considerably within the last few years, and now 
contains 36,000 inhab., including 700 Greeks (who possess a church), 
50 Latins, and 100 Jews. The English and the Roman Catholic mis- 
sions have stations there. — Gaza is the seat of a Kaimmakam and 
has a small garrison. At Gaza 1 mejtdi = 46 piastres, and, in the 
same proportion, all other coins are worth twiGe as much as at Jeru- 
salem (comp. the table before the title-page). 

The town is of semi-Egyptian character; the veil of the Muslim 
women, for example, closely resembles the Egyptian. From time 
immemorial Gaza has formed a connecting link between Egypt and 
Syria, and to this day, although the caravan traffic is almost extinct, 
its market is not unimportant for the Beduins, being in particular 
abundantly stocked with dates, flgs, olives, lentils, and other provis- 
ions. The bazaar, too, has an Egyptian appearance. Gaza is more- 
over an important depot for barley ; its olive-harvest is considerable ; 
and it contains numerous potteries and a steam mill in German 
possession. — An unusually large proportion of the inhabitants 
suffer from ophthalmia, a fact which is generally attributed to the 
want of light and ventilation in the miserable houses, and to the 
filthiness of the narrow streets, which are never flushed. The town- 
wells are 100-160 ft. deep, but the water is slightly saline, except 
in a few wells to the N. As the town lies on a hill about 100 ft. 
high, in the midst of orchards, it is difficult to say exactly where 
it begins. Owing to the abundance of water contained by the soil 
the vegetation is very rich. At the present day the town has 
neither walls nor gates. The ancient town was a good deal larger 
than the modern one, and to the S. and E. elevations of the ground 
are visible, marking the course of the town wall. The newer houses 
are generally built of ancient materials, and old fragments of marble 
may frequently be detected in the walls. 

One of the chief buildings is the Ser&i, on the E. side of the 
town, the residence of the Kaimmakam, but greatly dilapidated. 
It dates from the beginning of the 13th cent, and has finely jointed 
masonry. Cages for prisoners are seen as we enter the court of the 
Serai. Not far from the Serai rises the large mosque JdmV el-Kebtr, 
Permission to visit this must be obtained from the Kaimmakam, 
who appoints a soldier (fee ^mej.; more for a party) to accompany 
the visitor. Visitors must remove their shoes. The court of the 
mosque is paved with marble slabs ; around it are several schools, 
and on the W. side there is a kind of pulpit. The mosque itself 
was originally a Christian church, consisting of nave and lower 
aisles, built in the 12th cent, out of ancient materials and ded- 
icated to St, John; crosses may still been on the pillars. The 
Muslims erected an additional aisle on the S. side, and, in order 
to make room for a minaret, built up the apses. Over the three 

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GAZA. 13. Route. 143 

square pilasters and two half-pillars which hound the nave rise 
pointed arcades. The columns opposite the nave consist of shafts 
and consoles ; above them is another row of columns with beautiful 
Corinthian capitals. On one of the columns (N.E.) is a bas-relief 
representing the seven-branched candlestick, with a Greek and 
Hebrew inscription. The church is lighted by small grated windows 
in the pointed style. The W. portal is a fine specimen of Italian Gothic. 

To the -S.W. of this mosque is situated a handsome caravan- 
serai, called the KMn ez-ZU (oil khan). Proceeding to the S. W. 
through the Hdret ez-Zettin quarter we come to a mosque partly built 
with finely hewn stones, situated on the road which is traversed by 
caravans to and from Egypt. 

Tradition points out, on the S.W. side of the town, the place 
whence Samson carried off the gates of the Philistines. .Passing 
across tombs towards the W. and walking round the town, we come 
to the weli of Shlkh Shcfbdn and to a mosque of some antiquity in 
which Hdshim, Mohammed's grandfather, is buried. This building 
has been restored during the present century, but partly with the 
old materials. We return by the cemeteries to the E. side of the 
town. The sandy roads are shaded by beautiful acacias and cactus- 
hedges. To the E. of the Serai is a small modern building, which 
is said to contain the Tomb of Samson. 

A ride of 74 h*. to the S. E. of Gaza brings us to the Jebel el- 
Muntar (273 ft.), which is covered with tombs. (Mun$ar, 'watch- 
tower', is popularly believed to have been a Muslim saint.) The 
view hence repays the ascent: to the S., beyond the cultivated 
land, lies the sandy desert; to the E., beyond the plain, rise the 
hill-ranges of Judaea; to the W., beyond the broad, yellow sandhills, 
stretches the sea; but the most picturesque object of all is the town 
itself, peeping forth from its beautiful green mantle. 

Fkom Gaza to El-'AbIsh, 18 hrs. From Gaza in i hr. 5 min. to Tell 
el-'AJUl near the Wddi Qhazzeh* which rises near Hebron and passes near 
Beersheba. Abont 1 hr. S.E. of Tell el- f Ajul near Tell Jem r a are the rnins 
of JJmm Jerdr (probably the Oerar of Gen. xx. 1 \ xxvi. 1). After I1/4 hr. Dir 
el-Beldh (the ancient Ddrdm; the mosque Jdmf el-Khidr stands on the site 
of an old chapel). We next reach (1 hr. 37 min.) Khdn Y6nw, with a fine 
mosque of the time of sultan Barkuk. A little to the 8. of Khan Yunus 
is the Egyptian frontier. In 1 hr. "17 'min. we reach Tell Rifaji. or Raphia; 
then (2y 4 hrs.) SMth ZuwM, (28/ 4 hrs.) Khirbet el-Borj, and (2>/2 hrs.) 
the broad valley of EWArtsh, the 'River of Egypt' of the Bible (Numb. 
xxxiv. 5; Isaiah xxvii. 12). In 20 min. more we reach the fortress and 
the quarantine. El- r Arish occupies the site of the ancient Rhinocolura. 
By the cistern in the court there is a miniature Egyptian temple (a 
monolith of granite) , with hieroglyphics on two sides , now used as a 
trough. — The town is said to have been originally founded by an 
Ethiopian-Egyptian king as a place of banishment, and. under the name 
of Laris it was an episcopal see in the first centuries of our era. Bald- 
win I. of Jerusalem died here in 1118. The Eajar Berdatctl, or 'Stone of 
Baldwin* is still pointed out. On 18th Febr., 1799, Napoleon took El- 
f Arish. On 24th Jan., 1800, the Treaty of El- r Arish, in pursuance of which, 
the French evacuated Egypt, was concluded here. 

From Gaza to Beersheba, see p. 199. 

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14. From Gaza to Jerusalem vift Ascalon. 

1. From Gaza to Ascalon (about 3 hrs.). 

a. By the Coast, 3*/2 hrs. This is the longer but the more 
picturesque route. We proceed to the N.W. to (74 hr.) the weli of 
Shekh Ridw&n, and in 5 min. moie we reach the coast, which we 
then skirt all the way to (3 hrs.) Ascalon. 

b. Br thb Inland Bouts, about 3 hrs. Retracing our steps from Gaza 
towards the N. for 1 hr. by the route already described (p. 140), we turn 
to the left, following the telegraph wires. The olive-groves cease (20 min.) ; 
to the right Bet HanUn (p. 140) becomes visible; to the left are barren 
sand-hills. The land is well cultivated. We cross (26 min.) the Wddi es- 
Sdfiyeh (p. 146), and then the Wddi el-Jisr (the lower part of the Wddi 
Simsim, p. 140). On the right lies Der Emid (20 min.). On the same side 
we next see O^hr.) Herbiyeh, and then (22 min.) BH Jirji y beyond which 
we reach Of* hr.) Barbdra. We now diverge to the left from the main 
road, and reach (35 min.) Na'lya and via El-J6ra (whence a guide should 
be obtained) arrive at (35 min.) Ascalon. 

Ascalon fAskalan). — History. Ascalon was one of the five principal 
towns of the Philistines, and the chief seat of the worship of the goddess 
Derketo, in whose honour fish, which were sacred to her, were carefully 
fed in tanks, and never eaten. The town belonged to the Tyrians in 
the Persian period, to the Ptolemies in the 3rd cent. B.C., and to the 
Seleucidse from the reign of Antiochus III. onwards. In 104 B.C. it 
succeeded in making itself independent, and reckons its own chronology 
from that date. It enjoyed its greatest prosperity in the Roman period, 
as a kind of free republic under Roman protection. Herod the Great was 
born at Ascalon, and he caused the town to be embellished, although it 
was not within his dominions. He erected baths and fountains, and sur- 
rounded them with colonnades and beautiful gardens. The citizens, like 
those of Gaza, were bitter opponents of Christianity down to a late period. 
On the arrival of the Crusaders Ascalon was in possession of the Fatim- 
ites of Egypt. On 12th Aug., 1099, the Franks gained a brilliant victory 
under the walls of the town, but the jealousies of their leaders prevented 
them from following it up by taking the fortress. The Muslim garrison 
accordingly continued to harass the Crusaders; and it was only after a siege 
of five months by sea and land, that the Franks at length compelled the 
place to capitulate. Another great victory was gained near Ascalon in 
1177, when Baldwin IV. defeated Saladin , but after the battle of Hattin 
Ascalon was recaptured by the Muslims. Before the Third Crusade 
Saladin caused Ascalon to be partially dismantled. In 1192 Richard Coeur 
de Lion began to rebuild the fortress, but was obstructed by the jealousy 
of the other princes, and in a subsequent truce with the Muslims it was 
agreed that the place should remain unfortified. In 1270 Beibars caused 
the fortifications to be demolished, and since then Ascalon has been a 
ruin. At the* beginning of the present century the powerful Jezzar Pasha 
(p. 269) caused many ancient stones and columns to be removed from Ascalon 
to his residence at Acre, where he employed them for building-purposes. 

Ascalon is correctly described by William of Tyre, the historian 
of the Crusades, as lying within a semicircle of ramparts, the 
chord of which was formed by the sea on the W., and in a kind of hol- 
low sloping towards the sea. This semicircle with its walls is partly 
natural and partly artificial, and affords an interesting survey of 
the ancient site. Near the S.W. corner lay the small and bad har- 
bour of Ascalon. In the construction of its moles numerous col- 
umns of grey granite had been employed. Of the bastions which 
defended it a few remains still exist. On the side towards the 

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ESDtfD. 14. Route. 145 

sea stood a gate, the site of which is still known to the inhabitants of 
El- J6ra (see below) and is called by them Bdb el-Bahr (sea-gate"). The 
W. wall is continued along the low cliffs on the coast. Large fragments 
of it have occasionally fallen, but the durability of the cement used 
in its construction is still very remarkable. — In the S. part of the 
wall of Ascalon another gate, called that of Gaza, is still distin- 
guishable, and there are also remains of towers ; but quantities of 
sand have been blown over this side of the town. — The ramparts on 
the E. side were the most strongly fortified, the walls there being 
very massive and upwards of 6Y2 ft. thick; fragments of columns 
built into them are sometimes seen projecting. On the hill, near the 
Welt Mohammed, which is shaded by sycamores, are seen the still 
tolerably preserved towers which defended the principal gate, that 
of Jerusalem; but the remains are deeply buried in sand. — The N. 
side of the ramparts is not easily visited, as they are concealed by 
luxuriant orchards, both outside and inside the walls. Among these 
orchards are found fragments of columns, statues, remains of Christ- 
ian churches, and, most important of all, 40 cisterns of excellent 
water. With regard to the date and character of these remains, there 
are doubts as numerous as the ruins themselves. The orchards, en- 
closed by prickly cactus-hedges or thorn-bushes, belong to the in- 
habitants of -EJ-JoVa, a village with 300 inhab., situated to the N.E. 
of the ancient Ascalon. The fertile soil is almost 10 feet deep. 
Sycamores abound, and vines, olives, many fruit-trees, and an ex- 
cellent kind of onion, also thrive in this favoured district. This last 
was called by the Romans Ascalonia, whence the French e'chalotte 
and our shalot are derived. 

From Ascalon to Jaffa, 7 hrs. 40 min. The route from El-Jdra leads 
first along the road to Mejdel (p. 146), then diverges (about halfway) to the 
left (N.), bringing us in 50 min. direct to Hamdmeh, and thence in 1 hr. 
20 min. to Etdtid. — The detour via Mejdel (p. 146) is well worth the 
extra time ( s /* hr.) required. 

Esdud (Accommodation at Herr Schmidt's). — Ashdod (Greek Axotos) 
appears to have been the most important city of the Philistian Pentapolis 
(p. 140). It was an ancient city, and its position on the main route be- 
tween Egypt and Syria lent it import >nce for both countries. About the 
year 711 it was captured by the Assyrians, and a century later it was 
taken from them by Psammetichus after a siege of twenty-nine years. 
The Maccabeeans added Ashdod to the possessions of the Jews (1 Mace. 
x. 84), but Pompey restored its independence. Subsequently it formed 
part of the kingdom of Herod. St Philip preached the gospel here (Acts - 
viii. 40) , and bishops of Azotus are mentioned at a later period. The 
town once possessed a seaport, 3 M. distant, of which no trace now exists 
except the ruins of a fort. The modern village of Esdud (with 2-3000 in- 
hab. and a German steam-mill) stands on the slope of a hill, commanded 
by a still higher eminence on which the acropolis probably stood. At 
the entrance to the village , on the S. side, lies the ruin of a large med- 
ieval khan, with galleries, courts, and various chambers. Ancient masonry 
and fragments of columns are also detected in the houses and mosques. 

After 5 min. the road from Esdild brings us to the Wddi EsdUd, in 
I1/4 hr. to the dilapidated khan of Silk Kheir, and in another I1/4 hr. to-- 

Yebna. — Yebna is the ancient Jabneh, or Jabneel (Josh. xv. 11), the 
Greek name of which was Jamnia. Jabneh possessed a seaport of the 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 10 

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14$ Route 14. TELL E§-J3AFIYEH. From A section 

same name, the rains of which lie at the mouth of the Nahr &ub$n, 3 M. 
to the N.W. This seaport is said to have been burned by Judas Macca- 
bssus (2 Mace. zn. 8), but the Jews did not obtain permanent possession 
of the town until the time of Alexander Janneeus. Pompey restored its 
independence ; Gabinius rebuilt the town which had fallen into decay ; and 
Augustus presented it to Herod. At that time it was a populous town and, 
as a seaport, more important than Joppa. Even before the destruction of 
Jerusalem Jamnia became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrin ; a famous 
rabbinical school flourished here, and the town was afterwards intellectually 
the centre of the conspiracy against Trajan, A.D. 117. In the time of the 
Crusaders it was supposed that the ancient Philistine town of Oath was 
situated here , but nothing is really known as to its site. 'Apr (p. 13) 
lies l 1 /* hr. to the E. of Tebna. On the hill near Ibelin , as they called 
Yebna , the Crusaders erected a large fortress for the purpose of keeping 
in check the hostile garrison of Ascalon, but its site is not now traceable. 
— The modern village is of considerable size. It is situated on the 
W&di Sardr (possibly the valley of Borek, Judges xvi. 4) and contains 
two ancient mosques, one of which (El-Keniseh) was no doubt once a church 
of the Crusaders and has a handsome portal. 

Jaffa lies 3i/ a hrs. to the X. of Tebna, and Ramleh 2»/ 4 hrs. to tha N.E. 

From Athdod to Ramleh direct, 5 hrs. j the route passes close to *Akir 
(on the right; p. 13). ^__ 

2. Fbom Ascalon to Jesusaxbm (164/2 hrs.). 

From El-Jora (p. 145) the road leads to the N.E. to ( 3 / 4 hr.} 
Hejdel (possibly Migdal-Gad, Joshua xv. 37). Mejdel has 0-6000 
inhab., a considerable weaving-industry, and an important market. 
About % M. to the N. is a German steam-mill. The mosque is partly 
built with ancient materials, and has an elegant minaret. — After 
7 min. we turn to the E. from the main road. In 10 min. we come 
to the end of the olive plantations, cross the (40min.) Wddi MakkOis, 
and (10 min.) leave Jdlis on the right (S.). We then reach (55 min. j 
the village of Es-Sawdfir, and then (5 min.) another of the same 
name. A third Sawaflr lies farther N., and one of them perhaps 
answers to the Saphir mentioned by Mioah (L 11). We next reach 
(i/ 2 hr.) the well-watered Wddi es-Sdftych. The Tell es-S&fiyeh 
soon appears like a gleaming white line in the distance. The road 
passes (1 hr.) a water-course, and then (3/ 4 hr.) returns to the 
W$di es-Saflyeh, but does not cross it. The plain here is always 
marshy after rain. In 20 min. we reach the foot of the — 

Tell •8-SAflyeh. — Histo*t. Tell ef-Sd/lyeh is supposed by some to 
be the ancient Miepeh or Mizpah of Judah (Josh. xv. 38), and by others Lib- 
nah ( r the white"; Josh. x. 29); but the latter conjecture is the less prob- 
able. In 1138 King Fulke of Anjon built a castle here, which was intended 
to complete the girdle of fortifications around Ascalon, and was named 
Blanca Qvarda, or Specula Alba, from the conspicuous white chalk rocks. 
In 1191 the castle was taken by Saladin and destroyed. Some of the 
gallant expeditions of Richard Ccaur de Lion extended thus far. 

Tell e8-8dftyeh commands the outlet of the great Wddi et-Sant 
(valley of mimosas; probably the valley of Elah or Terebinth Valley] 
1. Sam. xvii. 2$ comp. pp. 18, 134). Ascending the hill from the 
W. we observe a cavern (probably an old quarry), and then traverse 
the miserable modern village. Farther on we see the tomb of a saint 
built of ancient materials. On the hill (10 min.) a few substruc- 

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to Jerusalem. B^T NETTIF. 14. Route. 147 

tiong only of weli^Jiewu stones now exist. The view towards the 
W. embraces the green plain between Gaza and Ramleh as far as 
the sea, and towards the E. the mountains of Judah. 

Here we re-enter a region of rock- caverns like those with which we 
became acquainted at BSt Jibrfn (p. 138), Son>e of these are at D£r el- 
BuMm, 20 min. S.E. of Tell es-Safiyeh, others at DSr ed-Dubbdn, »/ 4 hr. 
farther, others again at Khirbet Dakar, 1/2 hr. to the W. of DSr ed-Bubban. 

1 hr. beyond Tell es-Saflyeh we leaye the village of ( Ajur on 
the hill to the right, and soon obtain a fine view of the Wddi 
es~Sant. After l/i hr. we observe to the left (N.) Zak&ryd, on a 
hill which is sometimes supposed to have been the site of Oath of 
the Philistines. We descend into the broad and well-cultivated floor 
of the valley. After 1 hr. we pass a small valley and the well Bir 
e8-Sdf*df*m the right. On the hill to the left is Bet Nettlf (hardly 
to be identified with the ancient Netophah, Ezra ii. 22). We now 
either ride round the base of the eminence on which this village 
stands, or (after 12 min.) cross the water-course and ascend to 
the village (V2 hr.). The slope is beautifully green, and there are 
several remarkably fine oaks. The village contains about 1000 in- 
habitants. The view from the top is extensive. Below the village 
the Wddi es-Stir, • coming from the S., unites with the Wddi el- 
Mesarr, descending from the N.E. To the S. lies Dahr el-Juwe r id> 
and a little towards the W. the extensive ruins of Shuwekeh, with 
ancient caverns {Socoh, orShochoh, Joshua xv. 35 ; 1 Sam. xvii. 1). 
To the W. lies Dh 'Asftir, to the N.W. Khirbet esh-ShmUi, Tibna 
[Timnath, Judges xiv. 5), and ( Ain Shems {Beth Shemesh, 1 Sam. vi. 
19^20 ; 1 Kings iv. 9). To the N. Zdni£a (Zanoah, 1 Chron. iv. 18) 
and Sat* a (p. 14); a little towards the E. the small village of 
Khirbet Jcrath , to the E. Nidhyad, and in the distance Bet ( Atdb 
(supposed to be the rook Etham, Judges xv. 8 ; a cave still exists 
there). The site of Adullam (Gen. xxxviii. 1; Joshua xii. 15; 
1. Sam. xxii. 1) has been supposed to be identical with a spot 1 hr. 
.to the S. of Shuweleeh, near the hill Sh&h Madkfar (eomp. p. 131). 

From Bet Nettif we descend in 25 min. to the outlet of the 
Wadi el-Meearr, and in */4 h** we pass tne m* 11 of a khan. We 
diverge to the left into the Wddi el-Lehdm , a small side-valley. 
In 1 hr. we reach the crest of the hill (fine view). We next pass 
(20 min.) the ruin of Khirbet &h-Khdn. 0» the left, beyond the 
Wddi et-TannUr, lies the village of BH f A\ tab and to the N.E. 'Altar 
el-F6kd is visible. We now follow the top of the hills and enjoy a 
magnificent view ; but the woods become thinner, and we gradually 
enter a stony wilderness. After 1 hr. 10 min. we reach the water- 
shed and keep to the left (N.E.); the road to the right (S.E.) leads 
past El-Khadr (p. 128) to Bethlehem. About V2 & r - farther we begin 
to descend into the valley, passing to the left of the village of El- 
Kabu, and then (55 min.) turn to the right into the large main val- 
ley, the Wddi Bittir. Riding up the valley we reach the village of 
Btttir (p, 14) in 2$ minute*. Thence to Jerusalem, see p. 14. 


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15. From Jerusalem to Jericho, the Ford of Jordan, 
the Dead Sea, and back to Jerusalem vi& M&r S6M. 

Ridkbs from Jerusalem to Jericho take 6 hrs., the Jordan, ii/t hr., the 
Dead Sea, 1 hr. 20 min., M&r Sdbd, 5 hrs., Jerusalem, 3 hrs. (or to Bethlehem, 
about 2*/4 hrs.)- — Cakeiagk Road from Jerusalem to Jericho (carr. in 
5 hrs.)- Driving is practicable also to the Jordan and the Dead Sea, ex- 
cept in wet weather when the final stage becomes too soft. In this case, 
donkeys may be hired at Jericho. A Carriage for the whole trip costs 
50-60 fr. — A small Steamer, belonging to the government, has recently 
been placed on the Dead Sea. — A visit to M&r Sdbd is possible for 
riders only (horse or donkey). Those who prefer to drive to Jericho 
should therefore combine the visit to Mar Saba with that to Bethlehem 
(p. 161). — For this excursion the traveller must be provided with a guide 
from Abu DU (p. 149; inquire at the hotels). The right of escorting trav- 
ellers is in the hands of the shSkh of this village. It is customary to 
pay the shSkh 1 mejidi per day and to give the guide himself, if well- 
conducted, Va-1 mej. at the end of the journey. A letter of introduction 
for M&r S&bd should be procured with the aid of the hotel-keeper, or 
consul, from the great Greek monastery at Jerusalem, as otherwise the 
traveller will not be admitted. — A Dragoman may be dispensed with on 
this tour by male travellers, as there is good accommodation at Jericho. 
The dragomans often make exorbitant demands, but one may generally be 
hired at a rate of 60 fr. for each of a party of several persons (on horse- 
back) for the three days, unless tents are to be taken. — The circuit may 
be made in either direction. Owing to the heat of the climate in the 
valley of the Jordan, the excursion should be made as early in spring, or 
as late in autumn as possible. Travellers should not forget to take drink- 
ing water with them when visiting the Dead Sea. 

1. From Jerusalem to Jbbioho (6 hrs.). 

To Qethfemane, see p. 86. The road gradually ascends opposite 
the city to the top of the Batn el-Hawd, which commands a fine 
view of Jerusalem, and then bends to the E. Near this point the 
spot is shown (but only since the 15th cent.") where Judas is said 
to have hanged himself. The load skirts the S. slope of the Mount 
of Olives, passing the new slaughter-house. Here is shown the site 
of the fig-tree (Matt. xxi. 19) which was cursed by Christ. In 40 min. 
after leaving Jerusalem we reach — 

Bethany. — The Arabic name is El J Azartyeh, from Lasarus, or 
Lazarium, the Arabs having taken the L for an article. Bethany was a 
favourite resort of Jesus, who had friends here (John xi). At a very 
early period churches and monasteries were erected here, and spots of 
traditionary interest pointed out to pilgrims. The Roman lady Paula visited 
a church on the site of Lazarus 4 grave. In 1188 Milicent, wife of Fulke, 
fourth king of Jerusalem (p. 86), founded a nunnery by the church of 
St. Lazarus, and in 1159 the building came into the possession of the 

EWAzarlyeh lies on a well-cultivated spur to the S.E. of the 
Mt. of Olives, to whose somewhat barren slopes it presents a pleasant 
contrast. It consists of about forty hovels, containing Muslim in- 
habitants only. The water here is good, and there are numerous 
flg, olive, almond, and carob trees. The most conspicuous object is 
a ruined Tower, the so-called 'Castle of Lazarus', which, judging 
from its large drafted stones, must be older than the time of the 

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BETHANY. 15. Route. 149 

Crusaders. About twenty paces to the N.E. of this is the Tomb of 
Lazarus [Kabr el-Azar; a light is necessary). The door looks to- 
wards the N., and to the E. of the tomb rises a mosque with a white 
dome; for the Muslims also regard Lazarus as a saint, and have 
taken possession of his tomb. As they prevented pilgrims from 
visiting the place, the Christians in the 16th cent, caused a stair 
leading to it to be constructed from without. We descend by 24 steps 
into a small antechamber, which is said once to have been a chapel, 
and is a Muslim as well as Christian place of prayer. Proceeding to 
the E. we descend three high steps to the so-called tomb-chamber 
of Lazarus. On the E. side is an entrance now walled up. The poor- 
looking chamber is lined with masonry, and its whole appearance is 
unlike that of a Jewish tomb. The tomb of Lazarus was formerly 
shown in the church above, and this vault was probably called the 
penance-chapel of Mary Magdalen. The Latins sometimes celebrate 
mass here. 

About 43 yards to the S. of the tomb of Lazarus tradition points 
out the site of the house of Mary and Martha. The site has been 
shown in many different places, and at one time the sisters were 
said to have had two separate houses, the authority for this state- 
ment being a strained interpretation of Luke x, 38, 39. The same 
vacillation characterises the tradition, as to the house of Simon the 
leper (Matth. xxvi, 6); and indeed nothing certain is known re- 
garding the places visited by Christ. 

Beyond Bethany our route ascends a hill. On the left, 7 min. 
from the village, is the so-called Stone of Rest, about 3 ft. long, 
which pilgrims kiss. It marks the spot where Martha met Jesus 
(John xi. 20). A little to the S. of this stone, on the right of the 
road, the Greeks have erected a chapel (and convent) on ancient 
foundation walls. The chapel encloses the stone which they believe 
to be the genuine one. The Arabic name of the place is El-Juneineh, 
or 'little garden'. To the S. the village of Abu Dis is visible. After 
7 min. more, we descend into the Wddi el-Hdd, or valley of the 
watering-place, so named from the H6d el-Azariyeh, which we reach 
in y 4 hr., the only well between this and the valley of the Jordan. 
The small basin contains leeches, and the water is not very good.^ 

A handsome building once enclosed the spring, and there was a khan 
here, both probably built in the 16th century. Since the 15th cent, the 
well has been called the Apostles' 1 Spring, as it was assumed that the 
apostles must have drunk of its water on their journey. Its identification 
with the k sun- spring* of En-Shemesh (Joshua xv. 7) is doubtful. 

The route now descends the Wddi eUH6d t a somewhat barren 
valley. After 25 min. we leave to-the nfhVthe small Wddi el-Jemel 
('camel valley'); after 52 min. we reach Wddi es-rjSidr (for the 'sidr' 
tree, see p. 152). After 12 min. a small valley called Scfb el-Meshak 
lies on the left. In 23 min. more we reach the Khdn Hadr&r, which 
has been newly erected and lies about halfway to Jericho. Good 
water and, in the season, refreshments may be obtained here. This 

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150 Route 16. BIRKET Ml&SA. From Jerusalem 

district is quite deserted, and tradition localises the parable of the 
Good Samaritan here (St. Luke x. 30-37). Above the khan is the 
'hill of blood', TeVat ed-Dam, with ruins of a mediaeval castle* The 
name, which is probably due to the red colour of the rock, has led 
to the supposition that the spot is the 'going up to Adummim, 
(Joshua xv. 7; xviii. 17). After 20 min. more a path to die right 
leads to the Khdn el-Ahmar, which was probably once a castle for 
the protection of the road. The valley to the right is the Wddi er- 
Rummdneh ('valley of pomegranates'). In 20 min. we obtain a view 
of a plain to the right. This part of the road is called r Akabet el-Jer&d 
('ascent of the locusts'}, and the mountains here form a large amphi- 
theatre. After y 2 hr. we obtain a view to the left into the deep 
Wddi el-Kelt, the lower portion of the Wddi Fdra, p. 116. It winds 
down to the Jordan through deep ravines, and contains water dur- 
ing the greater part of the year. It has been supposed to be iden- 
tical with the valley of Achor (Joshua xv. 7) and again with the 
brook Cherith (1 Kings xvii* 3, 5). The brook is carried along the 
S. slope of the hill by a long conduit. The view gradually develops 
itself, and, at length, we perceive the Dead Sea with its dark-blue 
waters. After another hour we again have the Wadi el-Kelt below 
us, and in 20 min. more we Obtain a complete view of the vast plain 
of Jordan. The two ruined houses, called BU Jeber (the upper and 
the lower), perhaps occupy the site of the ancient castles of Thrax 
and Tauros which once defended the pass. On the right, farther on 
(10 min,), is thd ruin of Khirbet el-Kakdn art the foot of the hill. 
From this point a footpath on the left (not practicable for horses) 
descends the Wddi el- Kelt to (20 min.) the Greek monastery Der Wddi 
el-Kelt, used as a kind 'of penitentiary for Greek priests. The remarkable 
building is curiously built in a cavern in the left side Of the valley. The 
substructures date from the ancient monastery oiKhoxiba. (ZDPV. iii. 12 f.), 
founded in 535, but the upper portion is modern. Travellers who make 
this interesting digression may either retrace their steps to the rOad, or 
follow the path (for steady heads only) down the left bank, rejoining the 
horses in the plain of Jordan near the Tell Abu 'Aldik (see below). 

On the right of the road, to the E. of El-Kakun, we perceive the 
ancient Birket Musd, or Pool of Moses, with walls composed of small 
unhewn stones. It is 188 yds. long and 157 yds. wide, and belonged 
to the ancient system of conduits which once irrigated this dis- 
trict and rendered it a paradise. This is perhaps the remains of a 
pool constructed by Herod near his palace at Jericho; for this, it 
appears, k the site of the Jericho of the New Testament. The hill 
rising like an artificial mound from the plain is Tell Abu 'Aldik 
('hill of the bloodsuckers'). After 25 min. the road leads beneath a 
handsome aqueduct with ten pointed arches, where the Wddi el-Kelt 
is crossed. Travellers with tents here turn direct to the N., without 
entering the modern Jericho (Erlha), and pass the artificial Tell es- 
Sdmerdt, to the Sultan's Spring (p. 152), to which other travellers 
also should make an excursion. The vegetation has by this time 
become very luxuriant. In 7 min. we reach tfc* village. 

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to the Dead Sea. JERICflO. If). Route. 151 

Jericho. — Accommodation. Jordan Hotel (Cook's ; tenant, Ohgar)\ 
Hotel des Etbangebs, with an attractive garden, pens. 10*. — Russian 
Hospice, or in a Russian Private House (good and clean : price 3 fr. for 
each person without board, which travellers must provide for themselves). 

History. The ancient Jericho lay by the springs at the foot of the 
hill of Karantel, that is to the W. of modern Jericho, and to the N. of 
the Jeri'eho of the Roman period. The Israelitish town (Josh, v, vi) at 
first belonged to the tribe of Benjamin, afterwards to the kingdom of 
Israel. The town was of considerable size and enclosed by walls, and 
the vegetation was very rich.* It is sometimes called the 'city of palms'* * 
and down to the 7th cent, of our era date-palms were common, though 
they have now almost entirely disappeared. Around the town lay a large 
and flourishing oasis of corn and hemp fields. In spite of many con- 
quests Jericho continued to flourish. It was specially noted for its balsam 
gardens. The balsam plant has now disappeared entirely, although the 

Slants of South Arabia and India would still flourish in this warm climate. 
[ere, too, flourished the Henna (Latosonia ina-mis), which yields a red dye. 
In the time of Christ shady sycamores stood by the wayside (Luke six. 4). 
Antony presented the district of Jericho to Cleopatra, who sold it to 
Herod j and that monarch embellished it with palaces ami constituted it 
his winter residence, as being the most beautiful spot for the purpose 
in his dominions. He died here, but directed that he should be interred 
in the Herodium (p. 131). — It was at Jericho that the Jewish pilgrims 
from Per tea (E. of Jordan) and Galilee used to assemble on their way to 
the Temple * and Christ also began his last journey to Jerusalem from 
this point (Luke xix. 1). — As early as the 4th cent, the councils of the 
church were attended by bishops of Jericho. The emperor Justinian 
caused a 'church of the mother of God 1 at Jericho to be restored, and a 
hospice for pilgrims to be erected. About the yea* 810 a monastery of 
St. Stephen existed at Jericho. New Jericho^ on the site of the present 
village, sprang up in the time of the Crusaders, who built a castle and a 
church of the Holy Trinity here. The place was afterwards inhabited by 
Muslims and gradually decayed. In 1840 it was plundered by the soldiers 
of Ibrahim Pasha, and in 1871 almost entirely destroyed by fire. 

Jericho (Eriha), the seat of a Mudlr, consists of a group of squalid 
hovels inhabited by about 300 souls. Like the other inhabitants of 
the Jordan valley, those of Jerieho appear to be a degenerate lace, 
as the hot and unhealthy climate has an enervating effect. The vil- 
lagers usually crowd round travellers with offers to execute a 'fan- 
tasia', or dance accompanied by singing, both of which are tiresome. 
The performers clap their own or each other's hands, and improvise 
verses in a monotonous tone. The traveller should be on his guard 
against thieves. — The entire valley of the Jordan between the Sea 
of Tiberias and the Dead Sea has recently been declared to belong 
to the civil list of the sultan of Turkey. Jericho is now one of the 
three seats of administration ; a Serai (government-building) and a 
few shops have been built. — The Russians have built a small 
church in Jericho ; interesting Telic's, the remains of a large build- 
ing (perhaps a church) with pieTs and mosaic pavement, have been 
discovered in the priest's garden. The only other curiosity in the 
village is a building on the S.E. side, Tesembling a tower. It prob- 
ably dates from the Frank period, when it was erected for the protec- 
tion of the crops against the incursions of the Beduins. The view 
from the battlements is interesting. Since the 15th cent, this build- 
ing has been said to occupy the site of the House of Zacchaeus 

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1 52 Route 15. 'AIN ES-SULTAN. from Jerusalem 

(Luke xix. 1-10). In the*4th cent, the sycamore into which Zac- 
chaeus climbed was shown. 

The gardens contain large vines which in summer yield an abundant 
supply of grapes. Everywhere the ground is overgrown with thorny 
underwood, sometime! taking the form of trees, such as the Zizyphus Lotus 
and Z. spina Christi (the nebk and sidr of the Arabs), the fruit of which 
('jujubes',. Arab, ddm) is well flavoured when ripe. The formidable thorns 
of these rhamnacese, from which Christ's crown of thorns is said to have 
been composed, are used by the Beduins in the construction of- their 
almost unapproachable fences. Among the other plants occurring here are 
the Aeoeia Farntsiana, celebrated for its gum and the delicious fragrance 
of its flowers, and the ZokkUm tree (Balanites jEgyptiaco), alto called the 
pseudo balsam-tree , or balm of Gilead, with small leaves like the box, 
and fruit resembling small unripe walnuts, from which the Arabt prepare 
'pseudo-balsam', or 'Zacchseus oil , quantities of which are sold to pil- 
grims. The 'rose of Jericho' (Anastatiea hierochuntica) does not occur here 
(comp. p. 201). Near Jericho are also found the gorgeous scarlet Loranthus, 
the Acacia vera, or true gum Arabic plant, and the Solanum sanctum 
(Arab. hadak\ a very woody shrub, 3-4V2 ft. high, with broad leaves, 
woolly on the under side. The fruit looks like an apple, being first yel- 
low, and afterwards red, and containing black seeds. It is sometimes 
called the apple of Sodom, and has been erroneously connected with the 
wine of Sodom mentioned in Gen. xix. 32. All these are products of a 
sub-tropical climate (p. xlvii), for we are now about 825 ft. below the level 
of the Mediterranean. 

A pleasant occupation for the evening is a walk to the (25 min.) 
r Ain es-Sultan ('Sultan's Spring'), by which Jericho was once sup- 
plied with water. The water of the copious spring (temp. 80° Fahr.) 
is collected in a newly constructed pond, in which numerous small 
fishes dart about, while many strange birds enliven the neighbour- 
ing thickets. Close by is a mill; and a new conduit conveys water 
to the Russian hospice. The earliest pilgrims found a tradition 
already existing here that this was the water which Elisha healed 
with salt (2 Kings ii. 19-22), whence it is called Elishds Spring by 
the Christians. Remains of a paved Roman road have been found 
in the vicinity. Above the spring the site of the House of Rahab 
(Joshua ii.) was formerly shown, as it was instinctively felt that 
the ancient town must have stood on this spot. The tumulus near 
the spring is artificial. 

Taking the road to the W. we reach the ruins of buildings called 
Tawdhln es-Suhkar (sugar-mills), in reminiscence of the culture of 
the sugar-cane which flourished here down to the period of the Cru- 
saders, and might still be profitably carried on. Three such mills 
may be counted, and numerous relics of aqueducts are visible. Going 
N.W. from the third mill (20 min. from <Ain es-Sultdn) for 7 2 hr., 
we reach the r Ain en-ftawd'imeh and r Ain Duk } the springs of the 
well-watered Wddi en-NawdHmeh. Near the springs are remains of a 
fine aqueduct. Here probably lay the ancient castle of Docus (1 Mace, 
xvi. 15), where Simon Maccabaeus was assassinated by his son-in-law. 

A footpath takes us from the third mill in about 25 min. to the 
hermits' caverns on the Jebel Karantel, used as a place of punish- 
ment for Greek priests. The grotto in which Jesus is said to have 
spent the 40 days of his fast (Matt. iv. 1) is used as a chapel. 

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to the Dead Sea. KARN SARTABEH. 15. Route. 153 

Among the cliffs higher up (40 min.) there are the ruins of a 'Chapel 
of the Temptation* as well as several rows of hermitages, some of which 
have even been adorned with frescoes. These, however, are only access- 
ible to practised climbers. The weird seclusion of the spot attracted 
anchorites at a very early period. Thus St. Chariton (p. 131) is said once 
to have dwelt here, and the hermitages were enlarged by Elpidius. The 
name Quarantana (Arab. Karantel) was first applied to the hill in the 
time of the Crusaders (111$), when the monastery on the Quarantana was 
dependent on Jerusalem. 

The summit of the hill, which can be reached more easily from the 
W. side (in 17s* hr. ; guide necessary), commands a noble prospect. To 
the E., beyond the broad valley of Jordan, rises the wooded Nebi Osha r 
(p. 163), to the S. of which is the Jebel et-Tintyeh. To the N. towers the 
Sartabeh. In the valley below (N.) are two beautiful pastures. On the 
S. side the Karantel is separated from the hill NkSb el-Khel by the deep 
Wddi Dentin. On* the top of the hill are traces of fortifications, which 
probably formed part of the girdle of castles by which the Franks endeav- 
oured to defend the E. frontier of their possessions. 

From Jericho to Beisan. 

16 hrs. — This excursion, for which an escort is indispensable, can, 
on account of the heat, be made early in the season (March) only. — The 
Jordan valley contains a number of artificial hills (tell), in the interior of 
some of which bricks have been found. We cross (55 min.) the Wddi Na- 
w&imeh (p. 152) $ on the left the rock 'Ushsh el-Ohwdb (ravens* nest, per- 
haps Oreb, Judges vii. 25) with a little valley Mettfudet r I*d ('ascent of 
Jesus*) which previously to the 12th cent, was said 'to be the mountain of 
the temptation. Then (50 min.) the Wddi el- r Aujeh, the (35 min.) Wddi 
eUAbyad, the ( 3 / 4 hr.) Wddi Reshash, and the (1 hr.) Wddi Fasdil> or Mu- 
dahdireh. At the foot of the mountains lie the ruins of Fasdil, the an- 
cient Phasaelis, a town which Herod the Great named after Phasaelus, 
his younger brother, and presented to his sister Salome, by whom it was 
bequeathed to Julia Livia, wife of the Emperor Augustus. Palms were 
once extensively cultivated here. A much-frequented high-road ascended 
the valley of the Jordan via Phasaelis to Ceesarea Philippi (p. 299). 

The next valley is (40 min.) the Wddi el-Ahmar y or el-Abyad. The 
valley of the Jordan is now narrowed by several mountains wh'ich ad- 
vance into the plain. The second peak to the left is the lofty Kara 
Sartabeh, 1243 feet above the sea- level, 2227 feet above the Jordan valley, 
the great landmark of the valley of Jordan. According to the Talmud 
the Sartabeh belonged to a chain of mountains on which the time of new 
moon was proclaimed by beacon fires, chiefly for the purpose of announ- 
cing the commencement of the great harvest and thanksgiving festival. 
In ascending it from the S. we find an old zigzag path and remains of a 
conduit. The ruins which cover the top consist of large, drafted, rough- 
dressed blocks and probably belonged to the Alexandreion, a castle built 
by Alexander Jannseus and refortified by Herod. 

To the N. of the Sartabeh the character of the scenery changes. The 
valley of the Jordan becomes better watered and more fertile. On the left 
extends the beautiful plain of the Wddi Fdra (p. 257). In this wadi lies 
Kardwa (the Koreae of Josephus), and farther up are the ruins of El-Basa- 
Uyeh, probably the ancient Archelais, erected by Herod Archelaus, the 
son of Herod the Great. The best sugar-canes known in mediaeval times 
were cultivated near Karawa. 

We next reach (2 hrs. 10 min.) the caverns of Makhrdd, the (1 hr. 
20 min.) Wddi Abu Sedra, and the (*/ 4 ar.) Wddi BukPa. Farther to the 
N. the Nahr ez-Zerkd (p. 164), descending from the E.', empties itself into 
the Jordan. The road crosses the (55 min.) Wddi Tubds, the (V* hr.) 
Wddi Jemel, the (40 min.) Wddi Fiyydd, a branch of the Wddi el-MdHh t 
and then several other branches of the same large valley, and reaches 
(50 min.) r Ain Fet*4n, by the ruins of SdMt. The route passes the Tell 
Huma on the right and leads to the (1 hr.) <Ain cl-Beidd, a copious spring. 

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154 Route 15. GILOAL. From Jerusalem 

The Irrook El-Khazneh is crossed (35 min.) near the ruins of Berdela, the 
(20 min.) spring of MdkhOs and the (1 hr.) Tell Mcfjeva (p. 258) are passed, 
and we at length reach (1 hr.) Beit&n (p. 258). Where the brook Jdt&d 
flows into the Jordan, there is a ford T Abdra y which has been supposed 
to be the Bethabara (house of the ford) of John i. 28 (p. 156). 

2. Fkom Jebjcho to thb Fobd oi* Jordan (l ! /2 nr 0- 

The plain of Jericho presents several points of interest; but those 
who intend making the journey from Jericho to the ford of Jordan, the 
Dead Sea, and M4r Bdbd in a single day win have little time for di- 

The direct carriage-road to the famous Ford of Jordan leads to 
the E.S.E, among low bushes. Immediately beyond the tower at 
Jericho we cross the Wadi el-Kelt , and in 20 Min. we reach the 
Tell Umm Gheifer, with ruins and cisterns. In 25 min. more the 
road forks, the right branch leading direct to the (40 min.) Dead 
Sea. Following the left branch, we reach (10 min.) the ruins of 
Kasr Hajleh y corresponding to the ancient Beth Hogla, Which lay on 
the frontier between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. xV. 6). Here is a 
large monastery of St. Gerasimos (also called by the natives Der 
M&r Yuhannd flajleh), recently built on the ruins of an old mon- 
astery. Traces of frescoes of the 12th arid 13th Cent, and some 
beautiful ancient mosaics are preserved. About 10 min. to the 
E.N.E. of the monastery lies the lukewarm r Ain Hajleh, with the 
convent-garden. In S3 min. from this point we arrive at the ancient 
bathing-place of the pilgrims to the Jordan, now once more used. 

By making a slight digression to the N. from the road we reach 
(25 min. from Jericho) the Khirhet el^Etleh, beside a large square 
pool (according to some, the ancient Gilgal), and (20 min.) the Tell 
Jeljtil, an ancient cromlech to the N. of the Wadi el-Kelt, probably 
the ancient Gilgal, to the E. of Jericho. 

In Gilgal (Joshua iv. 19, 20) the Israelites erected twelve stones in 
commemoration of their passage of the Jordan. In 723 Willibald found a 
wooden church here. On the other hand, it is questionable whether the 
Gilgal of 1 Sam. vii. 16; xi. 14, 15, was situated here (instead of rather to 
the N.W. of Jericho). In the time of the Crusaders a church stood here 
enclosing the 'twelve stones', and the spot was then known as Gilgal, 
but the alleged preservation of the twelve stones throws some doubt on 
the identity of the two places. 

Quitting the bathing-place and proceeding to the N., we cross 
the (6 min.) Wddi eUKett and reath (14 min.1 Kasr el- YehM ('castle 
of the Jews'), also named Dtr Mdr Yuhdnnd ('Monastery of St. John'), 
about Vi br. to the W. of the influx of the Wadi el-Kelt into the 
Jordan. We have here the remains of a monastery of St. John which 
was in existence as early as the time of Justinian, and, according to 
tradition, was erected by the Empress Helena over the grotto where 
John the Baptist dwelt. It was restored im the 12th cent. ; a num- 
ber of vaults, frescoes, and mosaics are still visible. A Greek mon- 
astery now occupies the site. — The road goes on , in the same 
direction, to (48 min.) KMtbet tl-EUeh and (25 min.) Jericho. 

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to the Dead Sea. TSE JORDAN. 15. Route. 155 

from Kasr el-Yehud we reach the Jordan in 8 min., and, ascend- 
ing the stream, we arrive at the Ford of Jordan in 10 min. more. 
The baptism Of Christ has been located here also. On the E. bank 
are a few small rains, in the midst of which is a small pool. One 
of the ruined houses is pointed out as the dwelling of John the 

A small steamboat belonging to the monastery at Kasr el-Yehud now 
affords a new method of reaching the Dead Sea from the ford of Jordan. 
It may be hired for excursions on the Dead Sea for 60-100 fr. per day. 

The Jordan, usually called by the Arabs simply Esh-Skerfa, the 
watering-place, is the principal river of Palestine (comp. p. xlv). 
Before reaching the Dead Sea, its waters form the lakes of Huleh 
and Tiberias. In a straight direction the distance from the sources 
to the mouth is not above 137 miles ; but the course of the stream 
is so meandering that while the Dead Sea is in a direct line only 
65 miles distant from the Lake of Tiberias, the length of the river 
is three times that distance. "Whether the Jordan derives its Hebrew 
name of Yardln from its rapid fall is uncertain. Its fall is certainly 
very considerable : from the Hasbani spring (p. 299) to the Huleh 
it descends 1700 ft., thence to the Lake of Tiberias 690 ft., and 
from that lake to the Dead Sea 610 ft., i.e. 3000 ft. in all, of which 
1706 ft. only are above the level of the Mediterranean, for the 
causes of this fall, see p. 157. The Arabs call the valley of the 
Jordan El-Ghor, i.e. the depression or hollow, while the Hebrews 
gave the name of 'Araba, or desert, to that part of the valley be- 
tween the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead Sea. Most of the N. part 
of the valley is fertile, and from the Karn Sar$abeh, on the route 
between Nabulus and Es-Salt, a number of green oases, interrupted 
by barren tracts, extend southwards. Numerous brooks fall into the 
Jordan on both sides of the valley, and some of them are perennial, 
such as the Yarmtik and the Nahr ez-Zerfc£, both on the E. side. 
The character of the districts on both sides is essentially different. 
The E. region is better watered, until it reaches the desert lying 
still farther to the E., and politically it has always been distinct 
from the country W. of Jordan, as the deep valley formed a natural 
barrier. Most of the paths descending into the Jordan valley are 
wild and rugged. The width of the valley varies very much, being 
greatest between Jericho and Nimrtn, where it takes about 3 hrs. to 
cross. In this vast valley the river has worn for itself two channels. 
Into the older channel, which takes l / 2 hr. to cross, we descend over 
a deeply furrowed and barren terrace of clayey soil, about 50 ft. in 
height. The present channel, which is the more recent one, lies 
deeper but is completely filled in April by the river which is then 
on an average 100 feet wide. In fact, during the seasons of rain 
and meltiflg snow, the river sometimes overflows its present low- 
lying banks. The thicket (ez-zof) which conceals the water from 
view was once infested by lions (Jerem. xlix. 19). The Jordan con- 
tains numerous fish, which migrate to different parts of the river 

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156 Route 15. THE JORDAN. From Jerusalem 

according to the season. The water is clear where it emerges from 
the Lake of Tiberias, but soon assumes a tawny colour from the clay 
which it stirs up in its rapid course. The water is not unwholesome 
for drinking, but is unrefreshing from its high temperature. The 
depth of the water varies greatly with the seasons. In autumn there 
are numerous fords. One of the most famous is that near the mouth 
of the Wddi el-Kelt. It is called Makhddet Hajleh from the ruin of 
the same name and is the bathing place of the pilgrims. Farther S. 
is another ford El-Henu. There is little or no trace in the Bible of 
the existence of bridges over the Jordan, the river being always 
crossed at fords (1 Sam. xiii. 7; 2 Sam. x. 17); but David and Bar- 
zillai were conveyed across it in a ferry-boat (2 Sam. xix. 18, 31). 
The miraculous division of the waters by the cloak of Elijah is also 
localised at this ford by tradition (2 Kings ii. 8). St. Christopher is 
said to have carried the infant Christ across the river somewhere in 
this neighbourhood. 

Pilgrims are chiefly attracted to the Jordan by its association with 
John the Baptist and the baptism of Christ (Mark i. 5-11). The two 
monasteries of St. John (p. 154) afford a proof that the baptism of 
Christ was at a very early period believed to have been performed 
here. We have, however, no clue to the possible site of Bethabara 
(John i. 28). Baptism in Jordan was as early as the time of Con- 
stantino deemed a special privilege. In the 6th cent. Antoninus 
found a great concourse of pilgrims here. He records that both banks 
were paved with marble; that a wooden cross rose in the middle of 
the stream ; and that, after the water had been blessed by the priest, 
the pilgrims entered it, each wearing a linen garment, which was 
carefully preserved in order afterwards to be used as a winding-sheet. 
In the middle ages, too, baptisms took place in the Jordan, but the 
place for bathing and baptism was higher up, near the monastery. 
Since the 16th cent, the time of baptism was changed from the Epi- 
phany to the pleasanter season of Easter. Disorderly scenes fre- 
quently took place here. From an early period the pilgrims were 
conducted, or rather hurried into the water by Beduin guides (some- 
times accompanied by the pasha), and quarrels among the Christians 
were not uncommon. Down to the present time the Greeks attach 
great importance to the bath in Jordan as the termination of a pil- 
grimage. The great caravan starts for the Jordan immediately after 
the ceremonies of Easter, and the encampment lighted with pine 
torches on the bank of the river presents a quaint and interesting 
spectacle. The priests wade into the water breast-deep, and dip in 
the stream the men, women, and children as they approach in their 
white garments. Some of the pilgrims fill jars from the river to be 
used for baptisms at home. At other seasons also crowds of pilgrims 
are often encountered here. The finest survey of the scene is obtained 
from a spot a few paces above the bathing-place. The pilgrims are 
seen drying their linen, and enthusiastically drinking and bathing, 

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to the Dead Sea. DEAD SEA. 16. Route. 157 

while in the background rise the mountains to the W. of the Dead 
Sea, the spur of Ras el-Feshkha being especially prominent. — Cau- 
tion is recommended to those who cannot swim, as the stream is 
very rapid and deepens towards the E. bank. The banks are fringed 
with $arfa trees and willows, and tall poplars (populus eufratica). 

3. From the Ford op Jordan to the Dead Sba (1 hr.). 
A supply of drinkingrwater from Jericho should not be forgotten. 

a. By Land.- The route from the bathing-place is practicable for 
carriages (p. 148)' and leads for some distance through the bushes 
on the bank of the river, and then strikes across the open country. 
The clay-soil, coated with strata of salt and gypsum, is absolutely 
barren. After 1 hr. we reach the bank of the Dead Sea. 

b. By Boat. The voyage in the boat belonging to the government 
(s/4 mej. each person; bargain necessary) from the bathing- place to the 
Mouth of the Jordan takes l 1 /* hr. The river falls into the Dead Sea in 
two arms, the latter part of its course being nearly level, so that the 
salt-water mixes with that of the river up to a considerable distance 
from the mouth. Near its mouth also the immediate banks of the river 
are wooded, but the upper part of them consists of clayey and barren 
walls of earth of grotesque forms. Lumps of salt and nodules of sulphur 
are frequently found in the clay. At the N.E. corner of the Dead Sea is 
the influx of the Wddi es- Suwemeh (which may perhaps be connected with 
the name Beth-jesimoth y Numbers xxxiii. 49). 

The Dead Sea. — Histoby. The Dead Sea was called by the Hebrews 
the Salt Sea. and by the prophets the Eastern Sea also. The Greeks and Ro- 
mans named it the Sea of Asphalt and the Dead Sea. The Arabs give it the 
same name , but more commonly call it Bahr IAt, or Lake of Lot, Moham- 
med having introduced the story of Lot into "the Koran. The earlier 
accounts of the Dead Sea were somewhat exaggerated, and our first ac- 
curate information about it is due to the expedition which the United 
States of America sent to explore it in 1848 (se \ Report of the Expedition 
of the United States to the Jordan and Dead Sea, by W. F. Lynch). Further 
expl rations have been made by De Sauloy, the Due de Luynes, and the 
Palestine Survey Expedition. (Comp. also. Blankenhorn, Entstehung und 
Geschichte des Toten Meeres, in ZDVP. xix. if.) — The subsidence that 
formed the whole Jordan - r Araba depression dates from the transition 
between the tertiary and quaternary periods. The valley was never 
covered by the sea; the Dead Sea could never have been connected with 
the Red Sea as was at one time supposed, because the watershed be- 
tween them, at the S. end of the f Arab a, rises to the height of 820 ft. 
above the Mediterranean. This inland lake was, on the other hand, the 
collecting reservoir for the enormously copious rainfall of the first ice age, 
during which the water-level was about 14C0 ft. higher than at present, or 
about 100 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean. Lacustrine deposits, 
with traces of freshwater fauna, were discovered at this height by Hull. 

The Dead Sea is 47 M. in length (about the same as the Lake 
of Geneva), and its greatest breadth to the S. of Wddi M6jib is 
9^2 M.; the breadth of the strait opposite the peninsula is 2% M.; 
towards theN., neariMa Mersed, the sea narrows to 7^ M., and at 
Rds el-Feshkha, to 6 M. On the E. and W. sides it is flanked 
by precipitous mountains, with often little or no space between 
them, and the water. The shallow S. bay of the sea, which, however, 

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158 Route 15. DEAD SEA. 

is not visible from the N. end, w bounded by a low peniasula 
(Arab. ElrUtdn* 'tongue'; Josh. *v. 2). At the S.W. e*d of tfce late 
rises a bill of salt (p. 203). 

The mean deptb of the Dead Sea is 1080 ft., that of the S. bay 
nowhere more than 11 ft. ; the greatest depth between r Ain Ttr&beh 
(W.) and the month of the Zerkd Maftn (E.) is 1310 ft. 

Level of Dead Sea below level of Mediterranean 1292 ft. 

Greatest depth of Dead Sea . . , 1310 ft. 

Total depth of the depression below the level of 

the Mediterranean . 2603 ft. 

Height of Jerusalem above Mediterranean . . . 2A94 ft. 

Height of Jerusalem above Dead Sea .... $786 ft. 
The level of the Dead Sea varies 12-20 ft, with the seasons, as 
will be seen by the pieces of wood encrusted with salt which lie on 
its banks. It has recently been maintained that the N. bank has 
considerably receded within the historic period. 

It has been calculated that 6V2 million tons of water fall into the 
Dead Sea daily, the whole of which prodigious quantity must be carried 
off by evaporation. In consequence of this extraordinary evaporation the 
water that remains behind is impregnated to an unusual extent with 
mineral substances. The water contains 24 to 26 per cent of solid sub- 
stances, 7 per cent of which is chloride of sodium (common salt). The 
chloride of magnesium whieh also ifl largely held in solution is the in- 
gredient which gives the water its nauseous, bitter taste, while the chloride 
of calcium makes it feel smooth and oily to the touch. There are also 
many other ingredients in small quantities. The water boils at 221° Fahr. 
The specific gravity of the water is not everywhere the same; it varies 
from 1.021 to 1256, the average being 1.1Q6- It ifl lightest at the mouth of 
.the Jordan, and for some distance opposite to it, and heaviest, i.e. most 
charged with mineral ingredients, in the deepest parts of the sea. The 
human body floats without exertion on the surface, and can only be sub- 
merged with difficulty ; but swimming is unpleasant, as the feet have too 
.great a tendency to rise to the surface. Irritation of the skin is often ex- 
perienced by persons who bathe in the Dead Sea, but this is probably 
caused chiefly by exposure to the fierce rays of the sun. After the bath, 
however, the skin retains an oily sensation. The water appears to have 
been used at one time for sanatory purposes. — The salt of the Dead Sea 
has from the earliest times been collected and brought to the Jerusalem 
market, and is considered particularly strong. Asphalt is said to lie in 
large masses at the bottom ol thelake, but U seldom comes to the surface 
except when loosened by storms or earthquakes. Others, however, think 
that the asphalt proceeds from a kind of breccia (a conglomerate of calcar- 
eous stones with resinous binding matter) which lies on the W. bank of 
the lake, and finds its way' thence to the bottom - y and that, when the 
small stones are washed out, the bituminous matter rises to the surface. 
The asphalt of the Dead Sea was highly prised in ancient times. 

It is now well ascertained that the Dead Sea contains no living being 
of any kind, with the exception of a few microbes (bacilli of tetsnus, etc.) 
.discovered by Lortet in the mud of the N. bank (oomp. ?DPV. xvii. 142). 
Neither shells nor coral exist in it, and sea-fish put into its waters speedily 
die. The assertion, however, that no living thing exists on its hanks, and 
that no bird can fly across it, is quite unfounded. The poverty of the 
fauna must be admitted, but is to be ascribed to the want of fresh water 
and the consequent absence of vegetation, and not to any supposed poi- 
sonous property of the air. Where a supply of fresh water exists, the soil 
bears a luxuriant vegetation <see p. 140). The banks of the lake were onae 
inhabited (chiefly by hermits), as ruins found on them indicate. The lake 
was navigated in the time of Josephus, in the middle ages, and even later, 
hut for a long period after th$t not a boat was to be seen upon it. 

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EN-NEBI MTJfSA. 16. Route. 159 

In clear weather the scenery presented by the mountains and 
water is beautiful. The promontory on the right is R&8 el-Feshkha. 
Farther to the S. is Rds Mersed, beyond which lies Engedi. To the 
left, at some distance, is seen the ravine of the Zerkd Ma r in (p. 177). 
The mountains of the Dead Sea, however, are rarely seen with great 
distinctness, as a slight haze usually veils the surface of the water ; 
hut when seen from a distance, and especially from a height, the 
atmosphere seems perfectly clear, and the water is of a deep blue 
colour. When seen from the immediate neighbourhood the colour of 
the water is greenish, and it has a somewhat oily appearance. 

From Jericho to Engedi, see p. 200. 

4. Fbom the Deajd Ska to Mab Saba (5 hrs.). 

The road follows the bank of the sea. After 18 min, we leave 
the 'Ain el-Jehayyir to the left ; it contains pretty little fish (Oyprin- 
odon Sophiae), but its brackish water should not be drunk except in 
case of necessity. We then leave the sea and ascend the Wddi ed- 
Dabr, deeply eroded by its brook, and partly overgrown with under- 
wood, where game is said to abound (partridges, wild pigeons, 
hares , etc.). After 35 min. we enjoy a fine view of the Jordan 
valley and the Dead Sea. The route then leads to the left, skirting 
a deep ravine, and affording several other points of view. To the 
right we soon perceive the pass of Nekb Wddi Miked, and in 35 min. 
we enter the Wddi el~KmHera. Along the way-side are numerous 
heaps of stone ($h&wdhid), in token that En-Nebi Mfad is now visible. 

En-Nebi JE&aa ('tomb of Hoses'), of which we hare no notice earlier 
than the 13th cent., is a Muslim pilgrim- shrine. Annually, in April, the 
Spot is visited by a great Muslim pilgrimage, accompanied by a number of 
half-naked fanatical dervisnes, who parade the streets of Jerusalem the 
whole of the previous morning, shouting their 'la Uaha ill-Allah '.' 

We continue our ride through the valley. After 40 min. the 
Jebel d-Kvhmtk* rises on our right, and we reach the table-land of 
El~Buk$a> which ascends towards ihe S.S.W, This plain is covered 
with willows in spring, and is frequented by Beduins of the tribe of 
Htem. The view hence of the Dead Sea, far below the mountain 
spurs, is grand and beautiful. In the Wddi Buk#a, below us to the 
left, Beduin encampments may frequently be seen. After 42 min. 
we cross the Wddi Kherabiyeh, which like all these valleys descends 
towards the E. In */a hr. we reach the rain-reservoir of Vmm iL-Fdbs. 
After 20 min. another heap of stones on the way-side. After 35 min. 
more we lose sight of the Dead Sea, and descend by a bad path into 
the Wddi en-Ndr, or Kidron valley, the floor of which is reached in 
28 minutes. We are now surrounded by a barren wilderness. The path 
then ascends by means of steps, and in 20 min. reaches the top of 
the hill near a watch-tower, where our goal, the monastery of Mdr 
Sdbd, now lies before us. Adjoining the gate rises a second tower, 
called the 'Tower of Eud»xia', where a watchman is posted who scan§ 
tfce mountains and valleys far and wide* 

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160 Route 15. MAR SABA. From the Dead Sea 

M&r S&b&. — Accommodation will be found by gentlemen in the 
monastery itself; ladies mnst pass the night in a tower outside the mon- 
astery walls. Visitors must knock loudly at the small barred door for the 
purpose of presenting their letter of introduction and obtaining admission. 
No one is admitted after sunset, even when duly provided with letters. 
— In the interior we descend by about 50 steps to a second door, whence 
a second staircase leads to a paved conrt, from which lastly a third leads 
to the guest-chamber. The divans here are generally infested with ver- 
min. The accommodation is rather poor, but bread and wine are to be 
had, and there are kitchens for the use of travellers who bring their 
dragoman and cook. For a night's lodging 3 fr. each is paid, besides 9 
to 12 pi. to the servant, and 3-6 pi. to the porter. — The best place for 
pitching tents is opposite the monastery. 

History. In the 5th cent, a Laura, or settlement of monks, was 
founded here by St. Euthymius. His favourite pupil Sabas was born in 
Cappadocia about 439, and when hardly eight years of age entered a mon- 
astery. Ten years later he went to Jerusalem, and then settled in this 
wilderness with Euthymius, who soon afterwards withdrew to a Laura 
on mount Mert. As the reputation of Sabas for sanctity became known, 
he was joined by a number of anchorites, with whom he lived according 
to the rule of St. Basilius. In 484 he was ordained priest by Sallustius, 
the Bishop of Jerusalem, and raised to the rank of abbot of the order of 
Sabaites named after him. He died in 631 or 532, after having greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in theological controversies against the monophysites. 
In 614 the monastery was plundered by the Persian hordes of Chosroes, 
and in subsequent centuries its wealth repeatedly attracted, marauders 
(796 and 842), in consequence of which it became necessary to fortify 
it. It was again pillaged in 1832 and 1834. In 1840 it was enlarged and 
restored by the Russians. The monastery is now used as a kind of penal 
settlement for Greek priests. 

Those who happen to pass a moonlight night in the monastery 
will cany away the most distinct idea of its singularly desolate situ- 
ation. On such a night the visitor should take a walk on the ter- 
race and look down into the valley. The rook falls away so perpen- 
dicularly that huge buttresses have had to be constructed in order 
to afford the very moderate space occupied by the monastery. The 
barren heights beyond the valley contain a number of old hermitages 
now occupied by jackals. The bottom of the ravine lies about 590 ft. 
below the monastery, and at about the same level as the Mediter- 

The monastery consists of a number of terraces adjoining and above 
one another. Every available spot has been converted by the monks 
into a miniature garden. Figs ripen here much earlier than at Je- 
rusalem, as the sun beats powerfully on the rocks. In the centre 
of the paved court stands a dome-covered structure, decorated in the 
interior with greater richness than taste, containing the empty tomb of 
St. Sabas. This sanctuary is the chief attraction for pilgrims, although 
the remains of the saint have been removed to Venice. To the N. 
W. of this detached chapel is the church of St. Nicholas, consisting 
chiefly of a grotto in the rock, which was perhaps once a hermitage. 
Behind a grating here are shown the skulls of the martyrs slain by 
the troops of Chosroes. The monastery church, of basilica foTm, on 
the E. side, is uninteresting. The tomb of Johannes Damasoenus 
is also 6hown here. He wrote in the 8th cent., and though not a 

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to Jerusalem. MAR SAJ&A. 15. Route. 161 

man of pre-eminent talent, is regarded as one of the last distin- 
guished theologians of the early Greek church. — Behind the church 
lie the chambers of the pilgrims and the cells of the monks. The 
latter, in accordance with the rule of their order, lead an asoetio 
life, eating little else than vegetables, and fasting frequently. Their 
principal occupation is feeding wild birds of the country (pigeons, 
Columba Sckimpri, and pretty little black birds, Amydrus Tristrami). 
The monastery is supported by donations and by the rents of a few 
landed estates. There are now about 50 monks here, and they have 
the care of a few lunatics. One of the little gardens contains a palm 
tree which is said to have been planted by St. Sabas. Its dates have 
no stones (it is a special variety). — The chief memorial of the saint 
is his gTotto, on the S. side of the monastery. A passage in the rock 
leads to a cavern, adjoining which is a smaller chamber called the 
lion's grotto. One day, as the legend runs, the saint on entering his 
cave found it occupied by a lion, whereupon he began fearlessly to 
repeat his prayers and then fell asleep. The lion dragged him out 
of the cave twice, but the saint assigned him a corner of the cavern, 
after which they lived peaceably together. 

5. Fbom Mar Saba to Jerusalem (3 hrs.). 

The route descends into the Kidron valley (20 min.) and then 
ascends it on the left side. The limestone rock contains numerous 
layers of flint. Encampments of Beduins are occasionally passed. 
Beyond (7 min.) a Beduin burial-place (tomb of the Shikh Muzeiyif) 
the route turns to the left. On the left (S.), after 7 min. more, we 
observe the Bir esh-Shems ('sun spring'). In 40 min. we leave the 
Kidron valley, which here makes a circuit towards the S. (the path 
through the valley is good, but takes longer), and enter a lateral 
valley, which leads to the N.W. After 30 min. we reach the water- 
shed, whence a striking view of Jerusalem is obtained ; nearer us 
lies BU Sdhtir el- r Attka (p. 99), to the S.E. we see the Frank 
Mountain, and to the S.W. the village of Sfa Bdhir. Descending 
to the W., we regain (50 min.) the Kidron valley, the Greek mon- 
astery Der cs-Gtk lying on the hill on the left; on the right the Wddi 
Kattdn descends from the Mt. of Olives. In 1/4 hr. we reach Job's 
Well (p. 98), and in 1/4 hr. more the Jaffa Gate. 

Fbom Mar Saba to Bethlehem, 2 hrs. 50 min. A tolerable path as- 
cends to the N. from the upper tower of the monastery, affording several 
fine retrospects of the Dead Sea and the wild mountain-scenery. After 
25 min. the monastery-tower disappears. In spring all these heights are 
covered with good pastures. Far below, in the Wddi en-Ndr, are seen the 
huts of the natives who live under the protection of the monastery. After 
10 min. the Mt. of Olives comes in sight on the right. (A path with finer 
views diverges here to the N. and leads past the ruined monastery DSr 
Ibn <Oted, or Mdr Theodosius, Dir D6$i, to Bethlehem.) In 20 min. we 
gain the top of the hill, whence we have a fine view, the Frank Moun- 
tain being also visible towards the S. After 4 min. we descend into the 
Wddi eWArdu (10 min.). After 30 min. we have a view of Bethlehem, 
and on the right rises Mar Elyas. In 40 min. we reach the first fields and 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 11 

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162 Route 16. ES-SALT. From Jericho 

orchards of Bethlehem. The monastery of Mir Saba also possesses land 
here. Most of the gardens are provided with watch-towers (Isaiah v. 2). 
We leave the village of Bet S&hUr to the left and, passing the Latin mon- 
astery, reach (25 min.) Bethlehem. 

16. From Jericho to Es-Salt and Jerash. 

An Escort (1 or 2 khaiyal) is obtained by applying to the dragoman 
of the consulate at Jerusalem. Charge, about 4 fr. per day for each man. 

Hist our. Gilead, in the wider sense of the name, embraces the region 
inhabited by the Israelites to the E. of the Jordan from the Yarmuk (N.) 
to the Arnon (S.). This hilly region was divided into two halves by the 
brook Jabbok (Zerkd). At the present day the name Gilead is applied to 
the mountains S. of the lower Zerka (Jebel Jifdd). — Gilead was a pastoral 
region and supported numerous flocks. The W. slopes, particularly towards 
the N.W., are wooded. The land is fertilised by a copious supply of water 
and heavy dew-fall. The E. neighbours of the Israelites were the Am- 
monites^ with whom they carried on perpetual war. Jephthah compelled 
them to withdraw into their own territory (Judg. xi), Saul fought against 
them (1 Sam. xi), and David captured Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon (p. 170), 
their chief city (2 Sam. xii. 29). The Ammonites do not disappear from 
history till the 2nd cent. B.C. — The Gileadites afterwards belonged to 
the northern kingdom, and they suffered severely in the campaign of King 
Hazael of Damascus (2 Kings x. 32, 33). After the return from the captiv- 
ity a number of Jews settled in Gilead in the midst of a heathen popula- 
tion. Alexander Jannseus frequently waged war on behalf of Gilead. 
Under Herod and his successor Antipas the Roman influence began to 
gain ground, and the numerous Roman ruins prove that Roman culture 
afterwards took deep root in Gilead. — The Beduins, who thoroughly 
appreciate the rich pastures of Gilead, occupy the whole of this region, 
to the almost entire extinction of agriculture. 

1. Fbom Jbrioho to Es-Salt (71/2 hrs.). 

The Jordan bridge near the Wddi tn-Naw&imeh is reached in 
II/2 hr. (toll for man and horse, 3 piastres). Beyond the river we go 
direct to the E.N.E. between tamarisks and acacias. After 30 min. 
we leave the basin of the Jordan, either turning more to the N. and 
reaching the Wddi Meiddn (tomb-caverns) in 1 hr. 10 min., and 
thence up the valley to Es-Sal$, or taking (rather longer) the cara- 
van-route E.N.E. and reaching in 3 /4hr. the Tell Nimrin, the Beth 
Nimrah of the tribe of Gad (Joshua xiii. 27 ; Num. xxxii. 3, 36). 
The 'Waters of Nimrim' (Is. xv. 6) are probably to be sought for in 
this region. Among the ruins is a tomb adorned with the figure of 
a rider with a sword. (From this point to r Ardk el-Emir, see p. 173.) 
Our route next ascends the Wddi Sha'tb, or Wddi Nimrin, (1 hr. 
20 min.) reaches a spring, (25 min.) leaves the valley to the left, 
and traverses a hilly tract towards the N.E. After 1 hr. we observe 
Nebi Shcttb on the hill to the left. (Shu'aib, the diminutive of 
Sha'ib, is the name given in the Koran to the Jethro of the Bible, 
Exodus iii. 1.) In 3 / 4 hr. we pass the spring r Ain Had on the left, 
above which there is a kh&n, and in about 40 min. more reach — 

Es-Salt. — Histobt. Owing to an erroneous statement by Euseb- 
ius, Ramoth Gilead (1 Kings xxii. 3, etc.; the Mizpeh of Gilead of Judg. 
xi. 29) has been sought for here, though in reality it must have lain con. 

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to Jerash. JEBBL 6SHA\ 16. Route. 163 

siderably farther N. On the other hand Oadara, mentioned by Josephus 
(Bell. Jud. iv. 7, 3) as the capital of Pereea, was probably situated in this 
neighbourhood. The name Es-Salt is perhaps derived from the Latin word 
saltus (wooded mountains). Salt is mentioned as the seat of an early 
Christian bishop, but it first became a place of some importance during 
the Crusades, when Saladin established himself in the country E. of Jor- 
dan. The fortress was destroyed by the Mongols, but soon afterwards 
rebuilt by Sultan Beibars (13th cent.). 

Es-Salt is the capital of the district of El-BelkfL, and as such is 
the residence of a Kaimmakam , and possesses a Turkish Telegraph 
Station. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, among them 250 Prot- 
estants (English mission station, church, and school), 650 Latins 
(church, convent, and school), and about 2000 Greeks. The Muslim 
Arabs and the Christians live harmoniously together, and concur in 
their cordial detestation of the Turks. As at Kerak, the villagers here 
have much in common with the nomadic tribes in their customs and 
language. The place lies 2740 ft. above the sea-level and enjoys a 
healthy climate. Agriculture and vine-growing are the chief resources 
of the inhabitants, but some of them are engaged in the manufac- 
ture of rosaries from hard kinds of wood. The market is much fre- 
quented by the Beduins. The fields, situated at some distance from 
the town, yield a considerable quantity of sumach, which is exported 
for dyeing purposes. The raisins of Es-Salt are famous. The natives 
are generally hospitable. — Es-Salt lies on the slope of a hill which 
is crowned with a castle. The latter presents no attraction. On the 
S. side of it, at the foot of the rocky castle-hill, is a grotto in which 
rises a spring. In this grotto there seems once to have been a church 
hewn in the rocks. It still contains some remains of sculpture and 
a passage descending to an artificial grotto below. On the hill-side 
opposite the grotto bursts forth the famous spring of r Ain Jedfo, 
which irrigates luxuriant gardens. On the hills around Es-Salt * re 
numerous traces of ancient rock-tombs. A large tomb, known as 
Sara, situated above f Ain Jedur, dates from early Christian times. 

From Es-SaH a very interesting excursion may be made in rather 
less than 1 hr. to the Jebel 6sha\ 

The mountain (3595 ft.) affords a magnificent view, embracing a con- 
siderable part of Palestine. The Jordan valley, for a great distance , is 
stretched at our feet like a carpet. The river, of which a white strip 
only is visible at a few points, traverses the vast, yellowish plain to 
. the Dead Sea (which last is visible during the ascent). To the S.W. 
the Mt. of Olives is visible. Ebal and Gerizim opposite us present a 
very fine appearance. Mt. Tabor and the mountains around the lake of 
Tiberias are also visible, and the Great Hermon to the N. terminates the 
panorama. The scene, however, is deficient in life, Jericho and a few 
tents of nomads being the only human habitations in sight. — A fine oak 
affords a pleasant resting-place, on the top of the mountain. Not far from 
it is the weli of the prophet Oshc? (Arabic for Hosea). It is uncertain 
how far back the tradition connected with this spot extends, but it is 
probably of Jewish origin. The prophet Hosea belonged to the northern 
kingdom , but he may have been born in the country E. of Jordan. In 
chap. xii. verse 11 he speaks of Gilead. The building, which can hardly 
be more than 300 years old, contains an open trough, about 16 ft. long, 
which is said to have been the tomb of the prophet. The Beduins kill 


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164 Route 16. NAHR EZ-ZERKA. From Jericho 

sheep here in honour of Hosea. Adjoining the building there is a small 
trickling spring of bad water. 

2. From Es-Salt to Jebash (8 hrs.). 

The most attractive route is the following. We follow the steep 
ascent to the N., passing in */2 hr. the Nabulus road, which diverges 
to the left (following the telegraph-wires). At the ( 1 /2 nr summit 
of the pass, on which are the ruins of Khirbet el-Fuk f dn, we have a 
line retrospect of Es-Sal$ and the land of Moab , while to the W. 
appear the Jebel 6sha f (p. 163) and the country to the W. of the 
Jordan. We descend to the N.E. into the (10 min.) Wddi Kuttin, 
in which, 10 min. lower, the r Ain el-Hardmiyeh ('robbers' spring') 
lies hidden among the woods and rocks. Our route now leads us 
through the finest woods in Palestine , consisting of massive oaks 
and other deciduous trees, pines, firs, etc., festooned with numerous 
climbing-plants j but unfortunately the Circassians who dwell in this 
neighbourhood are recklessly felling the trees. From the (1 hr.) 
farther edge of the wood we reach in 25 min. the Christian village 
of Er-Rememtn (120 Latins, with a church, and a few Greeks). A 
steep descent of 10 min. then brings us to a ford over the usually 
well-filled Wddi er-Rtmtmin. The road on the other side of the 
stream passes (V2 hr.) a stone circle about 13 ft. in diameter (on 
the left), and in 1/4 hr. more reaches the top of the hill. We again 
descend , reaching in 20 min. a waterfall about 60 ft. high in the 
Wddi SaUhi. The cascade is beautifully set in an idyllic frame of 
luxuriantly verdant creepers. By-and-by we quit the stream and as- 
cend the hill of Dahrat er-Rummdn (*/ 2 hr.), y 4 M. beyond which 
lies the Turcoman village of Er-Rummdn. After 10 min. we cross 
the Wddi er-Rummdn, with its picturesque stream; 25 min. f Ain 
Vmm RabV, a copious spring of excellent water; 12 min. r Ain el- 
Mastaba , a feeble spring. Thence we reach in 55 min. more the 
Nahr ez-Zerki., a little below the influx of the Wddi Jerath. The 
Zerka, or 'blue river', is the Jabbok of the Old Testament (Gen. 
xxxii. 22; see p. 176). The banks are bordered with oleanders. The 
irook is generally well filled with water , and in rainy weather is 
often difficult to ford. — Crossing the river and riding direct N. along 
the hills, we reach (l 3 / 4 hr.) Jerath. 

From Es-Salt to Jebash via the Jebel Osha', 8 hrs. This alter- 
native route is recommended to those who have not already visited the 
Jebel. — To (1 hr.) the Jebel 0*ha<, see p. 163. Thence we ride to the N. 
through fine oak-plantations to (1 hr.) r Alldn. About 1/2 hr. farther (N.) 
are the rnins of JaVM (Gilead), and in V2 hr. more we reach Shihdn, a 
ruined town with remains of Roman walls, columns, etc. Shihan is now 
used as a cemetery by the Beduins. As we descend into a d*eep ravine 
we have a view of Burmeh, to the N. , beyond the Zerka; and after 
following the valley of the Nahr ez-Zerkd for I1/2 hr. we ascend on the 
opposite slope to (1 hr.) Burmeh. We tiere turn to the E., pass (Vt nr -) 
Bemtd on the right, the (V2 hr.) rnins of Jeze&zi , and (40 min.) Dtbbtn, 
and beyond the ruins of TeJcitti reach (lVs hr.) Jerash. 

Jerath (1757 ft» above the sea). — Histobt. Oerasa is first men- 
tioned under Alexander Jannaeus, who captured it. Its freedom was 

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to Jerash. 


16. Route, 165 

restored by Pompey; and it afterwards belonged to the Decapolis of Perssa, 
and numbered several Jews among its inhabitants. Its most prosperous 
period was .early in the Christian era, and its ancient buildings belong 
to so pure a style of architecture, that they were most probably erected 
as early as the 2nd or 3rd century. In the 4th cent. Gerasa was still 
considered one of the largest and strongest towns in Arabia, and it lay 
on a great Roman military road. In 1121 Baldwin II. made a campaign 
against Gerasa, where the 'King of Damascus' had caused a castle to be 

built. The Arabian geographer Yakut (at the beginning of the 13th cent.) 
describes Gerasa as deserted, and a few mills only then stood on the 
river. On the whole, there is reason to believe that the overthrow of the 
town dates from the time of the Arabian immigration , and that it was 
occasioned by earthquakes and the influence of the elements. There is 
now a settlement of Circassians on the E. bank of the brook. The build- 
ing materials for the houses, etc. have all been taken from the old build- 

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166 Route 16. JERASH. 

tags, to the great injury of the latter. Destruction by the hand of man 
is making rapid progress. 

A careful inspection of the place occupies several days. The best 
place for pitching tents is to the N. near the mill. 

Jerash lies in the W&di Kerwdn or Wddi Jerash (the ancient 
Chrysorrhoas'), which is here called also Wddi ed-Dir. The modern 
Circassian village (JJOO inhab.; seat of a Mudir) lies on the left 
bank of the copious stream, which is bordered with oleanders. The 
chief ruins are upon the loftier right bank, where the level surface 
is broader. The town-walls, following the slopes of the hill, are 
partly preserved, and are about 1 hr. in circumference. No view is 
obtained from the valley except of the pilgrimage-shrine of Mez&r 
Abu Bekr on one of the surrounding hills. 

We begin our inspection of the ruins on the S. side. The ruins 
of dwelling-houses and tombs, which extend fully a mile beyond 
the S. gate, are hardly deserving of notice in comparison with the 
public buildings situated there. Among the last the first structure 
of importance is a well-preserved and handsome triple Gateway* 
resembling a triumphal arch. Its total width is 82 ft., and the 
height of the central arch 29 ft. Above each of the smaller side 
gateways is a niche resembling a window, introduced above corbels 
projecting from the wall. The structure is remarkable in this re- 
spect that the columns on the S. side have calyx-shaped pedestals 
of acanthus-leaves above their bases. This peculiarity and the tri- 
partite form of the gateway indicate that it is not of earlier date than 
the time of Trajan. — To the left of this gateway lies a large basin, 
about 230 yds. in length and 100 yds. in width. It is now filled up 
with rubbish, and its surface is used as arable land. This was a 
Naumachia, or theatre for the representation of naval battles, as ap- 
pears from the well-preserved channels which conducted the water 
hither from the brook ; and it was provided with rows of seats still 
partly preserved. The basin is enclosed with excellent masonry, 
and has an ornament in the form of a wreath at its upper end. On 
the hill to the N.W. of the naumachia part of the Necropolis of 
Gerasa seems to have been situated, and sarcophagi of black basalt, 
finely executed and enriched, were found here. 

All these ruins lie outside the Town Gate, which is now almost 
entirely destroyed , but appears to have resembled the outer gate- 
way. On each side it was once evidently connected with the town 
walls. On a hill, a few paces to the W. of the town-gate, stand the 
ruins of a Temple, the situation of which overlooks the whole 
town. Its walls, which are 7*/2 ft- thick, contain niches and a num- 
ber of windows. One column only of the peristyle, at the S.E. 
corner, is preserved, but the bases of the columns, 7*^ ft. distant 
from the cella, are easily traced, and fragments of the columns lie 
in the neighbourhood. The columns of the double Corinthian colon- 
nade which once adorned the entrance are also scattered over the 
slope and the different terraces of the hill. The portal was 14 1 /* ft. 

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JERASH. 16. Route. 167 

in width; the cella is 69 ft. long and 50 ft. wide. The left side of 
the wall of the cella is the best-preserved part. The stone roof has 
fallen in. The mnral pillars of the finely jointed wall have been de- 
prived of their capitals. Above the wall is a simple and very slightly 
projecting cornice. The style of the whole building is tasteful. 

Adjacent to the W. side of this temple is a large Theatre, with 
its back to the town-wall, but opening towards the N., so that the 
spectators must have enjoyed an admirable view of the handsome 
public buildings in their city. There are twenty-eight tiers of 
seats, but several more may possibly be buried beneath the rub- 
bish ; they are divided into two sections by a semicircular gallery, 
along which are ranged eight small chambers or 'boxes'. The gal- 
lery was approached from the outside by vaulted passages running 
under the upper tiers of seats. The highest gallery once formed 
a semicircle of 120 paces, but is now partly destroyed. The acoustic 
arrangement is admirable. The proscenium, once fitted up with 
great magnificence, is in ruins. In the wall of the proscenium, op- 
posite the seats of the spectators, there were three portals, now 
buried in rubbish ; the central door was of rectangular form , while 
the others were vaulted. Along the inside of this wall ran a row of 
Corinthian columns, extending to the side of the doors, and be- 
tween these columns were seen the richly adorned niches of the 
proscenium wall. The theatre also possessed side-entrances (pre- 
served on the W. side), and entrances from corridors running be- 
low the building, and probably used by the actors. The theatre 
could accommodate 5000 spectators, and is still remarkable for the 
excellent preservation of its rows of seats. Unfortunately, the Cir- 
cassians avail themselves of it as a convenient quarry. 

Leaving the theatre , we proceed northwards to a semicircle of 
columns, where there are some ruins and several reservoirs. These 
columns formed an oval Forum, which was perhaps open on the S. 
sidei, and was about 120 paces in length. Portions of the pavement 
are still intact. Fifty-five of the columns are still standing, most of 
them being still connected by an entablature. They present a very 
striking appearance. The capitals are all Ionic. 

To the N. of this forum begins the Colonnade by which the 
whole town was intersected. The columns have a heavy appearance, 
as almost all their bases are deeply buried in the earth , but the 
whole colonnade, which is hardly inferior to that of Palmyra, is 
nevertheless very impressive. Here again many columns have been 
overthrown, apparently by earthquakes. In consequence of this 
the entablature which the columns supported has been thrown to a 
distance in several places ; in other places the blocks of which the 
columns are composed have been displaced ; and in some instances 
these blocks lie in parallel rows, as if awaiting the process of being 
put in position by the builder. Many of the columns, however, are 
still so admirably put together, that it is difficult to detect the joints. 

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168 Route 16. JERASH. 

The columns are 5 yds. apart, and the street, whose pavement still 
exists at places, -was about the same "width. The height of the col- 
umns, exclusive of the entablature, is also about 15 ft, but as some 
of them are much higher, we infer (as at Palmyra) that an open 
gallery ran above the columns, and that behind them was a passage 
from which the adjacent houses were entered. The fact that these 
columns are not all in the same style, affords a presumption that 
they were erected at a comparatively late period , and were con- 
structed of materials already existing. Along the main street about 
a hundred columns are still standing ; of numerous others the lower 
parts only remain. — These columns consist, like the other build- 
ings at Jerash, of the limestone of the neighbourhood, and there are 
few traces of basalt or other more costly material. 

Beyond the thirteenth column on the left, as we follow the street 
to the N., there are several higher columns on the right and left, and 
the ends of the cornice of the lower rest against the shafts of the 
higher. Behind the columns there are remains of masonry at places. 
We soon reach a small space where four huge pedestals of a Tetra- 
pylon (p. cxiii) are still preserved. They are 6*/2 ft- i n height, and 
have niches probably once filled with statues. They are now over- 
grown with bushes. The cross-street which intersected the main 
6treet here was also flanked by columns, a few of which still remain. 
The cross-street descends to the right to a broad flight of steps and 
to a Bridge of five arches. The latter is a very substantial structure, 
but somewhat damaged ; the central arch is wider than the others. 
Near it the brook is crossed by an aqueduct. 

Continuing to follow the main street towards the N., we pass 
seven columns on the right, then seven on the left, and two larger 
columns on the right and three on the left. On the left side here 
is a building the tribuna of which is beautifully preserved. Above 
the three round and two square windows, now built up, runs a cor- 
nice with interrupted pediments , executed in a remarkably rich 
style. The interior of the building is filled with large hewn blocks, 
scattered in wild confusion. In front of the tribuna are three large 
Corinthian columns. On the left, adjoining the colonnade, runs a 
wall which belonged to some handsome edifice. Passing a complete 
column and the stump of another, on the left, we reach a Temple, 
on the right, of which a row of columns between two walls and the 
apse are still preserved. At the back of the apse a street descended 
to a bridge, which, however, is not now passable. 

On the left side of the street lie the ruins of grand Propylaea, 
of which, however, the front part only is preserved. The great 
portal, whose architrave has fallen, stands between two window 
niches with richly decorated, broken pediments. To the N. of this a 
palace seems once to have stood. — Farther on, in the main street, 
there are three columns on the right, three on the left, and then 
the Tetrapylon (see above). 

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JERASH. 16.ftoute. 16$ 

The Great Temple , which was piohably dedicated to the sun, 
the most important building at Gerasa, is situated on the top of 
a terrace of considerable extent. The principal part of it forms 
a rectangle, 26 yds. long and 22 yds. wide, and faces the E. The 
interior of the cella has fallen in and is choked with rubbish. On 
three sides the walls, which are undecorated, are still standing. 
On the sides are six niches of oblong form. In the wall at the back 
is a vaulted passage with a small dark chamber at each side. On 
the outside of the wall in front there are still remains of a niche. 
The temple was a 'peripteros', i.e. enclosed by a colonnade. The 
portico, approached by steps, consisted of three rows of colossal 
Corinthian columns, several of which have been overthrown. In the 
front row were six, in the two other rows four columns. These 
columns, 38 ft. high and 6 ft. thick, are the largest at Jerash, and, 
like m the whole building, recall the temple of the sun at Palmyra. 
They are older than the columns of the main street, the acanthus 
foliage of the capitals being admirably executed, and the shafts 
being jointed with great skill. The temple stood in the middle of a 
large court (atrium) enclosed by numerous columns, a few of which 
are still unbroken, while of the others there are numerous bases and 
fragments. A little to the W. of this runs the wall of the town. 
Towards the S.W. several smaller temples (and perhaps a church 
also) appear to have stood. Nothing, however, is now to be seen 
except a few columns and traces of vaults deeply buried in the 
earth. — The great temple commands a beautiful view. 

Below it, a little to the N., is situated a second Theatre, smaller 
than that already mentioned, but with a broader stage. It faces the 
N.E. , and possesses sixteen tiers of seats. Between the tenth and 
eleventh tier, counting from the top, are five arches, between each 
pair of which is a large niche with 2 (or 3) small shell -shaped 
niches. Under the lowest row of the extensive tiers are dark vaulted 
rooms. The proscenium is buried in rubbish ; it lay very low, and 
was adorned with detached columns. The stage commands a view 
of the columns of the great temple, rising above the highest tier of 
seats. The theatre seems to have been intended for combats of gladia- 
tors and wild animals. 

This theatre was reached from the main street by a side-street 
flanked with columns, of which three are preserved. Here, too, was 
a Tetrapylon (comp. p. 168), at the point where the streets intersected 
each other; but this was round in the interior, and square outside 
only. The rotunda of this building was once decorated with statues. 
From this point also a street descended towards the brook. On the 
right (E. of the main street) stand the ruins of a very spacious square 
building (about 65 yds. square), which seems to have been a bath, 
being provided with an aqueduct. In front are traces of a row of 
columns. The chief entrance was vaulted. On the N. and S. sides 
there were square vaulted wings with side-entrances. 

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170 Route 16. JERASH. 

The main street continues to run northwards. On the left (W.) 
side twenty-live Ionic columns, bearing an entablature, and on the 
right two columns are preserved. The finest view of this N. part of 
the street of columns is obtained from the N. gate of the town, itself 
a very plain structure. The direction of the wall, and the place 
where it crosses the brook, are distinctly traceable here. An oblong 
building, which rises to the W., inside the gate, seems to have been 
a guard-house. 

On the left (E.) side of the brook there were but few public 
buildings. The most northern building still in existence here was 
a Temple, about 50 yds. square, but part of the wall, a vaulted gate- 
way, and one of the columns of the interior are alone preserved. 
The sculptures, if we may judge from their remains, must have been 
admirably executed. By a Spring farther to the S. there seems to 
have been another handsome edifice containing altars. Part of the 
water of this spring ran into the brook, while the rest was conducted 
to the naumachia by means of a large aqueduct. Along the bank of 
the brook there are also remains of columns. Beyond the upper 
bridge lie the ruins of a large building, which must have been either 
a Bath, or more probably a Caravanserai. Here, too, lie scattered 
fragments of columns, some of which are fluted. On this E. side of 
the town the wall runs along the slope of the hill at a considerable 
height, and within it are the ruins of numerous dwelling-houses. 
Outside the wall lay a burial-ground. The wall is best preserved on 
the N.E. corner of the town, whence it again descends in a wide 
curve to the brook and the S. gate. 

From Jerash to El-Muzerib, see p. 185. 

17. From Jerash to c Amman, c Arak el-Emir, Hesban, 
Medeba, and El-Kerak. 

1. From Jebash to 'Amman (9 l /« bra.). 

Guide necessary (3/4-1 mej. a day). The guides do not always follow 
exactly the same route. For escort, see p. 162. We descend the Wddi 
Jerash to the Zerkd (l>/4 hr.), ascend the mountain on the opposite side, 
and proceed in a S. direction (ruins on our right) across the plateau. In 
about 3 hrs. we arrive at the plain of El-Bukefa. Crossing the plain to 
the S. and proceeding in the same direction across the hills at its S. end, 
we come in 3 hrs. to the beginning of the Wddi el-Hammdtn, where there 
is a spring and the ruin of YajiU, a burial-place of 'the Beduins. We de- 
scend the valley as far as the mouth of a lateral valley, where we again 
ascend to the 8. (to the left below us are ruins); after l /« hr. we have 
above us, to the right, Khirbet Brikeh. and, passing the castle, we reach 
(H/4 hr.) - 

'Amman (2747 feet above the sea-level). — The ancient Rabbah Am- 
nion, the capital of the Ammonites, was besieged and taken by Joab (2 
Sam. xii. 26-31). Later, however, it appears again to have belonged to the 
Ammonites ^Jerem. xlix. 2). Ptolemy II. (Philadelphus) of Egypt rebuilt 
it and added the name Philadelphia, and for several centuries it was a 
thriving place, belonging to the Decapolis of Persea. It never quite lost 
its original name, by which alone it was afterwards known to the Arabs. 

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17. Route. 171 

The destruction of r Amman is chiefly to he attributed to earthquakes, 
hilt notwithstanding all its misfortunes its rains are still among the finest 
on the £. side of Jordan. The town lies in a fertile basin, commanded 
by the rains of a castle. 

The Citadel of 'Amman lies on a hill on the N. side, which towards 
the S.W. forms an angle, and towards the N. is separated from the rest 
of the hill by a (perhaps) artificial depression. The citadel consists of 
three terraces, rising from E. to W. The gate is in the S. side. The very 
thick enclosing walls are constructed of large, uncemented blocks. — On the 





W| I 

WViutS,- JM>t-s' 55^? SStawSSpSe 

from ;auii*i^ni,il Survey l.v R Armstrong 

uppermost (W.) terrace the traces of a temple (bases of the columns of the 
pronaos) are still visible, and there is a well-preserved tower in the S. 
wall. — All these buildings date from Roman times, but there is a very 
well-preserved and interesting specimen of Arab architecture on the upper- 
most terrace. For what purpose this building was erected , cannot now 
be determined. It can hardly have been a mosque. The details of the 
work in the interior are magnificent. — The citadel commands a fine view 
of the entire field of ruins. 

The most important ruins in the valley below are as follows (from 
W. to E.). 1. On the left (N.) bank of the river, near the mouth of a 
lateral valley, which descends from the W., is a Mosque of the time of 
the Abbasides ; to the E. of this is a Basilica in Byzantine style, and close 
by it are the ruins of an Arab Bazaar. — 2. A little to the N.E. are the re- 

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172 Boute 17. 'AMMAN. From Jerash 

mains of Thermae. The S. wall is well preserved, and consists of a band- 
some apse connected with two lateral ones. Columns are still standing 
upright, but without capitals, by the walls. At a great height are richly dec- 
orated niches, and holes for cramps indicate that the building was once 
decorated with bronze ornaments. These baths received their water from 
a conduit running parallel with the river on its north bank. — Imme- 
diately N.E. of the baths is an old bridge with well-preserved arches, 
and close by are the ruins of the landing place •, a little farther down the 
stream, on the left bank, is a fine portico. — 3. Starting from the mosque 
(p. 171) we may follow the course of the ancient Street of Columns, which 
ran through the ancient town parallel with the stream and on its left 
bank for a distance of about 986 yds. Only a very few columns now 
remain standing. — To the left (N.) of the street of columns and in the 
middle of the village are the remains of a Temple (or possibly a forum) 
of the late Roman period. The fragments at the E. end of the street of 
columns seem to have belonged to one of the gates of the town. — 4. On 
the right (S.) side of the brook, well stocked with fish, lies the Theatre 
only, in excellent preservation. A row of columns runs from the theatre 
to the Odeum (see below). Another colonnade seems to have run from 
its W. corner northwards to the river. The stage is destroyed. A chamber 
now filled with stones was probably an outlet. The tiers of seats are inter- 
sected by stairs, and divided into three sections by parallel semicircular 
barriers. Of the lowest section five tiers of seats are visible, the second has 
fourteen, and the third sixteen tiers of seats. Between the second and 
third sections, and particularly above the third, are boxes for spectators. 
Words spoken on the stage are distinctly heard on the highest tier of 
seats. The theatre was constructed for about 3000 spectators. — N.E. in 
front of the theatre are the ruins of a small Odeum (usually called so, 
although it was not covered). There are many holes in front for cramps, 
by which ornaments were attached. The proscenium had towers on each 
side; the one on the S. is still preserved. — 5. Descending the brook, the 
traveller comes to the ruin of a mill. For a distance of 300 yds. the banks 
of the stream are flanked with handsome Roman walls, and the water- 
course was once vaulted over here. — Farther on a dry lateral valley enters 
from the left. Going up it about 100 paces we reach a fine Tomb Monument 
fKdbr es-Sull&n) on the left. The triple vestibule has on the right and left 
two recesses with niches; the central hall leads to a chamber with 3 shelf 
tombs. — 6. There are also ruins of buildings on each side of the street 
of columns; in the neighbourhood are many burying -places and also 

From r Amman to Es-Salt, 5 hrs. Ascending from the castle towards 
the N., we come (10 min.) 'to the ruins of a building, and to (*/« hr.) 
Rijm el-Anibideh, beyond which we ride towards the N.W. along the W. 
brink of the Wddi en-2fuwejis. In about V* nr « we P* 88 KMrbet Brikeh 
on the left, and (5 min.) Rijm el-Melftfa, also on the left. We cross a 
low saddle, and in i/j hr. reach Khirbet Ajbehdt (Jogbehah, Numbers xxxii. 
35). The route then (»/« hr.) descends the wadi to the W., passes (10 min.) 
r Ain Sutotlih by the wadi of that name to the left, and reaches (»/« hr.) 
Khirbet es-tidfvt, with the remains of an ancient temple. Beyond a (10 min.) 
spring we descend the Wddi JSarba^ and (10 min.) reach the plain of Bukef a, 
the S. part of which we cross in 1/2 hr., leaving Khirbet K Ain el-Bdsha to 
the right. In 40 min. more we begin a steep descent to the W. into the 
(10 min.) Wddi Saidvn, which we cross. Ascending the opposite slope 
(10 min.) we turn to the W. at the top and proceed over stony hills. 
Another steep descent (25 min.) on the slope of the Jebel Amriyeh brings 
us to a (13 min.) valley, which we follow to its junction with the (12 min.) 
Wddi Sha r (b (p. 162), about 10 min. above Et-Salt. 

2. From r Amman to 'Arak bl-Em!r (3>/« hrs.). 
The route ascends on the left bank of the brook to a spring, where 
there are remains of several buildings. An aqueduct conveys water hence 
to the town (»/« hr.). The numerous mined villages on the right and 

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to El-Kcrak. 'ARAK EL-EMIR. 17. Route. 173 

left show that this district mast once have been richly cultivated. On 
the right lies Kasr el-Mel/H/ ('castle of cabbages'), on the left ( AbdHn, then 
on the right frmm ed-Deba. After the plateau has been traversed (1 hr.), 
Tabaka is seen on the left, and Buweiftyeh on the right; then Ed-Demin on 
the left. The road now enters the green and beautifully wooded Wddi 
esh-Shita (Eshta), or valley of rain. On the right is the ruin of Khirbet Sdr; 
then, <Ain el-Bahal. To the left, at the outlet of the valley (1 hr.), 'is a 
ruined mill ; on 'the right, the ruin of El-Aremeh. About 1 hr. farther is — 

r Arak el-Emir (1463 ft. above the sea). — Josephus informs us (Ant. 
xii. 4, 1*1) that a certain Hyrcanus built himself here a strong castle of 
white stone, surrounded by a fine park, and that he plundered the Arabs 
of the neighbourhood until he was summoned to account by Antiochus IV. 
Epiphanes, whereupon he committed suicide. The description of Josephus 
answers in the main to the ruins still extant here, and Tyros, the ancient 
name of the castle, is moreover recognisable in the name of the Wddi e$- 
Sir, the brook which flows at its foot. It is, however, doubtful whether 
Hyrcanus was really the founder of this stronghold, or whether he did not 
rather utilise ancient buildings and caverns already existing here. 

The principal building in the place, situated on the S.W. side of the 
rocky amphitheatre, is called Kasr el-'Abd, or castle of the slave, and stands 
on a platform in a half isolated situation. In many places the substruction 
consists of a wall with abutments, composed of enormous blocks. The 
artificial road leading to the castle is flanked with large blocks of stone, 
pierced with holes, in which a wooden railing was probably once inserted. 
The Kasr, the wall of which is preserved on one side only, is also built of 
large'bl'ocks. The upper part is adorned with a frieze in bas-relief, bear- 
ing large and rather rude figures of lions. — The open space around the 
castle, once probably a moat, is now called Meiddn el-'Abd. 

On a hill to the left, farther to the N., are seen remains of buildings 
and an aqueduct, and a large platform is at length reached whereon 
stood a number of buildings , once enclosed by walls. On the hill beyond 
this platform runs a remarkable gallery in the rock, which has evidently 
been artificially widened. Portals lead thence into a number of rock 
caverns; some of which seem to have been used as stables, to judge from 
the rings in the walls. Can these have been rock-dwellings, or were 
they tombs? The inscriptions are in the ancient Hebrew character. Josephus 
mentions caverns of this description. 

From 'Arak el-Em!r to Jericho, 5i/s hrs. The road leads to the 
N.W. over a low pass O/4 hr.), and across a flat plateau to O/2 hr.) Wddi 
en-Ndr^ into which there is a steep descent (5 min.). It then gradually 
ascends (the ruin of Stir remaining to the S.) to the top of the Jendn 
es-SUr (1/2 hr.), descends a steep rocky slope (10 min), and leads through 
the Wddi Jer?a, a side-valley of the Wddi Mmrin, to (1 hr.) Khirbet Nim- 
rin (p. 162), near the point where the valley quits the mountains. Cross- 
ing the brook, we next traverse the Jordan valley in I1/2 hr. to the Jordan 
Bridge, p. 162. Thence to Jericho, H/2 hr. 

FfiOM 'AbIk el-Em!b to Es-Salt, 5 hrs. 40 min. From the brook En- 
Sir (see above) the route ascends the'E. hill, high above the Wddi el-Bahat, 
to the right, skirting water-trenches. After H/4 hr. the valley divides. 
Our route ascends the Wddi Eshia to the N.E., traversing oak-woods, and 
O/4 hr.) reaching a spring. Farther up the valley is destitute of water. 
The road then leads in 1 hr. to the spring of r Ain Nutafa, and then as- 
cends to the left (N.) from the wadi to a table-land. After 5 min. we 
see to the left Khirbet Sdr, which is perhaps identical with Jazer (Num- 
bers xxxii. 1). This place afterwards came successively into the possession 
of the Moabites (Isaiah xvi. 8) and the Ammonites (1 Mace. v. 8). It was 
subsequently besieged by Judas Maccabeeus. — The route continues to 
traverse the plain towards the N. , passing on the right (*/< hr.) a pool 
and Khirbet Umm es-Semak, on the left Khirbet el-Kursi, and (5 min.) on 
the right Birket Umm el-'AmUd. We then ascend the flat Wddi DabHk, 
and after i/» hr. pass Khirbet DaMk on the hill to the left. After 10 min. 
the valley narrows, being enclosed by wooded bills (Jebel Jffemdr). In 

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174 Route 11. 


From Jeraih 

i/« hr. we reach the top of the hill, and in 1/4 hr. more begin to descend 
steeply to Mm Hemdr. Crossing a table-land, we next reach (20 min.) a 
saddle, to the left of which is a deep valley, and 'to the right the plain of 
Bukefa (p. 170). Skirting the latter for V* hr., we arrive at (8 min.) the 

spring of Sirru and (20 min.) the brink of the Wddi Saidtin, where the 
road unites with that from 'Amman to Es-Salt, V* hr. from the latter. 

3. From 'Amman to Hesban (5 hrs.) and Medbba (l»/4 hr.). 

We go up the main valley as far as the ruins of a bridge (•/« hr.), 
and then ascend the hill to the left. The plateau is crossed in a S.W. 
direction (several roads may ,,be taken, either E. or W.) , and in about 
4 hrs. we reach Khirbet el- r Al situated on an isolated hill (the ancient 
ElecUeh, which belonged to the tribe of Reuben, Numb, xxxii. 3 , and was 
afterwards taken by the Moabites, Isaiah xv. 4). Hence, along an ancient 
Roman road, we come in 35 min. to — 

Hefban. — Heshbon was a flourishing city of the Amorites at the 
period of the Israelite immigration (Numb. xxi. 26). It was allotted to 

Digitized by GOOQ IC 

to El-Kcrak. 


17. Route. 175 

Reuben, and afterwards came into the possession of the Moabites (Jerem. 
xlviii. 45), but in the time of the Maccabees it had been recovered by 
the Jews. 

The site of Hesban (2950 ft.) commands the whole of the plain. The 
ruins] lie on two hills, bounded on the W. by the Wddi Hetbdn, and on 
the E. by the Wddi Matin. There are many cistern-openings 'among them. 
In the middle of the N. hill are the remains of a tower and to the SJ3. 
of it a large pool, hewn in the rock, and there is also a square enclosure 
built of large blocks. The greater part of the ancient town was built on» 
the saddle between the two hills, where there is a large reservoir. On 
the S.W. hill are traces of a citadel, or possibly a temple, with shafts 
of columns. 

From Hesban we ride in l»/4 hr. direct to the 8. to — 
Medeba ($940 feet above the sea-level). — Medeba was originally a town 
of the Moabites (Josh. xiii. 9). It was afterwards allotted to Reuben. Ac- 
cording to the inscription on the 'Moabite Stone* (p. 177), the town be- 
longed to Israel in the reign of Omri. In the middle of the 9th cent. B.C. 

im an o ri *1 ua 1 su wry <jjd& -: p «' k 
"by G. Schumacher. ^\ * 

1 : 13.333 


Wagners- Debet' 690$ EataU U Lf&ic 

it again came into the possession of the Moabites, and at a later period 
it is called a town of the Nabatseans (Arabs). Hyrcanus captured the town 
after a siege of six months. During the Christian period it was the seat 
of a bishop. 

The ruins of Medeba are now occupied by about 880 Christians from 
El-Kerak. These are mostly Greeks (with a church), but there are also 
. about 250 Latins, who have a church, a hospice, and a school on the 
highest point in the place. The modern village lies on a small hill, about 
100 ft. in height, of which 20-25 ft. consist of rubbish. The ancient town 
walls, the line of which can be distinctly traced, embraced a consider- 
ably larger area. Close to the K. gate we see a Church, originally with 

176 Route 17. MT. NEBO. From Jerash 

nave and aisles and afterwards enlarged at the transepts ; unfortunately, 
however, the Greeks have used the building as a quarry for the erection 
of their own church amid the ruins. — Farther to the S., on a slight 
eminence, lies another Church (or perhaps a temple), with an apse 23 ft. 
in width; the nave had a mosaic pavement. — To the N.E. of this point 
we find a Round Temple, 3iy*ft. in diameter. On the pavement is a 
Greek inscription in colours and other mosaics of unusual beauty. — 
A Colonnaded Street, about 150 yds. in length, led hence to the N. gate 
•in the E. wall, which was flanked with a watch-tower. The scanty re- 
mains of the colonnade date from the early Christian period and show 
traces of Roman influence. — To the S. of the village lies the large Ba- 
silica, 156 ft. in length, preceded by a court 46ft. wide. The nave, which 
ends in an apse, is 33 ft. in width, and is separated by columns from the 
aisles, each of which is 15 ft. in width. On the S. side is a wing with 
an apse, and possibly there was a corresponding wing on the N. The 
pavement was originally in polychrome mosaic. — The hut of a Christian 
native a little to the S.W. contains a fine mosaic pavement (animals, trees, 
a human head, and a Christian inscription in Greek). — Outside the 
walls, at the S.W. angle, is a large pool (El-Birkeh), 106 yds. long, 103 yds. 
wide, and 10-13 ft. deep, to which a broad flight of steps descends. At 
its N.E. angle is a tower (or bath). The pool is no longer filled, as its 
water used to be a constant source of quarrels between the Beduins and 
the villagers. There was a second reservoir to the N., beside the W. 
gate, and a third near the E. gate on the street of columns, but these are 
now represented merely by depressions in the ground. — On the slope of 
the hill to the W. of the village are numerous caves, some of which were 
human habitations. On the top of the hill two columns with fine cap- 
itals mark the ruins of a church (45 yds. long, 38 yds. broad). On the 
shafts the Beduins have carved tribal symbols (wasm). The popular name 
for the ruins is El-Ma$hnaka, or 'Gallows*, referring to the columns. — 
Comp. Schumacher, in ZDPV. xviii. 113 f. 

Fkom Mbdbba to the Jkbel Neba, about li/t hr. The road leads 
over cultivated ground. From Mt. Nebo Moses beheld the whole of the 
promised land before his death (Dent, xxxiv. 1-4). The view hence is 
very extensive, including the mountains to the N. of Hebron as far as 
Galilee, the Dead Sea from Engedi northwards, the whole valley of 
Jordan, and beyond it even C arm el and Hermon. To the N. a view is 
obtained of the Wddi T Apun Musa. On the top of the hill are some ruins 
and a stone circle ; on the N. slope is a dolmen. 

Facing Mt. Nebo on the W. stretches the Jebel Sijdgha, which com- 
mands a still finer survey of the plain of Jordan. On the summit is a 
large ruined church, perhaps originally dedicated to Moses (ZDPV. xvi. 164). 

A steep descent on the N. side of Mt. Nebo leads down into the valley 
of the Wadi f Ayun Mtisa, in which are the copious r Ayun Musa, or Springs 
of Moses'. Here also are large caverns with huge stalactites. 

From Jericho to Medbba, 972 brs. To the (I1/2 hr.) bridge over the Jor- 
dan, see p. 162. Beyond the bridge we proceed to the E.S.E. V« &*• Butm el- 
Halhul, with terebinths; 55 min. Wddi el-Kefren; J/2 hr. Wddi er-Rdmeh, 
also' called Wddi Hesbdn. We now follow the valley towards the E., pass- 
ing Tell esh-8hdghur\ on the left. In 25 min. we pass a small lateral valley 
and beyond (10 min.) a mill begin to ascend the slopes of f Arkub el-Matdbof, 
with its flint formations. We pass several dolmens and two Roman mile- 
stones. After 3V4 hrs. we reach the top of the Tell el-Matdba*. on which 
is a stone circle. Hence we gradually ascend towards 'the S.E. to the 
upper course of the Wddi Abu Neml, which we follow to the (1 hr.) fer- 
tile table-land of Ard 'Abdalldh. The Jebel Nebd (see above) is now in view ; 
above, to the left, Is the Kdbr 'Abdalldh, or Tomb of 'Abdallah. Passing 
the ruins of Kafr Abu Bed'd and Dir Shillikh, we reach (l»/4 hr.) Medeba. 

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to El-Kerak. MUKATJR. 17. Route, 177 

4. From Medeba to El-Kerak (about 26 hrs.). 

From Medeba to Diban the Direct Route (6V« hrs.) leads to the S. across 
the fertile plain. In 25 min. we pass the ruin of Et-Teim, on the right, 
and in the distance (about l'/2 hr. to the right) see Md'in (see below). In 
20 min. more a route diverges to the right to c AttdrHs (see below). 20 min. 
Sattha (on the left). 20 min. descent into the Wddi Zerkd Md'in, the dry 
watercourse of which we cross in 10 min. more. 10 min. Rujtim el-Harddin 
(to the left), with Beduin graves; to the right, a route to 'Attarus (rfne 
view). Thence we descend into (Va hr.) the Wddi Libb; and in 40 min. 
more reach the top of the S. bank. The ruins of Libb lie to the N. In 
35 min. we cross a lateral valley, and in 25 min. the main valley of 
Wddi Wa'le, which has a copious stream well stocked with fish and is 
covered with luxuriant oleanders. Proceeding across the S. table-land for 
50 min., we see, to the right, the ruins of El-Kubibeh and Abu Ztghdn^ and, 
to the left, Jdfra. In 40 min. more we reach Diban, the ancient Dibon, 
in the tribe of Gad (Numb, xxxii. 34), afterwards recaptured by the Moab- 
ites (Is. xv. 2). Here the famous 'Moabite Stone' of King Mesha was 
found (p. 178). 

Alternative Routt*, a. From Medeba a short deviation may be made 
to the W. to (H/2 hr.) Ma'ln, the ancient Beth-Baal-Meon (Joshua xiii. 17), 
or house of Baal Meon. It belonged to Reuben, and afterwards to Moab 
(Ezekielxxv. 9). Eusebius informs us that this was the birthplace of Elisha. 

b. From the point where we cross the Wddi Zerkd Ma'tn we may 
descend the valley for about 6 hrs. to ffammdm ez-Zerkd, where the site 
of the ancient Callirrhoe must be sought. Remains of a conduit are still 
to be found. The bottom and sides of the ravine are covered with a 
luxuriant growth of plants, including palm-trees. The flora resembles 
that of S. Arabia and Nubia. At the bottom of the valley is seen red sand- 
stone, overlaid with limestone and basalt. Within a distance of 3 M. a 
number of hot springs issue from the side-valleys, all of them containing 
more or less lime, and all rising in the line where the sandstone and 
limestone come in contact. The hottest of these springs, which send 
forth clouds of steam and largely deposit their mineral ingredients, has a 
temperature of 142° Fahr. The Arabs still use them for sanatory purposes. 
In ancient times also they were in great repute, and Herod the Great visited 
them during his last illness. — From Callirrhoe the road leads direct to 
the S.E., and in about 3 hrs. we reach 'Attdrus {Ataroth y in Gad). On a 
hill to the N. lie the ruins of an old castle, near a large terebinth-tree. 
The view from the ruins of the town is preferable; it embraces Bethlehem, 
Jerusalem, Mt. Gerizim, and the plain to the E. The hills are planted 
with terebinths, almond- trees, etc. — 1 hr. to the 8.W. is KurSydt (Serioth^ 
Jeremiah xlviii. 47), a great heap of ruins 5 thence along the Roman road 
S.E. for2V4 hrs., and crossing the Wddi Hiddn, we reach Diban. 

c. About 3 hrs. to the 8. of Callirrhoe is Mukaur, the ancient Machae- 
ru*, which is said to have been founded by Alexander Janneeus. The 
castle was destroyed by Gabinius, but was afterwards rebuilt by Herod 
the Great, who also founded a town and a palace here. Pliny calls it the 
'second fortress of Judeea after Jerusalem'. It lay on the S. boundary 
of Persea. Josephus informs us that John the Baptist was beheaded here 
Ant. xviii. 5, 2). After the destruction of Jerusalem a number of the 
unhappy survivors sought refuge in this stronghold, but the procurator 
Lucilius Bassus took it by stratagem and put the whole garrison to the 
sword (Bell. Jud. vii. 6, 1-4). The very extensive citadel covering the 
hill, where a tower and a large cistern are still preserved, is interesting. 
The view embraces the W. shore of the Dead Sea, and above it the whole 
of the mountains of Judah , extending from Hebron to Jerusalem and 
farther N. Mukaur lies 8675 ft. above the level of the Dead Sea, and 
2382 ft. above that of the Mediterranean. 

d. About 2i/s hrs. to the N.E. of Dtbdn lies Umm er-Resds, another 
large heap of ruins. A number of arches are still preserved there, and 
also the ruins of several churches. About »/« hr. to the N. of the town is 
4t very curious tower, not unlike a tomb-tower in the Palmy rene style 

Palestine And Syria. 3rd Edit. 12 

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178 Route 17, EL-KERAK. 

(p. 401). From Umm er-Resas it is a journey of 3 hrs. to the Hajj route, 
on which lies Khdn Zebib , on the site of an ancient town, as* there are 
many architectural remains in and around the present building. 

Fbom Diban to El-Kerak, about 12 hrs. The route crosses the plain 
to the S., soon passing within a short distance of the ruins of <Ar*dir 
(Aroer; Josh. xii. 2), which lie to the left (E.) of the road. In 40 min. 
we reach the verge of the ravine (2130ft. deep) of the Wadi el-Hoi ib 
(Arnon) and descend to the (2»/2 hrs.) river-bed. The path on both sides 
has recently been somewhat improved. The remains of a bridge are seen. 
The road ascends the S. slope in about l 1 /* hr. to two large and conspi- 
cuous terebinth-trees (to the W. of Makhddet el-Hajj\ which serve excel- 
lently as a landmark. On the 8. side o'f the Mdjib nothing but basalt 
is to be found, while on the N. side limestone is the prevailing forma- 
tion. We proceed across the table-land, first to the S.W., then to the S., 
and in 1 hr. reach the ruins of Erihd, where there are numerous heaps 
of stones. In 1 hr. more (traces of an ancient Roman road) we arrive at 
the ruins of Shihdn, at the foot of the Tell Shihdn, a hill of moderate 
height commanding a fine view : to the E. stretches the broad plain, to 
the W. appear the Dead Sea and the mountains of Judah, and in clear 
weather Bethlehem and the Mt. of Olives are also visible. From Shihan 
the road leads in l*/« hr. to the ruins of Bit el-Karm, near which are the 
ruins of a temple (Kasr Rdbba). The columns look as if they had been 
overthrown by an earthquake, and large blocks are strewn about. On 
the left (E.) rise the hills of Jebel eUTarfHyeh. On the left (»/4 hr.) are the 
ruins of the old tower of Mi$dch, adjoining which are the ruins of He- 
mfrndt. After li/ 4 hr., Rabba, the ancient Rabbath Moab, which was after- 
wards confounded with Ar Moab, and thence called Areopolis. The ruins 
are about l 1 /* M. in circuit. A few only of the ruins, such as the remains 
of a temple (W. side) and some cisterns, are well-preserved. Two Cor- 
inthian columns of different sizes stand together not far from the temple. — 
From Rabba the road leads towards the 8. across a plain and past the 
ruined villages of Mukharshit, (li/t hr.) Duweineh, and Es-Suweintpeh to 
(li/shr.) the Wddi *Ain et-Siit. Thence an ascent of 20 min. 'brings us to 

From Jerusalem to El-Kkkak direct. In 1897 a mail-steamer began 
to ply regularly on the Dead Sea from the N. bank to the peninsula of 
El-Liedn, whence a carriage-road is to be constructed to El-Kerak. 
«*- El-Kerak. — Accommodation may be obtained in the Medafeh or 
public inn, or in private houses. In the latter case travellers will find 
the Christian inhabitants more trustworthy than the Muslims. 

History. El-Kerak is the ancient Kir Hareteth or Kir-Haree (2 Kings 
iii. 25; Isaiah xvi. 7, 11; Jeremiah xlv. 31), one of the numerous towns 
of the Moabites. According to all accounts, this people closely resembled 
the Israelites, as might be expected from their origin (p. liv). They 
appear to have been of a warlike disposition, and for some time compelled 
the Israelites to pay them tribute (Judges iii. 12-14). Saul and David fought 
against Moab; the great -grandmother of David was a Moabitess. After So- 
lomon's death Moab fell to the northern kingdom. After Ahab's death the 
Moabites refused to pay tribute. Their king at that period was Mesha, a 
monument to whose memory, probably dating from B.C. 897 or 896, was 
found in 1868 at Diban (p. 177). Jehoram, allied with Jehoshaphat, king 
of Judah, invaded Moab from the S., through Edom, but they were success- 
fully resisted by the fortress of Kir Ear a set h.( Kir Moab). At a later period 
Moab was sometimes dependent and sometimes independent. Its position 
was probably similar to what it now is, tribute being paid or not, accord- 
ing to the presence or absence of a military garrison. The Moabites as 
a separate nation disappeared before the 2nd cent. A.D. The land of 
Moab is described as having been very prosperous in ancient times (Jer. 
xlviii), and. to judge from the numerous ruins, must have been very pop- 
ulous. — At a subsequent period El-Kerak was the seat of an arch- 
bishop , but he derived his title , as at the present day, from Petra De- 
serti. The place has often been confounded with Shdbek. When the Cru- 

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EL-KEBAK. 17. Route. 179 

sadew established themselves in the country to the £. of Jordan, Kerak 
was the key of that region, as it commanded the caravan-route from 
Egypt and Arabia to Syria, in consequence of which it was a much dis- 
puted fortress. The Saracens made desperate efforts to take it, as the 
Franks extended their expeditions thence down as far as Aila ( r Akaba). 
In 1183 and the following years Saladin made a series of furious attacks 
upon Kerak, which was held by Rain aid de Ghatillon, and in 1188 he 
gained possession both of Kerak and Shobek. The Eyyubides extended 
the fortifications of Kerak, and frequently resided there. They also trans- 
ferred thither their treasury and their state-prison. At that time the 
place prospered. Later it became an apple of discord between the rulers 
of Egypt and Syria. Owing to the strength of its situation, however, the 
inhabitants generally contrived to hold their own. 

El-Kerak (3365 ft.) has been the seat of a Mutesarrif since the occupa- 
tion of the town by the Turkish forces a few years ago, and it has a 
garrison of 2000 infantry and 350 cavalry. A new Serai, or government 
building, has been erected. El-Kerak is the source of a considerable in- 
come to the government. It has 20-22,000 inhab., of whom about one 
fourth are Christians. The 900 native families are divided into 26 tribes. 
The Christians and Muslims are under respective shgkhs of their own, 
who are still highly influential, and have a share in the government of 
the town. The environs are fertile, and the inhabitants are chiefly em- 
ployed in agriculture and cattle-farming. The trade of El-Kerak with 
the desert is considerable, but is wholly in the hands of merchants from 
Hebron. The inhabitants were at one time noted for their hospitality. 
'Butter seller' was regarded as an epithet of opprobrium , as the owner 
of flocks was bound to use the butter they yield for himself, and partic- 
ularly for his guests. The influx of European travellers, and the large 
sums expected from them in payment for hospitality, have, however, de- 
moralised these people and excited their natural cupidity. The inhab- 
itants are, therefore, justly in bad repute. Strangers are still treated here 
with great insolence. — Station of the English Church Missionary Society. 
The Catholics also have a chapel. 
^_s The most interesting building at Kerak is the huge Castle (now bar- 
bracks) on the S. side. It is separated from the adjoining hill on the S. by 
a large artificial moat, and is provided with a reservoir. A moat also 
skirts the N. side of the fortress, and on the E. side the wall has a sloped 
or battered base. The walls are very thick and well preserved. The ex- 
tensive galleries , corridors , and colonnades constitute it an admirable 
example of a Crusader's castle. The upper stories are in ruins, but the 
approaches to them are still in good preservation. A staircase descends 
into a subterranean chapel, where traces of frescoes are still visible. In 
the interior of the fortress are numerous cisterns. Although the springs 
are situated immediately outside the town, large cisterns have been con- 
structed within the town (particularly by the tower of Beibars). — The 
view from the top of the castle embraces the Dead Sea and the surround- 
ing mountains. In the distance the Mt. of Olives, and even the Russian 
buildings beyond it, are visible. A survey of the valley of Jordan as far 
as the heights of Jericho is also obtained. 

Although the surrounding mountains partly command the town, its 
situation is naturally very strong. It is still partially surrounded by a 
wall with five towers. The most northern tower is the best preserved, 
and bears an inscription and figures of lions of the kind common in 
Arabian monuments of the Crusaders'* period. The lower parts of the 
wall, to judge from the stones composing it , are of earlier date than the 
upper. The town originally had two entrances only, both consisting of 
tunnels in the rock, but it is now accessible on the N.W. side also through 
breaches in the wall. The tunnel on the N.W. side has an entrance-arch 
dating from the Roman period (notwithstanding its Arabic inscription). 
This tunnel, about 80 paces long, leads to the tower of Beibars (N.W.), 
whose name is recorded by an inscription adjoining two lions. The walls 
are very massive, and are provided with loopholes. 

The present Mosque of Kerak was originally a Christian church, of 

12 • 

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180 Route 18. HAURAN. History. 

which the pillars and arches are still extant. A sculptured chalice and 
several other Christian symbols have escaped destruction by the Muslims. 
— The Christian church, dedicated to St. George {ELKMdr, p. lxxxviii), 
contains pictures in the Byzantine style. In one of the houses are re- 
mains of a beautiful Roman bath, including a fine marble pavement. 
From El-Kerak to Pttra, see p. 210. 

18. The Haur&n. 

Escort. A journey to the Jebel Haurdn can only be made when the 
state of the country is unusually quiet, and had better be undertaken with 
a Druse escort, information respecting which may be obtained at the 
consulates in Jerusalem or Damascus. A soldier will be sufficient for the 
plain of the Hauran, unless the tribes are actually fighting. — A visit to 
the Hauran is generally undertaken for scientific purposes, rarely for 
mere ' pleasure. There are still numerous inscriptions to be found here : 
Greek, Latin, Nab a tee an, Arabic, and some in the so-called Sabeean (South 
Arabian) characters. 

Literature. Wetzstein's 'Reisebericht iiber den Hauran und die Tra- 
chonen' (Berlin, 1860), which no traveller should be without. De Vogue's 
'Syrie Centrale, Architecture Civile et Religieuse' contains numerous draw- 
ings of buildings in the Hauran. Schumacher's 'Across the Jordan' (Lon- 
don, 1886); 'The Jaulan' (London, 1888); 'Northern 'Ajlun' (London, 1890). 
Map of the Jebel Hauran, drawn by Dr. H. Fischer (ZDPV.), 1889 \ Schu- 
macher, 'Das siidliche Basan' with map (ZDPV.), 1897. 

History. The northern boundary of Gilead towards the district of 
Bashan was the Yarmuk (p. 186). The Bible mentions an Og, Ring of 
Bashan, whom the Israelites defeated at Edrei (Numbers xxi. 33-35). The 
pastures and flocks of Bashan were celebrated (Ezek. xxxix. 18). The oak 
plantations of Bashan also seem to have made a great impression on the 
Israelites (Ezek. xxvii. 6; Isaiah ii. 13). At a later period (Ezek.xlvii. 16-18) 
the name of Hauran, which originally belonged to the mountains only (the 
Asalmanos of the ancients), was extended to Bashan also, as at the present 
day. In the Roman period the country was divided into five provinces: 
Ituraea, Gaulanitis, to the E. of these Batanaea (a name also applied to 
the whole, like Bashan), to the N.E. TrachoniHs and Auranitis, including 
the mountains of the Hauran in the narrower sense, and the present plain 
of En-Nukra, or 'the hollow 1 . The Hauran in the wider sense is now 
bounded on the N.W. by the district of Jidilr, on the W. by the Nahr el- 
r AUdn towards the Jolan (N.), and by the Wddi esh-Shelldleh towards 'AjULn 
(S.), on the S.W. and S. by the BelkA and the steppe of El-Eammdd. To- 
wards the N.E., and beyond the 'Meadow Lakes' (p. 366), 'extends a re- 
markable district, inaccessible to the ordinary traveller, consisting of a 
series of extinct craters, in the centre of which is the 8af& (p. 366), with 
the ruin of the 'white castle'. To the S. and E. of this lies the Harra 
(Hebr. 'Kharerim'), an undulating plain, entirely covered with fragments 
of lava, where the sharpness of the stones renders riding and walking un- 
pleasant. This is one of those dreary wildernesses of which Arabia con- 
tains so many. — The rock formation of the Hauran itself is entirely lava. 
The prevailing stones are a granulous dolerite and a brownish red or blackish 
green slag, blistered and porous. The dolerite consists of thin slabs of 
crystal of greyish white labradorite, with small grains of olivine and 
augite. This formation runs throughout the whole of the Hauran, and in 
every direction are seen extinct craters and traces of violent eruptions. The 
soil in the district of the Hauran is extremely fertile, and consists of soft, 
decomposed lava. 

The ancient dwellings of the country, however, form its chief attrac- 
tion. In the first place, there are numerous Troglodyte dwellings which 
certainly belong to hoar antiquity. Most of the villages of the Hauran 
consist of stone houses, built of handsome, well-hewn stone beam's (dol- 
erite), and admirably jointed without cement. Wood was nowhere used. 

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History. xJATJRAN. 18. Route. 181 

The houses are built close together, and have lofty walls. The larger 
villages only are surrounded with walls, and these are provided with very 
numerous towers. The courses oi stone in the towers are often connected 
by means of the peculiarly shaped tenons known as 'swallow-tails'. The 
doors of the houses are low, but larger buildings and streets have lofty 
gateways adorned with sculptured vine-leaves and inscriptions. The gates 
and doors always consist of large slabs of dolerite, and the windows, on 
the upper floor only, are formed of slabs skilfully pierced with openings. 
— It is generally the best-preserved only of these houses that are now 
inhabited, but many others are in such good condition that they seem 
merely to be awaiting the arrival of new tenants. Behind the doors of 
some of the houses are blocks of stones, which were placed there by their 
occupants to signify symbolically that they were ruined. On the ground- 
floor all the doors are of stone, and the window - shutters turn on hinges 
of stone. As in the modern houses, a stair led from the court to the 
gallery of the upper floor. The stairs and galleries consist of single 
slabs placed one above the other, and let into the wall, and were in 
some cases probably furnished with balustrades. The windows and 
doors of the upper floor were open. Some of the rooms contain stone 
cupboards, stone benches, and even square stone candlesticks. The 
ceilings also oonsist of long stone slabs, smoothly hewn and closely 
fitted , above which was laid a kind of cement. The roofs rest on hand- 
some, wide arches, not immediately, but with intervening supports. 
In the more important buildings the ceiling and its supports were 
enriched. The round arch was much used. 

Beside these dwellings there were also numerous public buildings 
in the Hauran. Several temples are preserved, dating from the period 
when Syria was a Roman province, but in a mixed native and Roman 
style of architecture. The mausolea, generally standing at a little distance 
from the villages, recall the sepulchral towers of Palmyra, except that 
the walls opposite the doors are here covered with shelves for the re- 
ception of sarcophagi. The open reservoirs , square or round in form, 
are in some instances natural, in others artificial, and are carefully en- 
closed with very massive masonry. They generally have well-preserved 
stairs descending into them. They are filled by the spring rains, and 
afford drinking-water for man and beast throughout the whole year. These 
pools are unquestionably very ancient. They are now being restored and 
brought into use again by tha government. 

The last period of culture in the Hauran was during the centuries 

S receding the rise of Islam. The majority of the buildings were erected 
y tribes from S. Arabia (Jefnides or Ghassanides), who raised the Hauran 
to a state of great prosperity. They distinguished themselves by build- 
ing numerous conduits. At length, when the nomad tribes of the interior 
of Arabia began to pour into Syria, the empire of the Ghassanides was 
overthrown, and the last of their kings died at the Greek court at Con- 
stantinople. — During the Muslim period we hear little of this region. Ac- 
cording to Arabic inscriptions, it seems to have regained a share of its 
former prosperity -in the 13th cent. Nothing more is heard of it until 
1838, when Ibrahim Pasha endeavoured to penetrate into the Lejah. He 
did not, however, succeed in conquering this bleak plateau of lava (the 
W. 'Trachon'), nor did Mohammed Kibrisly Pasha fare better in 1850. 

The Arabs settled in the Hauran were idolaters, and worshipped Dhu- 
sara, perhaps identical with Dionysus. They embraced Christianity at 
an early period, and as far back as the year 180 we hear of a king r Amr I. 
who erected numerous monasteries. They were also influenced by the 
Greeco-Roman culture, as is proved by numerous Greek inscriptions. These 
are not always spelled correctly, but are interesting from the fact that 
they are contemporaneous with the buildings themselves. The capital of 
the Hauran was Bosra (p. 189). 

Both the N.W 'district of the Hauran and the 'Jebel 1 itself are now 
chiefly occupied by Beduins, but the slopes of the hills and the plain 
are inhabited by peasants who form the permanent part of the popu- 
lation. For several centuries past the Hauran Mts. have been colonised 

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182 Route 18. HAURAN. Inhabitants. 

by Druses, and particularly since 1861 so many members of that pecu- 
liar people have migrated thither from Lebanon, that the district is some- 
times called that of the Druse Mountains. A number of Christians, chiefly 
of the Greek orthodox church, are also settled here. Apart from re- 
ligious differences, the natives of the Hauran present a tolerably con- 
stant and well-defined type, which distinguishes them both from these 
settlers and from the Beduins. The peasant of the Hauran ifi generally 
taller and stronger than the nomad, although resembling him in customs, 
and like the Beduin he usually covers his head with the keffiyeh, or 
shawl, only. — The climate of the table-land of the Hauran, lying 
upwards of 2000 ft. above the sea-level, is very healthy, and in the 
afternoon the heat is tempered by a refreshing W. wind. The semi-trans- 
parent 'hard wheat' of the Hauran is highly prized and largely exported. 
Wheat and barley in this favoured region are said to yield abundant har- 
vests, but the crops sometimes fail from want of rain or from the plague 
of locusts. The fields are not manured, but a three or four years' rotation 
of crops is observed. The dung of the cattle is used for fuel, as the 'oaks of 
Bashan', which still grow on the heights, are gradually being exterminated, 
and no young trees are planted to take their place. No trees grow in the 
plain, though it bears traces of once having been wooded. Fruit-trees are 
planted near the villages only. Thanks to the energetic action of the 
government, the villagers are no longer seriously oppressed by the Be- 
duins. Along with the language of the Beduins, they have inherited many 
of the virtues of the natives of Central Arabia. Here, as in Central Arabia, 
every village possesses its 'menzuT, or public inn, where every traveller 
is entertained gratuitously, and the Hauranians deem it honourable to 
impoverish themselves by contributing to the support of this establishment. 
The inn generally consists of an open hall, sometimes roofed with branches 
only. As soon as a stranger arrives he is greeted with shouts of 'mar- 
haba 1 , 'ahlan wasahlan" (welcome), or 'kawwak 1 (God give thee strength), 
and is conducted to the inn. A servant or slave roasts coffee for him, 
and then pounds it in a wooden mortar, accompanying his task with a 
peculiar melody. Meanwhile the whole village assembles, and after the 
guest has been served, each person present partakes of the coffee. Now, 
however, that travellers have become more numerous, the villagers gener- 
ally expect a trifling bakhshish from Europeans. A sum of Vs-l mej., 
according to the refreshments obtained, may therefore be given. The food 
consists of fresh bread, eggs, sour milk, grape-syrup ('dibs'), and in the 
evening of 'burghul', a dish of wheat, boiled with a little leaven and dried 
in the sun, with mutton, or rice with meat. 

1. From Damascus to El-Muz&rib. 

a. By Railway. 

63 M. Steam Tramway of the SocUU Anonyme Ottoman* des Chemins de 
Fer> opened in 1894; one train daily in each direction. From Damascus 
(Meidan) at 7 p.m. to Es-Sanamin (2 hrs. ; fares 38 pias. 10, 25 pias. 20), 
Shekh Mitkin (3 hrs. •, 60' pias., 40 pias.), and El-Muzirib (4 hrs. •, 75 pias. 
30, 50 pias. 20). From El-Muzerib at 1 p.m., reaching Damascus at 5.30 p.m. 
— Rate of Exchange for the railway-fares, see p. 337. 

Those who intend to make excursions from El-Muzerib must take 
horses, tents, etc. from Damascus. 

The Railway Station at Damascus is situated in the S. of the suburb 
of Meidan, outside the city-gate Bauwdbet All&h (p. 367). There is also a 
halting-place in the W., beyond the Tekhiyeh (p. 866), whence the line 
proceeds in 13 min. to the principal station, through the gardens of the 

Cab to the station, 6-8 pias. $ but comp. p. 340. Bargaining desirable. 

Damascus, see p. 340. From the Meidan Station the line runs 
through the gardens of the Ghute in 13 min. to — 

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Haur&n. E?-SANAMfeN. 18. Route. 183 

3 3 / 4 M. D&rtya, a place of some importance, as it was in the 
middle ages also. The Franks extended theii ravages as far as this 
point, but were repelled by the walls of the orchards. 

6 M. Sahndyd, beyond which begins a continuous view of the 
snow-covered summit of Hermon. The line now crosses the broad 
depression of the Wddi el-Ajem, follows more or less closely the 
Derb el-Hajj or 'Pilgrim Route', and crosses the Nahr el-A r waj, 
called Nahr esSdbirdni farther up. The last-named is the ancient 
Pharpar (2 Kings v. 12), though the modern Nahr Barbar no longer 
flows into it. In 22 min. we reach — 

127 2 M. El-KUweh (Kessoui). The station is about 1 V2 M - from 
the considerable village on the Nahr el-A r waj. On the left appears 
the barren range of the Jebel eZ-Afdnf , on the highest summit of 
which (3640 ft.) lie the ruins of the ancient castle KaVat en-Nuhds. 

13 M. Kh&n Denn&n, beside a rained khan. "We here enter the 
lava region. — Passing El-Khiydra, we reach (24 min.) — 

20»/ 2 M. Zerdklyeh. To the right rises the hill of Subbet Fir'aun 
with the ruins of Kasr Fir'aun, to the left is the Jebel el-Abdyeh, 
with the Mezdr Elyesha" (shrine of Elisha). Then (11 min.) — 

24 M. Qhabdghib, near which is a large reservoir. As we proceed 
we see Dtdi, to the left, with the long Tell el-Hamir behind it. In 
25 min. we reach — 
K — 31^2 M. Es-Sanamen, the ancient Aere, which is an excellent 
specimen of a Hauran village (p. 181), and contains extensive an- 
cient ruins. On the E. side a vaulted gateway leads to a square 
chamber and several rooms with a portico, Corinthian columns, and 
several arches. Adjacent is a platform with a reservoir, near which 
rises a temple built of yellowish limestone. Within the temple are 
Corinthian columns and a niche in the form of a shell. The doors 
and windows are well preserved, and the decorations are very 
richly executed. According to inscriptions, one of the two temples 
which stood here was dedicated to Fortuna. At some distance from 
the temples are several lofty towers in different stories, built of 
yellow and black stones without mortar, and also richly decorated. 
They were probably erected over tombs. 

At Es-Sanamen begins En-Nukra, the great plain of the Hauran 
and the granary of Syria. It derives its name, which means 'depres- 
sion', from its position among peaks and ranges of hills, which give 
it the appearance of a round valley. — In 16 min. more we reach — 

36 M. Kuneyeh; in 9 min. (39 M.) El-Kutlbeh ; and in 33 min. — 

49^2 M. Shlkh Miskin, a large and thriving village. Excursions 
may be made hence to (1 hr.) Shtkh Sa'd (Stone of Job) and El- 
Merkez (Monastery of Job; p. 185); and to the E. to (2 hrs.) Ezra' 
(the ancient Zoroa'), on the border of the Lejdh (Lohf el-Lejdh). A 
branch-railway is planned from Shekh Miskin to theS.E. to Walgha, 
a little to the N. of Ea-Buwtdd (p. 184). — Then (20 min.) — 

66 M. Dd'el; 6972 M. Tafas (13 min.); and (11 min.) — 

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184 Route 18. SHfeKH SA'D. ffawdn. 

63 M. El-Muzerib (1435 ft.; Arab. Telegraph), the rendezvous 
of the caravan of pilgrims (p. 367). The caravan halts here for several 
days both going and returning, and a great market is held on each 
occasion. El-Muzerib consists of a new and an old village. The new 
village, Ed-Ddkdkin, on the N. side of the hill, has a not unimportant 
market for Beduins and the ruins of the KaVat el-Jedideh, or 'New 
Castle'. The older village, K6m el-Mu%lrV>, is situated on the site 
of the former and more important town, on an island in the middle 
of the Bahrat el-Badjeh, a large, clear pond, abounding in fish. The 
pool is a bathing-place for pilgrims and is regarded as sacred. On 
the E. side of the village rises the large ruined 'Old Castle' (KaVat 
el-A&ka), which is said to have been built by Sultan Selim (d. 1522). 
In the interior is a small ruined mosque. The whole village has 
much declined, owing to the unhealthy swampy surroundings, but 
the construction of the railway has somewhat revived its prosperity. 

b. By the Pilgrim Route (Verb el-Hajj). 

About 16 hrs. As far as Shtkh 8a r d the road is good, and carriages 
may proceed even to El-Muzertb. 

From the Bauwdbet AUdh (p. 357) we reach El-Kadem in 
20 min. ; cross the Wddi el-Berdi, with El-Ashraftyeh to the right, 
in 1 hr. ; and in 1 hr. 20 min. arrive at El-Kisweh on the Nahr el" 
A'waj (p. 183). Thence the route skirts the railway (p. 183). V2 hr. 
Khdn Dennun; 25 min. El-Khiydra; li/ihr. Sublet lir'aun (p. 183), 
on the right; i/ 2 hr. Mezdr Elyesha (p. 183),' on the left; 40 min. 
Ghabdghib; iy 2 hr. Dtdi and Tell el-Hamlr, on the left; 20 min. 
Es-Sanamln (p. 183). Thence we proceed via Inkhil and Obit a to 
(18 ^2 M. ; in about 6 hrs.) the large village of ffawfc, the ancient 
Neve (1 hr. 5 min.). The village has been entirely built from the 
ruins, but two ancient buildings still remain : the Meddfeh (public 
inn), possibly an ancient mausoleum, and a tower,' 49 ft. high. 
The population is fanatical. 

About 37 2 M. (l*/ 4 hr.) beyond Nawa we reach Shekh Ba f d, a 
wretched village inhabited by negroes, who were established here by 
Shekh Sa r d, the son of f Abd el-Kader. The village contains ruins 
and antiquities. On the S.W. end of the hill is the Stone of Job 
(Sakhrat Eyytib) within a Muslim place of prayer. On this block of 
basalt, about 6V2 &• in height, Job is said to haVe leaned, when he 
was first afflicted. The stone is a monument of Ramses II. (ca. 
1300 B.C.) and bears an Egyptian inscription and relief. The church 
of Job, which was visited by St. Silvia (end of the 4th cent.), prob- 
ably stood here. — At the foot of the hill is the Bath of Job (Ham- 
mdm Eyytib), venerated by the fella^in and Beduins for its healing 
virtue, Job being said to have bathed, after his recovery, in the 
spring which now supplies the bath. Adjoining it to the W. is the 
Makdm Shtkh Sa% formerly shown as the tomb of Job (Makdm By- 
yuh). Comp. ZDPV. xrv. 142 f. ; xv. 196 f., 206 f. 

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tfaurdn. MONAST. OF JOB. 18. Route. 185 

Shekh Sa r d has hitherto been the residence of the Mutesarrif of the 
Hauran ; hut the seat of government is probably to be transferred 
in a short time to the railway-station of Shekh Miskin (p. 183). 
El-Merkez, the actual seat of government, with Serai, barracks, 
international telegraph-office, and the residences of the officials, 
lies about */2 M. to the S. of Shekh Sa f d. It has a market (beer and 
other liquors) and a locanda, where accommodation of a primitive 
character may be obtained. In the N.W. corner are the remains 
of the ancient Monastery of Job (Bit Eyyfib), now converted into 
barracks. To the W. of the place is a building called Makdm Eyytib, 
containing the tombs of Job and his wife. 

Job, according to a popular tradition, was a native of Jdlan, and 
early Arabian authors even point out his birthplace in the neighbour- 
hood of Nawa. The mediaeval Christians also had a tradition to the same 
effect, and used to celebrate a great festival in honour of the saint. The 
great veneration of the Hauranians for this shrine indicates that it must 
have had an origin earlier than Islamism. According to Arabian authors 
the monastery was built by the Jefnide r Amr I. , and it probably dates 
from the middle of the 3rd century. 

About 1 M. beyond El-Merkez is the village of 'Adwdn, on the 
right; l 1 ^ M. farther is the ruin of Et-Ttreh; and 2*/4 M. farther 
is a new bridge spanning the Wddi el-Ehr&r. On the left is the 
Tell es-Semen, where the Beduin tribe of the Wuld r Ali encamp 
from the month of April on; a visit to the camp is interesting. 
Thence we ride to the S.W. to (IV4 M.) the humble village of Tell 
el-Ash'ari, possibly the Ashtaroth of Joshua ix. 10. The pond Bah- 
rat el-Ash'ari was perhaps an ancient naumachia, fed by the num- 
erous springs of the neighbourhood. — 3 M. El-Muzlrib. 

2. From Jerash to El-Muzrrib (9-10 hrs.). 

Jerashj see p. 164. Quitting the village by the left bank of the 
stream, we ascend the slopes of the Jebel Kafkafa. In about H/2 hr. 
we reach the top of a narrow ridge called Turrat 'Aaf&r, whence a 
route diverges to the left to S&f. Riding sometimes through fine 
oak-woods, we next reach ( 1 hr.) the wide valley of the Wddi War- 
rdn. II/4 hr. Na'emeh, a village of some size in a well cultivated 
region (good water). 35 min. Kitti, a poor village. Thence we de- 
scend through a fertile district to (65 min.) El-Hosn, or Hosn 'Ajltin 
(1935 ft.), with 1200 inhab., the richer half of whom are Christian. 
The Latins have a school and pilgrim-hospice here , the Greeks a 
chapel, school, and hospice. There are few antiquities. To the N. 
is the castle of Tell el-Hom, with traces of an ancient girdle-wall. 
Accommodation in the Latin or Greek mission-house. 

The route proceeds hence in */ 2 hr. to the prosperous village 
of Sartkh. Roads lead from this point to the left (N.W.) to Irbid 
(p. 186) in 1 1/2 hr., and to the right (N.E.) to Der'&t (p. 188), via 
Er-Remteh. Between these runs our road (to the N.N.E.), leading 
in i/ 2 br. to Hauwdr, about II/4 M. to the left of which lies Bet Rds 
(p. 188). After about $1/4 hrs. we join the Derb el-gajj (p. 184) at 

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186 Route 18. IRBID. Hawdn. 

Et- Turra. In 35 min. we cross the Wddi d-Medd&n, the lower part 
of the Wadi el-Zedi (p. 188), and in 3/ 4 hr. more reach El-Mut^rtb 
(p. 184). 

3. Fbom Tiberias to El-Muzbbib. 

a. Vid Irbid (about 15 hrs.). 

Fbom Tibebias to Ibbid, 10-11 hrs. We skirt the shore of 
the Lake of Tiberias to the S. to (2 2 /a hrs.) the Efflux of the Jordan, 
and pass the (20 min.) hot springs (p. 289) and the ruins of Sinn 
en-Nabra, the ancient Sennabris, a town and castle commanding the 
road. This spot has been erroneously identified with Taricheae. 
Traces of fortifications have been found also on the hill of Kerak, to 
the E. of Sinn en-Nabra. On the E. bank of the Jordan lies the 
prosperous Moghrebin village of Samakh. 

We may proceed hence by either bank of the Jordan. The route 
on the right bank leads via (35 min.) El-'Abddiyeh, the (55 min.) 
mouth of the Sherfat el-Menddireh (see below j from the E.), and 
(Y2 hr.) the bridge of Jisr el-Mujdmf, by which we cross the river 
(toll 3 pias. each man and horse). Thence we ride to the S.W. to 
the (V2 hr.) Wddi eWArab (see below). — Or, crossing the Jordan at 
its efflux by the ford Bdb et-Tumm (ferry), we may ride to the S. 
along the left bank, via Ed-Delhemtyeh and the (l*/ 2 hr.) bridge 
over the SherVat el-Menddireh, to the Wddi el- Arab. 

The SherVat el-Menddireh derives its name from the Beduin tribe 
*Arab el-Menddireh. Its Greek name was Hieromyees, a corruption of Yar- 
milk y the name given to it in the Talmud. It descends from the Hauran 
and Jdlan, separating the latter from the Jebel r Ajlun to the S. Near its 
influx into the Jordan it is crossed by a bridge of five arches, and its 
volume is here nearly as great as that of the Jordan. The deep valley 
through which it flows penetrates rocks of limestone ; but, after the chan- 
nel had been hollowed out, the valley must have been covered with a 
stream of volcanic rock, extending also farther S., through which the stream 
had to force a new passage. 

We ascend the Wddi el-' Arab (see above) to the Wddi Zahar, 
follow the latter (to the S.E.) via Hofd and Zahar en-Nasdra, and, 
in about 7 hrs. from Jisr el-Mujami f , reach ~ 

Irbid, an important place, newly built, the seat of the Kaim- 
maVam of f Ajlun. Turkish telegraph-office. To the S. of the vil- 
lage is a large reservoir. Basaltic blocks with inscriptions are found 
here. From Irbid an ancient road, uniting the Hauran with the 
sea-coast, leads to the E. vi& Er-Remteh to Der'dt and Bosra. 

Fbom Ibbid to El-Muzbbib, about 4 l /4hrs. The road leads to 
the N. via the Wddi esh-Shelldleh to (ca. 3 hrs.) Et- Turra, and thence 
in 17 3 hr. to El-Muztrtb (p. 184). 

6. Vid Mukh (13 hrs.). 

Fbom Tibeeias to Moxas, 5 hrs. This route cannot be followed 
when the Sherfat el-Menadireh is in flood, as the ford at El-Hamnoi i» 
then impassable. To the (2 hrs.) ford of Bdb ei-Tumm, see above. On the 

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Baur&n. MUK*S. 18. Routt. 187 

opposite bank we proceed via Samath to (ca. 1 hr.) the Sherfat el-Mend- 
direh, at the point where it enters the plain of Jordan. Thence either 
across the ford Makhddet el J Adestyeh (guide necessary) and then up the 
slope to the S.E. direct to Muk£s (4*/* M.), or by the more interesting 
route, up the wild valley (3 M.) .to the famous Hot Springs of Qadara, or 
Amatha, now called El-Hammi. The sanatory properties of these springs 
are highly extolled by Eusebius and many other ancient writers, and they 
are to this day visited by many persons during the season (April). The 
principal springs are situated in a small open space on the left bank of 
the river. Around the large basin, which is partly artificial, are traces of 
vaulted bath-houses. The water (119<> F.) smells and tastes of sulphur, 
and though clear in appearance, deposits a sediment on the stones which 
is used medicinally. The Beduins regard the bathing-place as neutral 
ground. — About 3 M. from the springs lies — 

MukeB (Mkes). — History. The ancient Gadara, a city of the De- 
capolis, the capital of Persea, was a strong fortress as early as the reign 
of Antiochus the Great. Alexander Janneeus took the place. Pompey 
restored the town to please his freedman Demetrius, a native of the place. 
Augustus presented the town to Herod the Great, but after that prince's 
death annexed it to the province of Syria. The town was chiefly inhab- 
ited by pagans. In the Jewish War it surrendered to Vespasian. Numerous 
coins of the city of Gadara belonging to the Roman period are still 
found. Gadara afterwards became the residence of the bishop of Palsestina 
Secunda. The town was famed for its baths. The ancient name of Ga- 
dara is still preserved in that of the caverns of i JadHr Mttk£s\ and the 
name of 'Jadar" 1 is mentioned by the older Arabian geographers. 

Mutes lies 1194ft. above the sea-level, on the W. extremity of a 
mountain-crest rising between the valley of the Yarmuk (p. 186) on the N. 
and the Wddi 'Arab on the S. Approaching from the E. we first come to 
tomb-caverns with various chambers and doors in stone, still preserved, 
some of them with rudely executed busts on the architraves. Some of 
these chambers also contain sarcophagi, while other sarcophagi lie scattered 
along the slopes of the hill. These are richly adorned with garlands and 
busts of Apollo and genii ; the lids are drafted at the corners and sloped 
sharply upwards. They are used by the fellahin, an indolent race from 
the Gh6r, as receptacles for corn and other stores. — To the W. of these 
caverns we come to a Theatre, the upper parts of which have fallen in. 
A good survey of the ruins is obtained hence. We observe another and 
larger theatre farther to the W., about 360 paces distant. This theatre, 
built of basalt, is on the whole well preserved, but the stage is covered 
with rubbish. The aristocratic quarter of the town extended from the 
theatre towards the W., along the foot of the hill, on a level plateau 
about 1V« M. in width. Many heaps of hewn stones and fragments of 
columns lie scattered about. The capitals of the latter were Corinthian. 
Substructions of buildings are also traceable, and in many places the 
ruts of carriage-wheels are still visible on the basalt pavement. — Still 
farther W. lies a modern cemetery, and on the slope of the hill here we 
enjoy a charming view of the Jordan valley. 

From MdkAs to B£t Bis, 372 hrs. We follow the ancient conduit 
(Kandt Fir'aun) which is visible at intervals along the route and comes 
from Der'dt. According to Arabian historians, it was constructed by the 
Ghassanide king Jebeleh I. and was 60 M. in length. After IV2 M. we 
pass on the right the ruined temple of EhKabu, with a magnificent view. 
We continue to ride along the heights eastwards. For some time we 
have a view of Irbid on a long mountain-ridge to the 8.E., while a little 
to the N. of it, on the highest summit, appears Bet Ras. After 35 min. 
we diverge to the right from the Roman road, which leads straight on 
to the E. to Irbid. Our route descends to the (74 hr.) spring of r Ain Omm 
el-Jrin, from which a steep descent of 20 min. more brings us to the 
Wddi Baruka. Ascending the valley, we reach the top in about 1 hr., and 
see before us the hill on which lies BSt Ras, while Irbid is seen to the 
right. In 60 min. more we reach the village. Bet Bas probably correspond* 

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188 Route 18. DER'AT. Haurdn. 

to the ancient Capitolias, an important fortified town in a commanding 
position. The interesting rains here are extensive and in some cases 
well preserved. Fine view from the Tell el-Khadr. 

From B£t Rab to El-Muz£b!b, 4'/2 hrs. Tne route (an old Roman 
road) leads due E. across the table-land. In 3/4 hr. we reach the village 
of Marra and in about V« nr - more the upper verge of the Wddi er-Rdh^b. 
on the height beyond which appears El-EmgTieiyir. A steep descent of 
30 min. is followed by an equally steep ascent of 20 min. on the other 
side of the valley. We then ride close by El-Emgheiyir (on the left) and 
once more descend, to the E., into the O/4 hr.) Wddi eth-STielldleh. After 
surmounting the (V« hr.) opposite slope the path remains tolerably level 
for some time, dips into the O/2 hr.) shallow Wddi esh-Shdmar, and leads 
past (1/4 hr.) Et-Turra (on the right) to join the O/ihr.) Derb el-Hajj, or 
great pilgrim-route. Following the last, we cross the O/4 hr.) "shallow 
depression of the Wddi el-Medddn, below the ancient ruined bridge, and 
the (1/2 hr.) Wddi ed-Dahab by means of a new bridge, and in V* nr « more 
reach the railway-station of El-Muzerib. 

4. From El-Muz6b!b to Bosra (about 10 hrs.). 

The route leads to the S.E. and crosses the (*/ 2 hr.) Wddi ed- 
Dahab at El- Yeduda, formerly a place of importance, with some 
ancient remains. In 1% hr. more we reach Der f at, the ancient Ed" 
rei (Numb. xxi. 33), during the Christian period the seat of a 
bishop. It has about 4000 inhab. and is the seat of a Kaimmakam. 
In the bottom of the Wddi ez-Zldi lies a large reservoir, 64^2 Y^ 8 * 
long, 59 yds. wide, and about 6 ft. deep. On the W. side of the 
reservoir lies the Hammdm es-Sikndni (an ancient Roman bath in 
ruins); near it, the inaccessible mausoleum of Sihndni. At the S.E. 
end of the town stands a Ruwdk, or hall for prayer, 65V2 V( * s - long 
and 31 l /2 yds. wide, with a double colonnade running round it. 
This, according to the inscription, was erected in 650 (i.e. 1253) 
by Emir Nasir ed-Din 'Othman Ibn f Ali, the vicegerent of Saladin. 
The building had eighty-five columns of different kinds and three 
gates. In the court lies a sarcophagus with two lions' heads. At the 
N.W. corner rises a lofty tower (El-Mtdani; fine view). The apse 
of a former church is still visible to the S. — The extensive and 
labyrinthine subterranean dwellings here into which it is possible to 
crawl, are very interesting. The entrance is in the Wadi ez-Zedi. 

From Der r at a broad road (an old Roman road, p. 187) leads 
E.S.E. to Bosra p^urs.). About iy 4 M. up the valley the con- 
duit Kandt Fir'aun (p. 187) crosses the Wddi ez-Zedi by means of 
an aqueduct called Ji»r el-Mfoari. In ltya hr. (from Der r at) we see 
(on the right) the round ruin-heap of Oharz. We next pass (V2 hr.) 
Umm el-Meyddin, on the right, at the junction of the Wddi el- 
Butm and the Wddi ez-Zedi. The Roman road (a few remains) runs 
about 300 yds. to the N. of the village. Farther on are the lava 
ridge of Nukat el-Khattb and (3/ 4 hr.) the prosperous village of Et- 
Tayyibeh (on the right). Here we once more cross the Wddi ez-Zedi, 
by means of an ancient bridge with two arches. About 1 hr. farther 
on we see the village of Jizeh, on both sides of the valley (about 
650 yds. to the N. of the road). In the E. part of the village is an 

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IS. Route. 189 

old church (now used as a stable by the shekh), and to the N. is 
an ancient (Christian) tower, near a ruined monastery. Bosra , and 
beyond it the Tell e$-8ufeh> near Salkhad, become visible. After 
36 min. we observe some extensive ruins on the left near the valley 
of Khirbet el-Harwasi. % hr. Ghasm, with a ruined church, beyond 
which we pass the ruin of Rujm el~Mi»rif (perhaps a Roman customs 
station). On the left lies El-Mu'arribeh, with a tower and fragments 
of a monastic looking edifice to the N. Farther distant, to the N., 
lies the Christian village of Kharaba. We next pass (l 1 ^ hr.) Horn- 
mds on the right, and in l 1 ^ hr. more reach — 

Bosra. — History. Owing to its remarkably commanding situation, 
Bosra was probably a place of some importance at an early period. It is 
first mentioned in 1 Mace. v. 26. It belonged to the Nabatsean kingdom, 
which was formed into the Roman province of Arabia by Cornelius Palma 
in 105 (or 106) B.C. Bosra became the headquarters of the Legio III. 
Cyrenaica and soon afterwards the seat of the governor. From the cap- 
ture of the town (or more exactly, from March 22nd, 106) dates the so- 
called Bostrian era, which was soon adopted throughout the province of 

Arabia in reckoning time. Trajan enlarged and embellished the town, 
which thereupon assumed the name Nova Trajana Bottra on coins and 
in inscriptions. In the reign of Alexander Severus (222-235) the town be- 
came a Roman colony; and under Philippus Arabs, who was born here, 
it was made the metropolis. When, probably under Diocletian, the pro- 
vince was divided into Palcestina Tertia (the 8. half, with Petra for its 
capital) and Arabia (the N. half), Bostra was retained as the capital of 
the latter. At a later period it appears as the ecclesiastical capital also 
of the province. — Bostra was an important centre of the caravan-traffic 
A road led hence direct to the Persian Gulf, and another to the Mediter 

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190 Routt 18. BOSRA. Haur&n. 

ranean (p. 187). It was frequented by Arabian merchants, including Mo- 
hammed s uncle, who was accompanied by the prophet himself (p. lxxxiv). 
At Bosra dwelt the monk Bahira, who is said to have recognised Moham- 
med as a prophet. Even in the middle ages Bosra was very important as 
a market and as a fortress. Baldwin III. vainly endeavoured to take the 
town. Saladin, who was obliged to employ the country to the E. of Jor- 
dan as a basis for his attacks on the Franks, was well aware of the im- 
portance of Bofra. The town at length fell to decay 2 partly owing to earth- 
quakes (especially one in 1151) , and afterwards in consequence of the 
weakness of the Turkish government. The Syrians have a saying that 
the prosperity of Bosra is the prosperity of the Haur&n, and vice versd. 
This is quite true at the present day, for a strong garrison at Bosra would 
alone prevent the Beduins from oppressing and ruining the peasantry. 
Another name still applied to Bosra is EsJci Sham, or Old Damascus. 

Bosra is now a poor village with about 860 inhab., not includ- 
ing the garrison of over 100 men. The town-wall is preserved on 
the W. and partly on the S. side also. The town is intersected by 
two main streets, one running from E. to W., and the other from 
N. to S. In the open ground, near the N.W. corner, is an altar with 
an inscription. On the left, outside the W. gate, is a small guard- 
house. The West Gate is well preserved. A little way to the left, 
inside the gate, is a spring, adjoining which is a low-lying meadow, 
probably once a naumaohia. In the vicinity are the small mosque 
of El-Khidr and an old tomb. The Principal Street of Bosra, run- 
ning from E. to W., seems to have been flanked by columns. At 
the entrance to the third street diverging to the right (S.) from the 
main street stands a well-preserved Triumphal Arch. The central 
arch of the three is about 41 ft. high. Th* whole structure appears 
to have stood on a pedestal 41 ft. long and 201/2 ft. wide. One of the 
pilasters bears a Latin inscription. A little farther to the E., on 
the right , are the remains of Baths, from the vaulting of which a 
fine view is obtained. We now come to the point of intersection of 
the two main streets. We see on our left four large Columns, which 
cut off the corner of the street in an oblique direction. They have 
admirably executed Corinthian capitals. These columns must have 
belonged to some magnificent public building, of which there is now 
no other trace. — On the opposite side of the street are remains of 
another beautiful Building (PI. 1), which may have been a temple 
or a colonnade, of which two columns with bases of white marble 
are preserved; in the wall are three rows of niches. Farther N., 
on the right, we come to a series of open vaults, which once evi- 
dently formed the Bazaar of Bosra. On the left is a gateway. This, 
according to tradition, was the site of the House of a Jew (PI. 2), 
who was unjustly deprived of it, but recovered it after the mosque 
erected on the spot had been pulled down by order of Khalif ? Omar. 

On the left we next see a deserted Mosque, the foundation of 
which is ascribed to Khalif 'Omar. The materials are ancient. One 
column bears the date 383 (of the Bostrian era), or A.D. 489. At the 
entrance is a kind of porch with columns, then a quadrangle having 
a double open passage on two sides. The arches rest on antique 

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Baurdn. BO§RA. 18. Route. 191 

columns, sixteen of which are monoliths of white marble, while the 
others are of basalt. A handsome frieze inns round the walls. At 
the N.E. corner of the mosque stands a minaret with a handsome 
stone door, the ascent of which richly rewards the visitor. The view 
embraces the Nukra, an undulating plain, clothed with vegetation 
in spring ; to the E. is the hill of SaUchad ; to the S. W. rises the 
Jebel f Ajlun; and towards the S. extends the steppe in which, 
about 6 hrs. off, are the interesting ruins of Umm Jemdl (possibly 
Beth Oamulj Jeremiah xlviii. 23). — On the side of the street op- 
posite the mosque are the ruins of a large bath. 

Proceeding to the E. from the intersection of the main streets, 
we come to the quarter of Modern Bosra. Farther on the street is 
spanned by a Roman arch , to the right (S.) of which are the ruins 
of a large house with many fragments of sculptures and columns. 
The street which diverges here to the left leads to the old * Church 
of the Monk BahtrcC (PL 4), a square building externally, but a 
rotunda internally. The dome has fallen in. According to an in- 
scription on the gateway, the church was built in 407 of the Bostrian 
era (i.e. 513). A building a little to the N. of this bears a beauti- 
ful Arabic inscription. Near the church the Monastery of Bahira 
(PL 5) is also pointed out. The roof has fallen in. On the N. side 
is a vaulted niche, with a Latin inscription adjacent. Still farther 
N. the House (Ddr) of Bahira (PL 6) is shown; over the door is 
a Greek inscription. 

Farther N., outside the town, is the mosque of El-Mebrak, or 
the 'place of kneeling', where the camel of f Othman, which carried 
the Koran, or, according to other versions, Mohammed's camel, is 
said to have knelt. The impression of the animal's knees is shown 
on a slab of dolerite preserved in a small room in the interior. 

Outside the wall, on the E. side of the town, lies a large Reser- 
voir, with tolerably preserved substructions. A larger reservoir near 
the S.E. corner of the town is in still better preservation. At its 
N.E. angle are the ruins of a mosque. 

To the S. of the town rises the huge Castle, which was erected 
by the Eyyubide sultans during the first half of the 13th century. 
Its form followed that of a Roman theatre, semicircular towards 
the S. , which constituted the nucleus of the building. A bridge of 
six arches leads to the iron-mounted door of the fortress, whence we 
enter a number of subterranean chambers with pointed vaulting. The 
visitors should beware of the cistern-openings in the ground. The 
whole building is divided into very numerous irregularly shaped 
rooms in three stories, one and sometimes two of which are below tho 
surface of the earth. On the platform inside the castle are still seen 
the six tiers of seats which belonged to the Roman Theatre (PL 7), 
The stage, 12 paces in depth, was bounded by a wall in two stories, 
with a number of niches of different forms, and 66 paces long. On 
each side, and on both stories, were doors leading into a passage 

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192 Route 18. 4REH. Haurdn. 

at the back of the stage. The theatre was about 79 yds. in dia- 
meter. The tiers of seats are partly concealed by the later buildings. 
Between the lower double stairs are doors from which passages 
descend to the 'vomltoria'. Around the highest tier of seats ran a 
colonnade, a few columns of which are still preserved. Descending 
passages also ran below the landings of the stairs. — This very 
extensive theatre was situated so as to command a fine view. 
A tour in the Eastern Hadban can only be briefly indicated here. 

From Botra to El-Kureyeh (large town) 2 hrs. 

[Hence 'to Hebrdn l*/2hr., see below.] 
From El-Kurtyeh to Salkhad (Salcha. Dent. iii. 10, Joshna 
xii. 3, a very ancient town in a good state of preservation, 
with an interesting castle dating back beyond Roman times) 2 hrs. 

To r Ormdn lV«'hr. 

[Return via *Iy4m (fine ruins), ca. i*/4 hr. \ Sahwet 
el-KMdr, ca. 2 hrs.i Hebrdn, ca. 2 hrs.] 

To Sdld . '. I 2i/2 hrs. 

To BUsdn (possibly the Bus of Job xxxii. 2) 2 hrs. 

To El-Mwhennef (temple) 1 hr. 

By Utnm er-Ruwdk and Tarbd to TemA (possibly Theman, 

Job ii. 11 ; Jerem. xxv. 23) 2»/4 hrs. 

To Dumd (subterranean buildings with stone coffins) . . V2 hr. 

To Bhakka (p. 197) i*/* hr. 

To the E. of r Orman an interesting excursion may be made to the 
troglodyte towns of Bibikkeh and Tell Shcff. 

5. From Bosra to Damascus. 

From Bosea to Es-Suwsda viaIebh, 3 3 / 4 hrs. From Bosra a Ro- 
man road leads due N. to (V2 hr.) Jemarrin. To the N. of this vil- 
lage a bridge (near which stands a watch-tower) crosses the Wddi 
ed-Dahab, called the Wddi ez-Zldi lower down (p. 188). The road 
traverses luxuriant fields, and next reaches (V2 hr.) Dlr ez-Zubir, 
probably once a monastery. r Ireh is 1 hr. distant. 

< Ireh lies on an eminence between two water-courses. The ruins 
are extensive , but insignificant. The place derives some impor- 
tance from being the residence of a Druse chieftain. The castle, 
fitted up in half-European style, was erected by IsmcfU el-Atrash 
(d. 1869), the chief shSkh of the Druses of the Hauran. 

Leaving f treh, we descend the hill to the N. and cross a brook. 
To the left in the plain we observe Kendkir, to the right on the hill 
Sahwet el-Beldt, and nearer us, Resds. In 1 hr. we reach the thinly 
peopled valley' of Mujtdil, near which, to the left, lies the building 
of Dlr et-Trlf. We (V2 hr.) begin to ascend. Beyond the building 
of Der Sendn (left) we reach (10 min.) Es-Suwida (p. 193). 

From Bosra to Es-Suw*da via Hkbban, about 6 hrs. We ride towards 
the N.E., cross the Wddi Abu Ea'mdka, and in */« hr. reach the Wddt 
Rds el-Bedr. On the right lies Keris. Farther on we observe Madhak 
on the right, and Kirift on the left. We then pass (*/* hr.) Ohotidn 
on the left, Dir eWAbUd to the right, then Huxhuz, and (1 hr.) the Druse 
village of EVAftneh. According to an inscription 'found there, Trajan caused 
an aqueduct to he conducted hither from Kanawat, and the arches of 
that structure are still to be seen to the E.'of the village near a Roman 

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Baur&n. SUWtDJL 18. Route. 193 

road. In */4 hr. we reach IJebrin, a Druse village commanding a fine 
view. The level top of the hill is covered with fruit-trees. To the 8. of 
the village are the ruins of a castle, adjoined by those of a church. Ac- 
cording to a fine Greek inscription, the building was erected in 155 by 
Antoninus Pius, so that it was originally a heathen structure. In the 
middle of the village are the remains of another small church. 

A pleasant route leads in 40 min. from Hebran to El-Kafr, where there 
is a handsome medafeh. The houses, and 'even the narrow lanes with 

{>avements on each side, are admirably preserved. On the W. side of the 
ittle town is a handsome gate. 

Proceeding to the N. of El-Kafr, we soon reach (10 min.) the copious 
( Ain MUsA or Well of Moses, which waters the village of Sahtoet el-Khidr 
situated 31/4 hrs. to the 8.E. The $leb (Kuleb), which rises 5640 ft. above 
the level of the Mediterranean . and is apparently, though not really, the 
highest mountain in the Hauran, may be ascended hence. The cone of 
this mountain contains a wide cleft, to which we ride across a plain cov- 
ered with volcanic substances and thus reach the extinct crater, forming 
an extensive wooded basin. The actual summit (1 hr. from the spring) can 
be reached on foot only and with some climbing. The outer side of this 
large volcanic cone is quite bare. A little below the summit are several 
caverns, probably used for collecting rain-water. On the small height to 
the left are the ruins of a temple. The formation of the crater as viewed 
from hence is very interesting, and so also is the view. In clear weather 
the Mediterranean is even said to be visible. 

From the base of the KlSb to Es-Suwedd is a ride of 2 hrs. The Beduins 
CAjildt) who are in pos'session of this district, as well as their dogs, 
sometimes molest travellers. 

Es-Suweda (Arab. Telegraph) is probably the ancient Maxi- 
mianopoli8. Nerva constructed a nymphaeum and an aqueduct here. 

— Starting from the Medafeh, we first come to a small Temple. A 
street leads hence to a Gate resembling a triumphal arch. Farther 
down , near the centre of the little town , lie the ruins of a large 
Basilica of the 4th or 5th century. We next come to a Mosque, 
occupying the site of an older public building. Near it is the so- 
called Mehkemeh, or court-house, with a Greek inscription. Ascend- 
ing the hill, we reach a large semicircular reservoir. Beyond the N. 
valley, on the road to Kanawat, we cross the valley by means of a 
Roman bridge and observe an interesting tomb. It rises on a base- 
ment with rude Doric half-columns and bears an inscription. The 
monument is assigned to the first century of our era. 

From Es-Sttw5&da to El- Kanawat, l 1 ^ hr. The direct road 
leads to the N.N.W. over the spurs of the Hauran Mts., which are 
covered with an undergrowth of oaks, hawthorn, and almond-trees. 
We pass several chapels (khalweh) of the Druses. A slight digression 
(l^hr.) enables us to visit 'Afil, a small Druse village. On the S.E. 
side of the village stands a small, elegantly built temple (now a 
Druse dwelling), rising from a lofty substructure. According to 
the Inscription, the temple dates from the 14th'year of the reign of 
Antoninus Pius (A.D. 151). Passing an old church with a tower, we 
come to another temple, called El-Kasr, to the N. of the village. 

— From f Atil we reach (25 min.) — 

El-Kanawat. —■ Histobt. El-Kanatcdt has been doubtfully identified 
with the Kenath of the Bible (Num. xxxii. 42), though it is the Kcmatha 
of classical writers. Pliny and Ptolemy both include it in the Decapolis. 

Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 13 

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194 Route 18. 



Herod was defeated here by rebellions Arabs. The character of the 
buildings and inscriptions indicate that the town flourished earlier than 
Bosra. At the time of Eusebius it belonged to the province of Arabia. 
Bishops of Kanatha are mentioned in connection with several councils. 
Coins of the town have been found with a veiled head of Isis on the reverse. 

On the W. side of the town, outside the town-wall and to the 
left of the road to the Es-Suweda, stands a beautiful little ruined 
Temple, surrounded with vegetation. This peripteral temple rises on 
a terrace, 10 ft. in height, and, according to the inscription, was 
dedicated to Helios. Its commanding situation is remarkably fine. 

Turning hence to the E. into the valley, we reach the lanes of 
the lower town of Kanawat. It lies on the left bank of the brook, 

which was formerly crossed by several bridges. The streets are still 
well paved at places with large slabs of stone. Most of the houses 
are unoccupied, but are in good preservation, and have stone doors 
and windows. — On the right slope of the valley is a handsome 
Theatre. It is almost entirely hewn in the rock, and is about 
21 yds. in diameter. It contains nine tiers of seats, to which 
stairs ascend, and the lowest of which is 4^ ft. above the arena. 
In the centre of the arena is a cistern. The view of the valley, the 
public buildings, and Hermon in the background doubtless led to 
the choice of this site (the case being similar to that of the theatre 
of Bosra). — Farther up are the ruins of a small Temple, perhaps 
a Nymphaeum, situated over a spring. Steps hewn in the rock lead 
hence to a massive Tower, which was perhaps connected with the 
military defences of the defile below. The substructions are older 
than the Roman period. A little to the E. of this building rises a 
large round tower, 17 ft. in diameter, perhaps erected over a tomb. 

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Haurdn. SULEIM. 18. Route. 195 

The principal part of the ruin s of Kanawat, presenting an 
extensive scene of desolation , is in the upper quarter of the town 
on the left bank of the river. Near the remains of a mill the town 
is entered by a beautifully preserved ancient aqueduct, adjoining 
which are fragments of huge walls, probably ante-Roman. The 
principal building, known as the Serdi, is an aggregate of several 
structures. On the W. side there is first a smaller building, which 
consists of two independent edifices crossing each other; the older 
had an apse with three arches towards the S. Another building 
with an apse towards the E. was then erected across this older 
portion ; and to this belongs the large W. facade with its three vine- 
wreathed portals. — To the E. of this building is a long edifice which 
also has a fine colonnade on the N. side. Three gates led into the 
vestibule, borne by 18 columns, of the Church. On each side of 
this hall is a small gallery, covered with three arches above. A 
beautiful and most elaborately executed central portal, with a 
cross, leads into the church, which is 27 yds. in length. On the S. 
side is a large apse 14^2 ft. in depth. In the vicinity are deep 
vaults, once used as reservoirs. — Crossing heaps of ruins, we next 
come to a Temple, a 'prostylos', with a portico of four huge columns 
about 32 ft. high. Near this temple lie fragments of numerous 
roughly executed statues, and there seems to have been a Hippo- 
drome here. Beyond the well-preserved S. wall of the town, which 
is furnished with towers of defence, we soon reach several Tomb 
Towers concealed among oaks. We then re-enter the town by a 
gate on the S.W. side. On the left side of the street is the ruin of a 
handsome house , once adorned with a colonnade , and on the right 
are the remains of a large church of a late period. "We then reach 
the broad paved road leading from Kanawat to Suweda. 

At S#, */« br. S.S.E. from Kanawat," stands one of the most interest- 
ing temples in the Hauran, resembling in style the Herodian Temple at 
Jerusalem, and indeed recording in its inscriptions the names of Herod 
and Herod Agrippa. The gazelles, lion's head, saddled horse, and other 
architectural enrichments, and the rather stiff capitals, are well worthy 
of inspection. The altar at the foot of the stair is still in its original 
position. The temple was dedicated to Baal Samin (god of heaven). 

From El-Kanawat to Shohba, 2 3 / 4 hrs. The route leads round 
the mountains on the W. We ride towards the N., cross a plain, 
little cultivated, and in 2 hrs. reach r Ain Murduk, a pool below the 
village of that name. 

A longer route from El-Kanawat through the underwood to the W. 
leads first to the ruin of DSr es-Sumeid on the left-bank of the Wddi 
Kanawdt. This was once a monastery. In the middle of the quadrangle, 
which is surrounded with a colonnade, are substructions of large hewn 
blocks. — We ride towards the W., cross (10 min.) the bed of the brook, 
and O/a hr.) reach a height commanding a view of the valley of Kanawat. 
We then come to 0/2 hr.) Suleim, occupied by a few Druses. Tfiis place 
is supposed to be the ancient Neapolis, as the episcopal see of that name 
must have lain near Kanawat. The ruins are for the most part shapeless. 
Near them are the remains of a small temple, which was afterwards con- 
verted into a Christian church. In the vicinity are large subterranean 
vaults, once used as reservoirs. There are also some remains of baths. 


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196 Route 18. SHOHBA. Haurdn. 

The route from Suleim crosses (1 hr.) the Wddi Mifdleh. In 25 min. we 
reach Murduk, which we leave on the right. 

Beyond Murduk our route ascends to the N.E. across a barren 
tract, still commanding, however, a beautiful view of the plain, the 
tints of which vary from violet to dark blue. To the S. we see the 
Jebel f Ajlun, and to the W. the depression of the Jordan valley. To- 
wards the N. the curious blunted cones of the Ghardras come in sight. 

The word Ohardra signifies a heap of grain. A legend derives the 
name from a tyrannical act of Pharaoh, who, when building the Kanat 
(p. 187), is said to have forcibly taken corn from the peasants for the 
use of his workmen and to have heaped it up here. One day, however, 
when he had sent a large camel to carry away the heap , God changed 
both the corn and the camel into stone. The two Ghararas, the north- 
ern and southern, are volcanic peaks, covered with fragments of porous 
lava. The regularity of their shape is remarkable, and it is interesting to 
ascend them, as the openings of the craters at the top are still visible. 

Passing Ghardrat el-Kibliyeh ('the southern'), we next reach 
(40 min.) — 

Shohba, the ancient Philippopolis. Shohba possesses beautifully 
preserved streets, broader than any others in the Hauran (some of 
them 25 ft.), and paved with long slabs which are still generally 
visible. At the intersection of the two Main Streets, running from N. 
to S. and from E. to W. , extensive remains of the four corner columns 
of a Tetrapylon are still to be seen. From the numerous remains 
of columns one might almost infer that a colonnaded street ran 
throughout the whole length of the town. The Town Watts are 
preserved in many places. Each of the main streets terminated in 
a gate at each end ; on the S. side of the town, however, the wall 
contained two gates. Each of the Gates consists of two arches, 
separated by a pillar. About 120 paces to the S. of the intersection 
of the streets are situated large Baths, containing lofty chambers. 
Beautiful fragments of sculpture are still to be seen. Gutters for 
the water, and earthen pipes for conducting it to the different 
rooms, are also still in existence. The hooks or cramps on the walls 
were used to secure the marble incrustation. The water was con- 
ducted hither from a distance of about 12 M. by means of an aque- 
duct, five arches of which are still preserved. — About 230 paces 
to the E. of the intersection of the streets stand five columns, being 
remains of the colonnade of a Temple, of which a few fragments 
of walls are the only other trace. Near these are the remains of 
the Amphitheatre, which looked towards the plain. It was con- 
structed on a slope, and its external walls are still well preserved. 
Between the theatre and the principal street stands a small Temple 
with a kind of crypt, now filled with rubbish. — Proceeding towards 
the shekh's dwelling, we now come to a curious building, lying 
deep in the ground. We descend 14 ft. into the court of an ancient 
house. In the centre of the building is a round apse about 13 ft. 
broad , with niches on each side for statues. In front of the build- 
ing is a large open space. The purpose of the building is unknown. 

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Haurdn. SHAKKA. 18. Route. 197 

From Shohba to Damascus, about 16 hrs. ; to Burak 91/2 hra. 
The direct route follows the great Wddi Nimra, called Wddi el- 
Luwd in its lower part towards the N. , which separates this dis- 
trict from the Lejdh. The Ohardrat esh-Shemdliyeh ('the northern') 
rises to the left, and beyond the wadi we observe the Tell Shihdn 
(3757 ft.) in the same direction, crowned with the Weli Shihdn. 
This hill is also volcanic, but eruptions have taken place on the W. 
side only, so that it somewhat resembles a chair without arms. 
From its extensive crater and from the Qhardrat d-Kibliyeh vast 
lava-streams once poured over the Lejah. In 50 min. we reach the 
village of Umm ez-Zeitiln, with the unimportant ruins of a small 
temple. The country bears traces of having been formerly better 
cultivated than now. 

The route skirting the Lejah is exposed to danger from the Be- 
duins. Little water is to be found, and the heat is often oppress- 
ive. A few fields and many traces of former cultivation are passed. 
The villages on each side of the route present few attractions. On 
the right are ( Amrd and El- Hit, on the left (25 min.) Es-Suwtmira 
and (20 min.) El-Murasras. We next pass (20 min.) Umm el- 
Hdratin jm& Sumtd, farther W., (V 4 hr.) El-Imtuneh, (25 min.) 
Rijm eWIs, (10 min.) El-Kusefeh, (25 min.) Ldhiteh, (25 min.) Ha- 
dar, (20 min.) Er-Rudimeh, (25 min.) Suwdrat es-Saghireh, (^hr.) 
Dekir, a larger place, (72 nr -D2r Wleh, (40 min.) Khalkhaleh^ and 
(^hr.) Umm el-Hdratln. In 2hrs. more we reach Suwdrat el-Ke- 
bireh. To the N.E. lies the extensive tract of Ard el-Fedayen. After 
i / 2 hr. we cross the Wddi el-Luwd (see above). To the N. lies 
Ju'tdeh. In 50 min. more we reach — 

Bur&k, now very thinly peopled, as it is much exposed to the 
attacks of the Beduins. Many old houses in the style peculiar to 
the Hauran are still well preserved, and there is a fine reservoir. 
There are, however, no buildings which require special mention. 

A poor path leads to the 8.W. from Barak to (2 hrs.) El-Afismiyeh, the 
ancient Phaena, where there are several well-preserved houses. The temple 
(afterwards a church and mosque), one of the finest ruins in the Hauran, 
is said to have been recently pulled down to make room for barracks. — 
From El-Mismiyeh we may proceed via (2 l fe hrs.) Merjdnd, O/a hr.) Mez&r 
Zaghbar, (25 min.) Dir'Ali, and (25 min.) El-Majidtyeh to (ca. H/2 hr.) El- 
Kisweh (p. 183). 

From Shohba to BubIk via Shakka, a digression of iy« hr. The route 
first crosses the Wddi Nimra and then runs towards the N.E. On the 
left, after 40 min., is seen El J AsaUyeh. On the hill to the right (S.) lies 
Tafha. In 40 min. more we reach the large village of Shakka, the an- 
cient Sakkaia (Ptolemy). Among the ruins are several towers of different 
periods, but few buildings are preserved. Towards the N.E. are the ruins 
of a basilica of the 2nd or 3rd cent., with a nave and aisles. On the E. 
side of the inhabited quarter of the town are remains of a monastery of 
the 5th century (Arab. Der esh-Sharkiyeh). The adjoining tower is ancient 
in its lower part only. It is now no" easy matter to find the church belong- 
ing to the monastery. Its apse was semicircular. Among the other build- 
ings may be mentioned several KusAr, or large houses, and El-Kaisartyeh, 
a heathen temple with an old bazaar. To the N. is the Mosque or Medreseh, 
near which rises an ancient tomb-tower. — To the N. of Shakka rises 

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200 Route 19. ENGEDI. Southern 

From Hebron to Engedi, 7-8 hrs., an interesting but fatiguing route. 
The road ascends the Jebel Jdbar (fine restrospect from the top) and 
reaches in about l»/t hr. Tell Zif (Ziph, 1 8am. xxiii. 24), on the left; 
after 40 min., cisterns ; 1 hr., Wddi Khabra (little water), which we follow 
(2 hrs.). Then we ascend in about l 1 /* hr. to the top of the Pass of En- 
gedi (656 ft. above the sea-level, 1945 ft. above the Dead 8ea; magnificent 
view). The descent to Engedi (35 min.) is very toilsome. 

Fbom Jericho to Engedi, 12-14 hrs. This route is fatiguing and des- 
titute of water, but not uninteresting. It affords an opportunity for a 
nearer acquaintance with the banks of the Dead Sea and the desert of 
Judah. — From the N.W. corner of the Dead Sea along the plain of the 
coast we reach (I1/2 hr.) Khirbet Kumrdn, where there are numerous an- 
cient tombs. The plain terminates* at *Ain Feshkha (1 hr.), a copious spring 
near the bank of the lake. The water is clear, but somewhat warm, 
brackish, and sulphureous ; these properties, however, are easily removed 
by placing it in porous jars and adding wine. (Water should be taken 
hence for the journey to Engedi.) Near the spring are some slight traces 
of ruins. The promontory of Rds el- Feshkha can be crossed by experienced 
climbers only. We must, therefore, make a long circuit (about 3 hrs.) to 
the W., regaining the shore of the sea on the S. slope of the Wddi en-N&r 
(lower Eidron valley), on the other side of the promontory. This rough 
journey, however, is not uninteresting. To the S. the rocky promontory 
of Marsid (see below) abuts on the lake, and the lofty hills to the E., with 
their deeply indented valleys, form an admirable frame to the picture. 
When we again approach the sea we perceive the somewhat overpowering 
odour of some sulphureous springs. Stinkstone (p. 121) is frequently found 
here. The route passes the mouths of the Wddi el-Qhuu>£r t et-Ta r dmireh, 
and ed-DereJeh, and continues tolerable until we have passed the Wddi 
Hasdsd (about 2 hrs.). Where, however, it skirts the (1 hr.) Rds Marsid, 
it again becomes extremely rugged. Engedi is reached in H/ahr. more. 

Another Route leads from the ( 3 /* hr.) top of the Rds el- Feshkha, 
ascending hills, and crossing valleys. After 1/4 hr. we reach a valley, and 
after 40 min. the Rds Ndkb et-Terdbeh, commanding a grand view. In 
40 min. a bad path descends to the left to 'Ain et- Terdbeh ; in V* hr. we 
pass near the union of the Wadi et-Ta f amireh with the Wadi Derejeh 
(to the left, below). In 20 min. we reach the Wddi et-Tcfdmireh, and in 
35 min. the Wddi ed- Derejeh. In 20 min. we reach the opposite hill, in 
40 min. the Wddi eLHasd&d, and then ascend the hill. In 40 min. the 
table-land of Hasdsd is reached. After 40 min. we cross the Wddi Shakif. 
On the left rises the Jebel Shakif. In 1 hr. 10 min. the Wddi SudSr has 
to be crossed; in 20 min. we reach the point where the Jerusalem road 
diverges, and, at length, in V* & r * we arrive at the hill of Engedi. 

The modern T Ain Jidt answers to the ancient Engedi, both names 
signifying 'goat's spring*. To the wilderness of Engedi David once retired 
(1 Sam. xxiv. 1, et seq.). According to Josephus there were once beau- 
tiful palm-groves here, and in the time of Eusebius Engedi was still a 
place of importance ; but in the middle ages the place was almost un- 
known. The water of the spring is warm (80° Fahr.), sweetish , and 
impregnated with lime, and contains a number of small black snails. 
The natives assert that the water comes under the mountain from Se f ir (?) 
near Hebron. Different varieties of zizyphus, the nebk and sidr (p. 152), 
occur here, as well as the *oshr (Calotropis procera), which is found also 
in the QhOr, opposite Jericho, but nowhere else except in Nubia, 8. Arabia, 
and other sub-tropical regions. This tree bears the apple of Sodom, 
described by Josephus: a yellow, apple-like fruit; on being squeezed it 
bursts, and only fibres and bits of the thin rind remain in the hand. 
The seydl (Acacia sepal), from which gum-arabic is obtained, occurs here 
as well as on Mt. Sinai. Among the smaller plants the night-shade (So- 
latium melongena) is very common. 

By the spring, and to the E. of it, are a few remains of old buildings. 
The ancient Engedi probably lay below the spring. The gradual slope 
towards the Dead Sea was converted into terraced gardens. We have 

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Palestine. MAS AD A. 19. Route. 201 

still to descend about 390 ft. to the level of the sea , which we reach in 
20-26 minutes. 

Engedi is very impressive by moonlight. The precipitous cliffs on 
one side and the sea on the other, the warmth of the atmosphere, and 
the strange-looking vegetation seem to transplant the traveller into an 
almost tropical zone. In the morning the sun, which in spring rises in 
the gap formed in the opposite mountains by the Wddi Heddn, tints the 
rocks with a peculiar red glow, and sets in motion the fleecy mists 
which frequently hover over the sea. 

8. Masada. 

Fbom Engedi to Masada, 4*/4 hrs. About 20 min. below the spring 
we turn to the S. We cross the (12 min.) Wddi eWOrijeh. and Hasada 
comes in sight to the S. The ground is barren, a few salt-plants only 
appearing to thrive. The chief of these is the Salsola JfcaW, Arabic hubi- 
beh y a plant with a flat, glossy, reddish stalk, and small glass-like leaves, 
which the Arabs burn in order to obtain alkali. The so-called Rose of 
Jericho also occurs here, but the plant is neither a rose, nor does it now 
grow near Jericho. It is a low annual herb of the cruciferous order, soft 
and herbaceous at first, but whose branches become woody with age. 
It owes its name anastatica (the arising) to a peculiarity of its woody 
branches, springing from the crown of the root, which are curved in- 
wards when dry, but spread out horizontally when the plant is moistened. 
This phenomenon has given rise to a superstitious belief in the virtues 
of the plant, and it is accordingly gathered in great quantities and sent 
to Jerusalem, where it is sold to pilgrims. Th6 finest specimens occur 
to the S. of Masada. Another similar plant to be found here is the 
Asteriscus aquaticus, which was perhaps considered in earlier times to be 
the Rose or Jericho. 

After 1 hr. we round a promontory. To the left are several small 
hills where the sea-water is evaporated for the sake of its salt. Abra- 
ham is said to have asked some people engaged in carrying salt what 
they found here, to which they falsely replied 'earth'. Since that period 
the salt has had to be procured bv evaporating the water in small artifi- 
cial lakes. 20 min. Wddi Khabra. 32 min., the small valley of Umm el-Fils, 
deeply hollowed in the mountain-side. The large peninsula of El-Lisdn 
rises more and more conspicuously from the sea. 18 min. Wddi Seydl; 
40 min. Wddi Nemriyeh (no water). In 10 min. we reach the opposite 
height, and proceed direct to the hill of Masada. On the way we cross 
the two small valleys of Zentit and Oalldr^ and in 50 min. reach the 
N. foot of the hill. The country is devoid of water. 

Masada. — Histoey. Masada (i.e. a mountain-stronghold), now called 
Es-Sebbeh, is stated by Josephus (Bell. Jud. vii. 8, 3) to have been fortified 
by Jonathan the Maccabeean, and to have been re-fortified by Herod the 
Great. The latter enclosed the whole of the plateau at the top of the hill 
with a wall constructed of white stone, seven stadia in circumference, 
12 ells high, and 8 ells thick; and he erected on this wall 37 towers 
each 50 ells high, through which the fortress was entered. The enclosed 
space, the soil of which was very rich, was used by the king for cultiva- 
tion. He then built a strong and sumptuously furnished palace on the 
W. slope, with four corner-towers, each 60 ells high. Access to the for- 
tress was very difficult, the only ascent being by an artificial stair called 
'the serpent' on the W. side. — It was after the destruction of Jerusalem 
that Masada played its most important part in history. Eleazar with his 
band of robbers gained possession of the place by stratagem, and found 
there considerable stores of provisions and weapons. The Romans under 
Flavins Silva then built out from the rock to the W. of the castle an 
embankment 200 ells in height, on which they brought their besieging 
engines close to the wall. The defenders then erected within the outer 
wall a second, of beams of wood, and filled the intervening space with 
earth. The Romans succeeded in setting this second wall on fire. Eleazar 
hereupon persuaded his adherents to kill their wives and children, and 

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202 Route 19. 



then themselves. They obeyed, and the sole survivors were two women 
and five boys who had hidden themselves. The Romans left a garrison 
in the place. 

The hill (1703 ft. above the Dead Sea) must be ascended on foot, 
the path being impracticable for riding. At places there are remains of 
the Roman siege-wall. After 25 min. we come to ruins of Roman towers, 
and cross a small valley. To the left, on the hill opposite, are several 
inaccessible rocky caverns. We now (10 min.) reach the last and most 
laborious part of the ascent, and cross a slope of loose stones which 

form the remains of the Roman embankment. Through a well-preserved 
mediaeval gateway, consisting of a pointed arch with inscriptions and 
the marks of Beduin tribes, we enter upon the spacious plateau on the 
summit of the hill. This plateau is 600 yds. long and 200-250 yds. 
^v 2 ??CA is 8nrround ed on almost every side by perpendicular rocks, 
about 1180 ft. in height. Around the brink of the precipice runs the 
enclosing wall , which is still preserved at places. The other remains 
SS e #J lo i. e ? ten8 i v !- 0n > he N - side of the kill stands a square tower; and 
d8 ft. higher, but still 19 ft, below Jhe level of the plateau, rises a round 

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Palestine. JEBEL USDUM. 19. Route. 203 

tower. From the N. wall branch off a great many side-walls , which 
were perhaps built daring the last siege of the place. To the W. and 
S. are cisterns. In the centre of the plateau are the remains of a build- 
ing resembling a Byzantine chapel, with walls adorned with mosaics. To 
the 8. of the chapel is a tomb-cavern with inscription. To judge from 
the remains, it would seem that Masada was still inhabited after the 
catastrophe mentioned above. The archway on the W. side looks as if it 
belonged to the Crusaders' period. The ruins to the N. and W. of this 
arch, however, seem to belong to the palace of Herod, while those on the 
8. side of the plateau are now a shapeless mass. — The greatest attrac- 
tion is the view from the top. The nearer we approach the S. end of the 
Dead Sea, the more desolate does the wilderness become. Around lies a 
vast mountainous region, without a trace of a human habitation. The 
colouring of the sea and mountains, except when the midday heat envel- 
ops everything in a white haze, is singularly vivid, and we obtain almost 
a bird's-eye view of the 8. end of the sea. Exactly opposite to us lies 
the pointed promontory (p. 205) ; to the 8. the eye ranges as far as the 
Jebel Usdum, with its fantastic outline, and opposite rise Kerak and the 
whole range of the mountains of Moab. Immediately below the fortress 
to the S.E., as well as on a low chain of hills of the W., the camps of the 
Roman besiegers are still distinctly traceable; that on the W. was Silva's. 
From Masada to Hebron, 10 hrs. We return to the Wddi Nemriyeh 
(p. 201). After ty« hr. the ascent begins on the right side of the valley. 
The mountain-goat of Sinai occurs here, and also the cony (Hyrax Sy- 
riacus, Arab, uabr), a very curious little animal of the cloven-footed family, 
with a brown coat. Its flesh is much esteemed, but it was forbidden to 
the Israelites (Levit. xi. 5), though as a matter of fact the hyrax does 
not chew the cud. See also Psalms civ. 18; Prov. xxx. 26. — After 26 min. 
we see to the right r Ain el-Hshiba, after 10 min. ( Ain c OrSbeh. In l 1 /* hr. 
the top of the hill is reached. To the right lies the Wddi Seydl (or 
Seferiyeh). After 50 min. a steep descent begins. In 40 min. we reach 
the bottom of the 8eferiyeh valley, where rain-water is to be found. 
Beduins of the Jahalin tribe have encampments here. Again ascending 
to the W. we reach the top of another hill 0/a hr.), and then descend 
into the valley of Abu Mardghit (13 min.). Beyond another small valley 
(10 min.), we ascend to the N.W., and on arriving at the top of the hill 
(25 min.) we see the valley of El-Meghdra in front of us. The road now 
ascends to the (H/4 hr.) hill of Rijm el-Bakara, which commands a view, 
and then leads to (*/4 hr.) the Wddi el-Hcidlreh, to the 0/a hr.) valley of 
Lgh&f el-Htim y and to (1 hr.) Khirbet el- lield&safa, a place where a number 
of half-caste Beduins live in tents. These' people are notorious thieves. 
We are now on a lower level, and cultivated land is reached. After 1 hr. 
we see the village of Yuttd (p. 199). The soil is productive. In 1 hr. Tell 
Zif (p. 200) becomes visible, and in 40 min. more we reach Hebron (p. 134). 

4. Jebel Usdum (and thence to El-Kerak). 

From Masada to Jebel Usdum, about 7 3 /4 hrs. From the foot of the 
hill the route leads to the S. to the (35 min.) Wddi Sebbeh, with extensive 
ruins of walls and towers built by Silva (p. 201). Groups of eroded hills, 
with horizontal strata of gypseous clay, are seen in every direction. After 
31/4 hrs., the Wddi el-BedUn ('mountain goat's valley'), which is deeply 
cut through beds of clay. The Acacia Seyal is common. The coast-road 
is now quitted, in 20 min. a hill, and then a (200 ft.) cliff is crossed. In 
l»/4 hr. we reach the ruined fort of Omm Bdghek, with good water and a 
convenient camping-place. There are two reservoirs here, which were 
once fed by a conduit from the mountains. The whole of the 8. bay of 
the Dead Sea is very shallow, its depth varying from 3 to 11 ft. In 1 hr. 
40 min. we reach the N. end of the — 

Jebel or Khashm Usdum. — History. In the name of Usdum is 
preserved the ancient name of Sodom (Gen. xviii, xix). It is probable, 
however, that the name has been artificially revived. The valley of Siddim, 
which was full of asphalt-mines, was also situated here (Gen. xiv. 3). 

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204 Route 19. EZ-ZTJWfiRA. 

Jebel Usdum is an isolated hill, about 7 M. in length, the highest 
point of which is about 590 ft. above the level of the Dead Sea. The sides 
are so steep and crevassed that it is difficult to ascend it. The base of 
the hill, up to about 100 or 150 ft., consists of pure crystallized salt, which 
is seamed with perpendicular fissures. These under the influence of the 
weather frequently give rise to needle-rocks, columns, etc., in which the 
popular imagination recognizes human beings turned to stone. Thus 
probably arose the tradition of the transformation of Lot's wife into a 
pillar of salt (Gen. xix. 26; Wisdom x. 7), which Josephus says was to 
be seen in his days. The salt is covered with a layer, 400-450 ft. thick, 
of chalky limestone and clay. The present condition of the salt-deposit 
is due to some convulsion of nature; formerly it was much more extens- 
ive, reaching perhaps as far as the peninsula of El-Lisdn, where rock- 
salt was also found. The salt is transported from Jebel Usdum to Jeru- 
salem. — Comp. ZDPV. xix. 32 f. 

From Hebron to Jebel Usdum, 14-15 hrs. To Tell Zif (p. 200) about 
l*/4 hr., thence towards the S. The plain is fruitful and well cultivated. 
It slopes towards the Dead Sea to the E. After 26 min. the village of 
Yuttd (p. 199) appears on a hill to the right (W.). In 35 min. we reach 
the" ruins of El-Kurmul (Carmel; Josh. xv. 55; 1. Sam. xv. 12, etc.). On 
the top of the hill are the ruins of a castle, and the foundations of two 
churches are visible. The terrace affords a survey of the environs. The 
small valley contains a large ancient reservoir. The village of Mafin 
(V4 hr.) also possesses ruins, rough-dressed blocks of stone, and subterran- 
ean rock-dwellings. We follow the road to the right of Tell Ma'in and 
in 1 hr. reach the top of a hill. Descending we enter a pasture district 
which belongs to the Jahalin Beduins (scarcely any water). 

We proceed along a small valley, passing the ruins of Jembeh, Ka- 
ryatin, el-Bey4d, and Et-Tayyibeh (1 hr.). To the S.W., about 1 hr. distant, 
rises the Tell f Arad (Numbers xxi. 1 ; Judges i. 16). We next reach (1 hr.) 
Tell Ehdeib (?). After 1/4 hr. the valley turns towards the E., and lower 
down it is called Wddi Seydl (p. 203). To the left (35 min.) lies the 
ruin of El-Msik. On the (8/4 hr.) top of the broad hill are the ruins 
called RuJUm Seldmeh. Farther to the S.E. we reach (10 min.) Sudeid, 
and the country gradually assumes the character of a desert. After 40 min. 
we come to the first slope of the hills towards the Dead Sea with ruins 
called Zuweret el-F6ha ('the upper'). Hence we survey the S. part of the 
Dead Sea. On the " margin of the sea the top of Jebel Usdum and the 
peninsula El-Lisdn beyond it become visible, and to the S. of them lies the 
Qhdr (p. 205). In the extreme S. rises Mount H6r (p. 210). The route descends 
and (S8) min.) crosses the Wddi el-Jerrdh. After 3 hrs. we come to the 
brink of the second mountain-slope, and descend by a defile into the Wddt 
ez-Zuw$ra, at the foot of which (oO min.) the character of the soil alters 
from limestone to soft chalk, or whitish, hardened clay in horizontal 
beds. In the bottom of the valley the small fort of Ez-Zuw$ra, which 
stands on a cliff of crumbling chalk. In the soft , perpendicular rock, 
nearly opposite the fort, a little above the ground, is a chamber with 
loopholes. We now descend the valley, and reach (1/2 hr.) the broad plain 
of the coast, covered with acacias and tamarisk-trees. On the right is 
thfc broad Wddi el-Mahauwat. We cross to the S.E. the plain sloping 
towards the lake, and in 25 min. reach the N. end of Jebel Usdum. 

From Jebel Usdum to El-Eebak, 15 hrs. After a ride of IVi hr. along 
the sandy coast we reach, at the foot of Jebel Usdum, a cavern. The 
blocks of salt here are often coated with clay. Stalactites hang from the 
roof of the cavern. In 20 min. we reach the S.W. end of the Dead Sea. 
The S. end of the sea is very shallow, and the coast consists of a marshy 
flat which is sometimes covered with water, as the driftwood scattered 
over it in all directions indicates. Near the shore the reddish soil is too 
spongy to walk upon. This tract is furrowed by the channels formed by 
the water as it retires. We obtain a view here ef the white cliffs bounding 
the Ghdr, or Jordan valley, on the S.E. Beyond them begins the f Araba val- 
ley, extending to f Akaba. The Valley of Salt (2 Sam. viii. 13; 2 Kings xiv.7) 

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PETRA. 20. Route. 205 

lay in this plain, now called E$-8ebkha, which is strongly impregnated 
with salt. To the N. the promontory Rde Marsid, and even the R&s el- 
Feshkha (p. 200), are visible. After H/2 hr. the 'Sebkha ends and the so- 
called Qh6r e*-Sdfiyeh begins. In addition to the reeds we observe the 
'Oshr tree (p*. 500) and the Salvadora Persica, a tree averaging 25 ft. in 
height. After l»/a hr. we reach the plain of El-Melilha, with a brook, and 
in 40 min. the mouth of the Wddi Gwoeyyeh. In 15 min. we leave the 
plain of El-Meluha, and in 30 min. reach the promontory near the Wddi 
Ehesldn , where there are thickets. After 15 min. we reach the heap of 
stones (rtijtim) marking the tomb of the SMkh Sdlih, whom the Bednins 
invoke to aid them in their predatory expeditions. ' In 13 min. we reach 
the Wddi en-Num$ra; in 48 min., El-Mvrakted ; on our right, rugged hills 
of porphyry ; in 14 min., the Wddi Berej on our right. The ground is 
sandy. After 30 min., cultivated land with the village of Sahla in the 
distance. We then come to the Wddi ed-Derd'a, or Wddi el-Kerak, which 
frequently contains water. Some ruins here are popularly called sugar- 
mills, and in the beautiful and extensive oasis of Mezrcfa adjoining them 
are encampments of Gh6r Arabs. The peninsula itself is a flat , clayey 
plain , about 100 ft. in height , and without a vestige of life of any kind. 
Opposite are seen Sebbeh, Eas Marsid, and other places. Even the Frank 
Mountain is visible, on the E. side of which are the mouths of the Mdjib 
(Arnon) and the Zerka Main (Callirrhoe). 

The path now ascends the wild and grand Wddi el-Kerak to the pla- 
teau of Derd'a (55 min.) ; after 52 min. we reach a cultivated plain. In 
14 min. we have Tell ed-Derd f a on our right; in 9 min. more we see the 
beautiful brook Sel ed-Derdfa. Continuing to ascend the Wddi el-Kerak, 
in 3>/2 hrs. we reach the spring *Ain es-Sakka. In another hour we find 
ourselves below Kerak, and in 35 min. we enter the N.E. corner of the 
town El-Kerak by a vaulted passage 19 ft. high and 29 ft. wide, hewn in 
the rock (see p. 179). 

20. Petra. 

Duration of Journey. This expedition is somewhat troublesome. For 
the stay at Petra 2-3 days should be allowed, while the direct journey 
thither from Jerusalem via Kerak or via Hebron takes 7-8 days (without 
halts and exclusive of the detour via Engedi, Masada, and Jebel Usdum), 
so that 16 days at least are required for the tour. It may also be under- 
taken as part of the grand tour from Cairo to Suez, Sinai, and Jerusalem 
(p. 214) ; this route, which, however, is now seldom selected, is best ac- 
complished on camel-back. 

Escort. The region to the 8. of the Dead Sea has not yet been suf- 
ficiently explored, travelling having hitherto been difficult and unsafe, 
owing to the numerous different hordes of Beduins. Now, however, that 
the Turkish government has firmly established itself at Kerak and Shdbek, 
the danger has much decreased; but a thoroughly trustworthy dragoman 
and an escort (to be obtained through the consul) are still absolutely 
necessary. It is of essential importance that previous enquiry be made 
at the consulate (at Jerusalem, Suez, or Cairo) as to the state of the 
country and the safety of the routes. The guides and escort had better 
be selected from the tribe of the 'Alatotn. As the guides vary the route 
across the desert according to the season and other circumstances, we 
give only a few general indications as to its direction. 

Expenses. The necessary escort and guides make this expedition a 
very costly one. No fixed rule can be given for determining the expenses, 
but, speaking generally, about 30-50% more than the prices given on 
pp. xxviii, xxix will probably be found necessary. The contract should 
expressly bind the dragoman not only to conduct all negociations with 
the Arabs in person, but himself to pay all the bakhshish or black mail 
levied by them without making any additional demand from the travellers. 

Literature. 'Voyage dans TArabie Pe'tre'e par Lion de Laborde et 
Linant\ etc. (Paris, I80O), an appendix to the same author's 'Voyage en 

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206 Route 20. PETRA. History. 

Syrie" (Didot, Parla), completed in 1842; 'Voyage aux bords de la Mer 
Morte 1 , etc. by the Duo de Luynes (Paris), Palmer"** 'Desert of the Exodus' 
(Cambridge, 1871), and VisconWs 'Diario di un Yiaggio in Arabia Petrea* 
(Rome, 1872). 

The Valley of Petra, from N. to S., is about 8/ 4 M. long, at the 
N. end 500 yds. wide, and at the S. end 250 yds. The bottom of 
the valley is not qnite level , several conical hills rising along the 
course of the brook of the W&di M&sd, which traverses it from the S.E. 
The valley is enclosed on every side by nearly perpendicular rocks 
of considerable height. These rocks are composed of sandstone of 
many different colours, and contain much saltpetre. The whole basin 
was evidently once a lake, and the water has worn deep passages 
for itself among the rocks. 

Histobt. The name Petra corresponds to the Hebrew Sela* (2 Kings 
xiv. 7 5 Isaiah xvi. 1)$ the Hebrew name was known down to Arab times 
as the name of the fortress. Petra is an ancient commercial town, the 
gtaple-place for the trade of Arabia with the X. and W. Its site was 
eminently favourable, the place being very difficult of access, and there- 
fore less exposed to the predatory attacks of the surrounding Beduin tribes. 
From the 2nd cent, before Christ the population of this region consisted 
of Habataeans (comp. p. lv). Around the city dwelt nomadic Arabs, some of 
whom owned the supremacy of its princes. The religion and culture of 
the population were Arabian. In the year B. C. 310 Athenseus, the general 
of Antigonus, took the town by attacking it in the absence of the men at 
a neighbouring market. The latter, however, on their return retaliated 
by a nocturnal attack, which resulted in the destruction of the Greek 
army. A second attempt to capture the place , under Demetrius , also 
failed, as the inhabitants were well armed. Strabo states that many 
Romans had settled there. From the time of Pompey (Gabinius) onwards 
Petra was under the suzerainty of the Romans. In 105 we find Arabia Pe- 
traea a Roman province under Trajan. Hadrian seems to have conferred 
privileges on the town of Petra, and some of the coins of the place bear 
his image. Christianity was introduced here at an early period, and bishops 
of Petra are mentioned as attending the councils of the church. In the 
4th cent., however, the prosperity of Petra was gone, its commerce began 
to be diverted into various other channels, and the Arabs of the desert 
gradually encroached upon its territory. The whole region was at length 
conquered by the Arabs, and from that period the name disappears from 
history, the town having by this time dwindled into insignificance, or 
entirely vanished. Seetzen was the first of the modern explorers of the place. 

The general character of the buildings at Petra is that of the debased 
Roman style of the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Christian era, when 
simplicity and unity of design were sacrificed to richness of decoration 
and theatrical effect; and it is interesting to observe how much resem- 
blance there is between this style of architecture and the degenerate 
modern style of the 17th aod 18th centuries. The monuments of Petra, 
nevertheless, are strikingly imposing, as almost all of them are hewn in 
the rock. Graeco-Roman forms are blended with those of native art. To 
the latter belong the truncated tomb-pyramids, the gables on the portals 
of the tombs; the urns which ornament these portals are characteristic. 
It has even been thought that traces of the influence of Egyptian art may 
be found. Some of the capitals of the pilasters are left rough-hewn. 

The valley of Petra owes its name of Wddi Musd to the fact of its 
being the scene of the story told in the Koran about Moses striking the 
rock (Petra), whereupon twelve springs burst forth. This is the account 
of Yakut, the Arabian geographer, and even Eusebius hints at a similar 
tradition. The modern Spring of Moses (<Ain UAsd) rises near the village 
of Elji, descends the valley towards the W., and uniting its waters with 
those of another valley forms the brook of Wadi Musa. 

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Amphitheatre. PETRA. 20. Route. 207 

Of the Buildings of the ancient town there are few traces left. 
Following the left bank of the brook from the W. , we come to the 
remains of a large building, popularly known as the Kasr Fir'aun, 
or Pharaoh's palace. The enclosing walls , with their openings for 
beams, are preserved nearly entire, but the columns of the N. facade 
have disappeared. To the E. of it is a ruined Triumphal Arch. The 
architectural enrichments of both structures date from the same late 
period , as appears from a comparison of the decorations in front of 
the arch with the frieze of the palace. — Following the bank of the 
brook towards the E., we perceive the ruins of a bridge, and to the 
right the remains of a Temple. In the plain stands the apse of a 
church near a solitary column named Zibb Fifaun. 

The Necropolis claims our deepest interest. Although the 
rocks are of somewhat soft consistency, the elaborate elegance with 
which they have been chiselled must have required extraordinary 
perseverance. Far above the ground , in every direction , are seen 
entrances to tombs which are now inaccessible, and we must there- 
fore infer that the sculptors used ladders to enable them to execute 
their work. The precipitous rooks on the E. and W. sides of the 
valley have been principally used for these tombs , but the cliffs of 
the numerous side- valleys have been similarly hewn. 

Proceeding from the above-mentioned column (_Zibb Fir'aun) 
towards the gorge on the S.W. side , we observe in the rock a re- 
markable unfinished tomb , which shows how the Petraeans sculp- 
tured their rock-tombs from the top downwards, probably after they 
had sketched the plan on the surface. Some clumsy capitals only 
are visible in the rocky wall. In the gorge we perceive several 
monuments entirely detached from the rock, which recall the Jewish 
tombs of the valley of Jehoshaphat (p. 94), Here also the wall of 
rock has been hewn smooth. Some of the small rock-staircases as- 
cending to loftily situated entrances are in excellent preservation. 

The small valley on the S.E. side also contains several tombs 
and a rock-staircase. The most remarkable part of the place, however, 
is the gorge through which the Wddi Mfad brook flows. Entering 
it from the N., we see several tombs on the left, and farther on, where 
the valley turns to the E. , we come to a magnificent Amphitheatre. 
It is entirely hewn in the rock ; 33 tiers of seats rise one above 
another, and the whole could accommodate three or four thousand 
spectators. Above the seats there are small chambers like arches 
hewn in the rock. The highest tier commands an admirable view 
of the valley and the tombs. — The gorge soon contracts, and the 
cliffs become more abrupt. The facades of the tombs present every 
possible variety of design. Opposite the theatre there is a large 
facade, in front of which the rising rock has been hewn away, ob- 
viously with great difficulty. Above the pediment of the large 
square door are steps descending from the middle to the corners. 
Several tombs are often seen, one above another, some of them of 

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208 Route 20. PETRA. Khaznet Maun. 

simpler style, others enriched with columns and pediments. Farther 
on we reach a point where smaller valleys descend from the right and 
left, and towards the E. we enter the Sik. From the W. cliff sud- 
denly projects the so-called Khaznet Fir'aun ('treasury of Pharaoh'). 
The details on the facade, which is about 85 ft. in height, are admir- 
able , and having been sheltered by an overhanging rock, the sculpturing 
of which had not been quite completed, they are in excellent preservation. 
The beauty of the monument is enhanced by the rich red colour of the 
stone and the striking picturesqueness of the situation. The capitals of the 
porch, the cornice above it, and the pediment adorned with a Roman eagle, 
all betoken careful workmanship. The second story also rests upon columns, 
but has broken pediments. Between these rises a slender round tower, 
resting on columns, with a richly adorned frieze, and terminating in a 
dome. On the keystone of the dome stands a huge stone urn, which the 
Beduins believe to contain the treasure of Pharaoh. The niches and wall 
spaces are adorned with beautiful sculptures, chiefly of female figures, 
and the ends of the pediments with eagles. The sculptures of the lower 
story have been injured by the vandalism of the Beduins. — The portal 
leads into a spacious chamber, about 12 yds. square, and 26 ft. high. The 
rocky walls of this and the three adjoining chambers are smooth and 
unadorned. This monument was more probably a temple than a tomb. 

In ancient times the Sik formed the sole approach to the city 
of Petra. It is a narrow chasm, flanked by rooks which are at first 
150-200 ft. , and farther on 80-100 ft. in height, some of them 
artificially hewn. The bottom of the ravine is overgrown with 
oleanders. In the clefts of the rook grow wild figs and tamarisks. 
Water was brought to the town by means of conduits skirting the 
bed of the brook, and still traceable in many places. The floor of 
the defile was paved. Near its extremity the defile was spanned by 
a picturesque arch of a bridge, about 50 ft. in height (now in ruins), 
under which are two niches adorned with two pillars, hewn in the 
rock. In a lateral valley to the W. is a pyramidal tomb; farther 
W., a tomb with a rock-staircase. 

We now return to the outlet of the gorge. On the right rises 
a monument resembling the Khazneh, called the Tomb with the 
Urn. The square terrace in front of it was approached by steps. A 
kind of colonnade is formed by two rows of Ionic pilasters, five 
in each. Over the door is a window above which are three others. 
The urn stands on a pedestal above the frieze. In the interior is a 
quadrangular chamber about 16 yds. long. To the N. of this mon- 
ument, beyond a few less important tombs, is the Corinthian Tomb, 
borne by a substructure of eight Corinthian columns ; but its exe- 
cution is less finished, and it has been more exposed to damage; it 
contains one large and two smaller chambers. The rooky wall on 
this E. side of the town is specially remarkable for the abundance 
of its monuments. The grandest is the adjacent Tomb with Three 
Stories, each of the two upper of which is adorned with 18 Corinth- 
ian columns. Part of this facade consisted of masonry, as its height 
exceeded that of the rock. Below are four portals. The interior: 
of these rock-chambers are generally destitute of enrichment. Some 
of them contain altar-niches, showing that they have also been used 

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Wddi Sabra. PETRA. 20. Route. 209 

for Christian worship. Farther N. is the Tomb with the Latin In- 
scription, that of Quintus Praetextus Florentinus. On the N. side of 
the rocky basin are tomb-chambers withont architectural ornament. 

From the N.W. corner of the area of the town a very steep 
gorge resembling the Sifc ascends rapidly into the heart of the 
mountains. At many places steps are hewn in the rook or along 
the sides. After many windings (guide advisable) the path leads 
in 3 /4 hr. to the Dir (monastery), loftily situated below the highest 
pinnacles of rook. Mount H6r rears itself opposite in isolated 
majesty. This monument is of grander proportions than the Khaz- 
neh, but the style is overflorid. The peculiar bulbous outline, 
below the globular terminal, is a feature which is frequently ob- 
served in modern edifices. The capitals look as if metallic enrich- 
ments had once been attached to them. The wildness of the situation 
gives the monument a very handsome appearance. In front of it 
is a large, artificially levelled platform. The walls of the interior 
are bare, and contain a niche as if for an altar. The lofty rock 
opposite the Der has a levelled surface on its summit, on which a 
row of columns formerly stood. 

These are the most important monuments of Petra. Their 
situation in the midst of the desert greatly enhances the impression 
they produce. On the complete destruction and desolation of the 
place, compare the prophecy of Jeremiah (xlix. 16, 17). 

In the neighbourhood of Petra there are several other interesting 
places with antiquities. Thus at El-Beida and El- B Arid (3 hrs. N. of 
Petra) are a 'Sik' and extensive grottoes resembling those of Petra. — In 
the Wddi Sabra, to the S. of Petra, are the ruins of a town which was 
probably an offshoot and imitator of the capital. It contains the remains 
of a theatre or a naumachia. 

Routes to Petra. 
From 'Akaba to Pktba, see p. 246. 

Fbom Jebel Ubddm to Pbtba, 18-20 hrs. The route passes the base 
of the Jebel Usdum and skirts the Sebkha (p. 205) towards the S.W. In 
1 hr. it reaches the S. end of the hill, and even here drifted wood is still 
to be met with. After 10 min. vegetation begins to re-appear. The road 
next passes (20 min.) a salt spring, ( Ain el-Bedd, among reeds on the right, 
and crosses (20 min.) the Wddi el-Em r dz descending from the W. In 3 /« hr. 
the road reaches a shelving cliff, which forms the beginning of a range 
of hills running across the valley. These water-worn hills , 50-150 ft. in 
height, which the track follows to the S.E., also consist of soft chalk 
or hardened clay. The slightly salt springs promote a luxuriant growth 
of tamarisks, nebk-trees, and stunted palms. In 3/4 hr. the road reaches 
a brook, tolerably free from salt, issuing from the spring r Ain el J Arit*. 
Beyond the Ghdr are seen the Wddi et-Tafileh and Wddi Gharandel 
(p. 211). After 1 hr. a point is reached "where the line of cliffs crosses 
the valley, which is about 2»/2 M. wide, towards the left (E.). After 1 hr. 
the valley turns S. , and Mount Hor near Petra becomes visible in the 
distance. After 3 hrs. the route reaches the undulating r Araba, an extens- 
ive desert, with a few scattered shrubs (ghada). The soil consists of loose 
gravel and stones, and is furrowed by water-courses. The only green spots 
are near springs (towards the W. <Ain ' el-Weibeh, p. 211, to the H". 'Ain el- 
Ghuwtreh). After 2 hrs. 40 min. the Wddi el-Buwgrideh is reached. The 
road turns more to the S.E., and in 1 hr. 40 min. reaches springs with 
vegetation. The route now crosses the f Araba towards the E. The water- 
Palestine and Syria. 3rd Edit. 14 

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210 Route 20. MOUNT H6R. Routes 

shed which here intersects the valley is at its lowest point 830 ft. above 
the level of the Mediterranean (comp. p. 158). The valley, which is now 
a dreadful wilderness, doubtless served as a route for traffic at the 
period when the ancient town of Ezion-Geber, near the present r Akaba, 
was the principal seat of the maritime trade of the Edomites and Israelites. 
To the W. rises the outline of Jebel et-Tth % and to the E., the mountains 
of Esh- Sherd (p. 211). After 3 hrs. the road has crossed the valley of the 
r Araba, ascending towards the S.E. The heaps of stones frequently en- 
countered owe their origin to a singular custom. When the Beduins vow to 
slaughter a sheep in honour of Aaron's memory, they bring their victim 
within sight of Aaron's tomb on Mt. H6r, and then kill and eat it, piling 
stones on the spot on which the blood has been poured. — The road now 
threads its way through the winding Wddi Rubd% passing round Mt. Hor 
on the S. This valley is flanked with hills of coloured sandstone and 
chalky limestone , and contains several caverns. At the bottom of the 
valley grow tamarisks , the caper shrub, and a magnificent 'orobanche' 
with large yellow and blue flowers. 

Mount H6r is composed of sandstone, in which brownish-yellow 
and reddish streaks of different shades alternate. From the principal 
mass rise several peaks of different heights, in the interior of which the 
coloured layers run concentrically. The mountains here are furrowed by 
perpendicular chasms. Mt. Hor has two peaks. On the E. peak, 4360 ft. 
above the Mediterranean , is situated the 2omb of Aaron (Kabr HdtUn), 
to which pilgrimages are made. The ascent is shown to Christians very 
unwillingly. Near the summit a ravine is reached in which steps ascend. 
There are a few ruins here which perhaps belonged to an old monastery. 
The tomb is a miserable modern building containing a modern sarcophagus. 
At the N.W. corner a passage descends from the chapel to a subterranean 
vault (light necessary). The tradition that Aaron was buried here (Num- 
bers xz. 28), is certainly ancient, and is mentioned by Josephus. Many 
Arabic and Hebrew inscriptions have been written here by pilgrims. The 
view hence is very curious, including the necropolis of Petra, the gorges 
and chasm of the mountains, and to the W. the desert of the r Araba. The 
practice of burying their dead on the tops of hills is still common among 
the nomads of the desert, as it was in ancient times. — From the beginning 
of the r Araba to the N.W. corner of Petra is a journey of about 8 hrs. 

Fbom El-Ebsak to Petba, 3 days (26 hrs.). 1st Day: To Et-Tafileh, 
9-10 hrs. Passing the castle of El-Kerak, we ride to the 8. in ihe Wddi 
u-Sitt to the (25 min.) spring of <Ain es-Sitt. In l»/t hr. we reach El-M6teh, 
a group of houses among ruins, inhabited by the natives of El-Kerak dur- 
ing harvest. At Jafar, Va hr - farther S., are rains, including a well-pre- 
served mosque and the remains of a Crusaders' church with a tower. 
Thence we proceed through the (40 min.) fertile plain of 'Amdka, to the 
verge of the wide and deep Wddi el- Has A (el-Hesi), which lies open to 
view. The district to the S. of this valley is called Jeb&l (Oebalene). In 
2 hrs. more we cross the copious stream and begin to ascend to the S. on 
the opposite slope. At the (2>/2 hrs.) top we follow the plain, slightly 
descending here and there to the slopes of the (1 hr.) Wddi et-Taftleh. 
Crossing the (35 min.) stream, we next arrive at (20 min.) the village of 
Bt-TafUeh, which has about 700 houses and 9000 inhab. (Beduins). Et- 
Taflleh, as the capital of the district of Jeb&l, is the seat of a Kaim- 
makam and has a garrison of 350 infantry and 50 khayydl, or mounted 
gensdarmes. The Serai is new. The well-watered environs abound in 
groves of figs and olives. The traders come from Hebron. Tents should 
be pitched on the banks of the stream. 

2nd Day: To SMbek, 8-9 hrs. From Et-Tafileh we descend through 
a well-watered region to the (Vi hr.) spring of 'Ain et-Taftleh. We then 
follow the (»/i hr.) Wddi el-Ahbal to the spring of r Ain es-Sahweh, and pass- 
ing six other wells, reach (60 min.) an ilex close to the path, whence we 
have a view of the ruins of KaVat el-Butira. 25 min. <Ain el-Bus /r a; 1/4 hr. 
the weli of Hamed ed-Hudifi\ whence the route to Gharandel (see p. 211) 
diverges to the right. * In 25 min. we reach the floor of the Wddi U<u r ad, 

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toPetra. SH6BEK. 20. Route. 211 

Crossing two other small valleys , we gain the (1 hr.) plateau (2886 ft.), 
and enjoy a fine view of the S. end of the Dead Sea, the Ghdr, and 
(nearer) of the Wddi Dana, with the village of that name nestling on its 
slopes. The sides of ihe valley are covered with oaks. We then descend 
through a fertile plain to O/t hr.) the ruins and spring of 'Ain ed-Derb. In 
about 2V< hrs. we cross the Wddi el-Bidd; and Deyond two other small 
valleys, in which grow cypress-trees, we 'again reach the (40 min.) plateau 
at a Roman road. Beyond (35 min.) the Wddi Nijel we descend to the 
0/z hr.) Wddi Shdbek, and in 10 min. more reach the village of SMbek. 

A deviation may be made from Et-Tafileh to the W. via (2y 4 hrs.) 
But era or Little Botra (Bozra; Gen. xxxvi. 33; Jerem. xliz. 13), with some 
insignificant ruins;' and thence via the (3 hrs.) ruins of Oharandel (the 
ancient episcopal town of Arindela), which lies 8Vt hrs. from SMbek. 

Shdbek is the chief place in the district or Bsh-8herd, the govern- 
ment being represented by an officer and 10 Circassian cavalry. The Be- 
duin inhabitants live mostly in tents in a state of poverty. Shdbek is a 
fortress, situated upon an isolated hill, with walls and towers. It has 
but a single entrance. Here Baldwin I. erected the castle called Mom 
RegalU. The present castle is of Arabian origin; and there are also remains 
of ancient churches, baths, etc. A subterranean passage (375 steps) leads 
from the interior of the castle to the well. 

3rd Day: To Petra, 7-8 hrs. Prom the castle of Shdbek we reach 
(»A hr.) the Wddi Shdbek, and beyond it the Wddi Nijel, the sides of which 
are covered with oak-trees. We follow an old Roman road. Passing the 
ruin and well of f (Brak (heaps of stones), we reach the (8tyi hr.) plateau. In 
li/i hr. we begin to descend into the Wddi MUsd. 1/4 hr. <Ain Mils A, springs 
with remains of mills, gardens, and a small waterfall. 25 min. Elji, a 
village called Wddi M4sd by the Beduins. In 20 min. we reach the begin- 
ning of the B. gorge (Sik, p. 206). and in 1 hr. the theatre otPefra (p. 507). 

Fbom Petra to Hkbeon, 42 hrs. The traveller may ride direct over 
the r Araba to *Ain el-Weibeh (18 hrs.). A longer way leads through the 

Slain of SutHh Btda (3 hrs.), and in 3 hrs. more to the summit of the 
femela Pas's, 'which commands a fine view. In »/< hr. the route reaches 
the foot of the hill, the porphyry composing which now gives place to 
limestone. The path descends into the 'Araba over stony slopes (2 hrs.), 
and in 2 hrs. 20 min. the Wddi es-Sekdkin is reached. This valley is now 
followed to a point where it forces its way through several hills of gravel 
which run across the 'Araba. The route proceeds towards the W.1T.W. 
over the undulating wilderness of gravel, reaches (2»/ 4 hrs.) the Wddi 
el- Jib , on the W. side of the f Araba , and descends about 100 ft. into 
the valley, which is here 2 H. wide. At the point where the road begins 
again to ascend on the W. slopes is the *Ain el-Weibeh, with three springs. 
The water is warm and contains a little sulphur; the S. spring is the best. 
From f Ain el-Weibeh the traveller is conducted either up to the pass 
of Mirzdba (2>/s hrs.) and thence to the Wddi Fikreh (7i/s hrs.) ; or farther 
to the E. in about 6 l /s hrs. across the pass of El-Khardr and the Wddi 
Fikreh (2 hrs.), to the pass of Et-Sa/d Q/t hr.). In 1 hr. the summit of 
the pass is reached. It affords a view of an indescribable wilderness. The 
level tract reached in 2 hrs. is called Et-Tardibeh. In 2 hrs. more the 
Wddi el-Yemen is reached. To the left lie the ruins of Kurnub (20 min.). 
The road ascends the heights of Kvbbet el-Baul (2*/4 hrs.), and descends 
into the basin of 'At^dra (Aroer, 1 Sam. xxx. 28), where (>/s hr.) traces 
of cultivation are seen. — In 35 min., the ruins of El-Kustr, after 1 hr. 
40 min.. Tell Milh (Moladah, Josh. xv. 26; Neh. xi. 26). 'On the left, after 
1 hr. 50 min., is' the ruin of Makhid. After 2 hrs. 10 min. is seen <AMr 
(Jattir, Joshua xxi. 14). To the left, after 1 hr., lies RdfdL with ancient 
ruins. In 20 min. we reach Bemtfa (Eshtemoh, Joshua xv. 50; 1 Sam. xxx.28), 
with ruins of an Arab castle. On a hill 5 min. to the S.W. are the re- 
mains of a tomb of the early Byzantine period. On the right lies (*/* hr.) 
Tuttd (p. 199). The road now (1 hr.) reaches the Wddi el-Khaltl (valley of 
Hebron), and (1/4 hr.) the village of Kir kit, beyond which it ascends the 
hill to the right (ty 4 hr.). The traveller at length reaches (I1/4 hr.) Hebron. 

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21. The Peninsula of Sinai. 

The journey to Mount Sinai is interesting, not only because it affords 
the traveller an idea of the desert and introduces him to an impressive 
mountain-region, but also because it leads him to the scene of the events 
described in the Book of Exodus. 

The best Season for the journey is between the middle of February 
and the end of April , and between the beginning of October and the 
middle of November. During the months of November, December, and 
January the nights are generally very cold , while in summer the glare 
of the sun , reflected from the granite rocks of the Sinai mountains, is 
very oppressive. Even at the end of May the weather is hot , and the 
Khamsin prevalent (setting in sometimes as early as April). 

Expenses. The cost of the journey for a party of 4-6 persons travel- 
ling with tents and- a dragoman (see below), including provisions and 
wine, gratuities, and fees for the escort, etc., will amount to 40-60 francs 
per day for each person, reckoned from the departure from Sues. If more 
than 2-3 days are spent at Mt. Sinai (p. 283), a lower tariff for the extra 
days should be stipulated for. 

Preparations. All the preliminaries for the journey must be arranged 
at Cairo, where alone are to be found the necessary dragomans and the 
Shekhs of the Tawara Beduins (p. 215), who act as guides and let camels 
during the travelling season. The first thing is to engage a good Drago- 
man, who provides camels, tents, bedding, blankets, and provisions. All 
these should be examined at Cairo, and the tents pitched by way of ex- 
periment. The more carefully this inspection is made, and any defects 
remedied, the less likelihood will there be of subsequent annoyance. 
The traveller is particularly cautioned against trusting to the promises of 
Orientals. — A Written Contract with the dragoman is exceedingly desir- 
able (for a specimen, see p. xxii). In this the route, the days for resting, 
and the duration of the halts should be very precisely specified, though 
the traveller should at the same time reserve full liberty of action. Any 
accidents happening to the camels by which delay or expense is caused 
should be reckoned as among the things for which the dragoman is re- 
sponsible. This stipulation is quite fair, as the Arabs in Arabia Petraea 
can always procure fresh camels within a few hours. — Express stipula- 
tions should also be made for an adequate supply of water, both for 
drinking and for washing, and for a change of sheets, etc. at least once 
a week. — The Beduins of Sinai carry the water in small, long-shaped 
casks. The traveller will find it convenient to have one of these appro- 
priated to his private use. Kullehs are best for keeping the water cool, 
but are easily broken. — Even when the dragoman contracts to supply 
wine, a few bottles of good claret or burgundy and of cognac should also 
be taken by each traveller to mix with the water which is often un- 
palatable, or to be used in case of illness. 

Arabian Saddle-bags (Khurj) should be purchased for the journey, 
as they are very convenient for carrying the requirements of the toilet, 
books, tobacco, and other articles. 

With regard to Dress, see pp. xxvi et seq. Overcoats, cloaks, or burn- 
ouses ('abayeh''), and slippers, should not be forgotten. The traveller should 
also be provided with Strong Shoes, if he intends to make mountain-as- 
cents, as the rocks of the Serbal and Jebel Musa are very sharp and angular. 

Health (p. xxvii). The climate of the peninsula is extremely healthy, 
especially if the traveller walk an hour or two in the mornings and 
evenings. A pair of smoked (not blue) spectacles, with perhaps a second 
pair in reserve, will be found to protect the eyes against the inflammation 
which is apt to be caused by the glare of the sun. Glycerine is useful 
for softening the skin when cracked by the heat. — A cup of tea or coffee 
will be found refreshing at luncheon $ fuel for heating water (camel-dung, 
and dry plants) can always be obtained by the Beduins. Good cocoa is 
also considered wholesome and nutritious, and is easily prepared. 

At Cairo (or at Suez) the traveller should procure through his consul 
a letter of introduction from the Monastery of the Sinaites at Cairo to 

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PENINSULA OF SINAI. 21. Route. 213 

those of the Monastery of St. Catharine, where he will then receive every 

To the above directions may, lastly, be added a few hints for the 
benefit of travellers who have to study economy of time and money. — 
Take the railway from Cairo to Suez. Dispense with tents and beds; bat 
take at least a couple of warm rugs to fold over the saddle, and to 
be used at night. A hammock will also be found very serviceable, and 
the camp may be pitched where the trees are large enongh to give it 
support. Before leaving Cairo the traveller should lay in a stock of 
preserved meats and wine , and buy a lamp and a few cooking utensils. 
Pack these in palm-leaf baskets, which are well adapted for the camels. 
If necessary the stock of provisions may be reinforced at Tur by fresh 
bread, a few fowls, lobsters, and fish, and some date-paste. Proceed from 
Suez to Tur by boat or by steamer (during the quarantine period). Hire 
a camel at Tur with a Beduin attendant on foot (about 40 fr. to Suez). Start 
very early and traverse the desert to Wadi es-Sle (see p. 231), reaching 
the Sinai Monastery next evening. Thence travel slowly to Wadi BaT^a'. 
Lastly, return to Suez by forced marches , taking about two days and a 
night. As a sheltered resting-place may always be found among the moun- 
tains, the protection of a tent will never be missed, excepting perhaps 
on the last day of the expedition. 

The Camels used for riding are of an entirely different race from the 
camels of burden, and are called 'Begin*, or in Syria 'Del&V (i.e. docile). 
The Deluls, properly speaking, are selected animals of noble breed, and 
very superior to the ordinary camel (called jemel) of the caravans. The 
saddle, which is placed upon the hump of the animal, consists of a kind of 
wooden frame, from which two high round crutches project in front and 
behind. Upon the frame is placed a leather cushion (which is rendered 
more comfortable by the addition of rugs), and in front of the foremost 
crutch there is a second cushion. The traveller sits with one leg round the 
foremost crutch , somewhat in the way in which ladies ride , and rests 
the heel of one foot against the instep of the other. The camel is urged 
on by the rider's heel, or a switch. The camels generally march in a 
long string, one behind the other, with deliberate but long steps, always 
snatching at herbs by the wayside when they have an opportunity. Their 
trotting and galloping paces are unpleasant. A camel can also carry two 
or more persons in a litter, and may also be made to carry the traveller's 
luggage. Mounting is not easy at first. When the animal kneels 
down, the rider grasps the two crutches, and places one knee on the 
cushion ; he then swings the other leg into the saddle over the hindmost 
crutch. The camels have a trick of getting up while the rider is in the 
act of mounting , but the drivers prevent this by putting their feet on 
one of the animal's bent fore-legs. The first movements are always 
somewhat violent, and the novice must hold fast by the crutches ; as the 
camel always gets up with its hindlegs first, the rider should at first 
lean back, and afterwards forward. The walking motion is very pleas- 
ant, and those who are accustomed to it prefer a camel to a horse for a 
long journey. The rider can read comfortably if he wishes, and need not 
hold the reins in his hand. 

Distances. As a standard of distance we adopt the time usually 
occupied by the camels in performing the journey. Their average rate of 
travelling is about 2i/j M. per hour. 

Routes. The following are the principal routes. 

1. Fbom Suez to Sinai and back to Suez by Land all the way. We 
go via Wddi Fir An and Ndkb el-Edtci (8 days; p. 216), and return via 
Wddi esh-Shikh, SarbAt el-Khddem, and Wddi el-Homr (7 days; p. 241). In 
this way only a portion of the route is traversed twice. 

2. Fbom Suez to Sinai and back to Suez pabtly by Sea. We go by 
sea (about 20 hrs.) to THr and thence proceed by land (5-6 days in all; 
p. 229), and return via Wddi Firdn and Wddi MagMra as in Route 1. 
This is the pleasantest and most interesting plan for those who do not 
dislike the sea. — The return should not be made by sea except by the 

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214 Route 21. PENINSULA OF SINAI. Topography. 

steamer that touches at Tur during the period of the pilgrim-quarantine. 
Sailing-boats have frequently to tack for days against the N. wind. 

3. Fbom Subz to Sinai and Jebusalem. We proceed to Sinai by one 
of the above routes (5-8 days); thence via K Akaba to Petra (8-10 days); 
and thence via Hebron to Jerusalem (7-8 days;* p. 211). This journey is 
now seldom undertaken (comp. p. 206), especially as Petra is much more 
easily reached from Jerusalem than formerly. 

Duration of Journey. The journey from Suez to Sinai and back to 
Suez thus requires at least 13-14 days , while 2-8 days are spent at the 
monastery, thus making 15-17 days for the entire expedition, not counting 
halts on the way. 

At the N. end of th